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MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 1 PRIMARY CONSUMER MARKET RESEARCH METHODS Primary research methods techniques –Advantages.

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Presentation on theme: "MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 1 PRIMARY CONSUMER MARKET RESEARCH METHODS Primary research methods techniques –Advantages."— Presentation transcript:

1 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 1 PRIMARY CONSUMER MARKET RESEARCH METHODS Primary research methods techniques –Advantages and disadvantages

2 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 2 Learning Objectives Appreciate the costs and benefits of research Appreciate the uses of both primary and secondary market research Appreciate the respective advantages and disadvantages of different primary research methods Develop an understanding of research method problems that can lead to misleading or incorrect conclusions. Understand the proper sequence of research activities.

3 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 3 Data Mining Processing of vast amounts of data to find relationships between variables—e.g., –Items frequently purchased together  “strategic adjacencies” (items placed together in retail setting) –Seasonal patterns in sales –Customer segments

4 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 4 Doing Research from Secondary Data Items bought together (e.g., Amazon.com recommendations) Scanner data Direct mail experimentation (“split catalog” mailings) with varied –Prices –Design (e.g., colors) –Messages (ad copy)

5 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 5 Some Primary Research Methods Surveys Experimentation Observation Participant observation Focus groups In-depth interviews Projective techniques Physiological Measures Online research Scanner data Conjoint analysis Hybrid Methods

6 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 6 Primary Research Methods Exploratory Methods –Observation (can be more definitive with larger sample sizes and focus on specific behavior) –In-depth interviews –Focus groups –Projective techniques Precision Methods –Experiments –Surveys –Panel –Scanner data

7 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 7 Choosing a Primary Research Method Does the question involve OPINIONS or BEHAVIOR? Can the respondent answer accurately? (What someone consciously believes may differ from “deeper” opinions; beliefs about hypothetical products may not be well developed.) OPINIONS EXPLORATORY or PRECISION research? YES FOCUS GROUPS INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS SURVEYS EXPLORATORYPRECISION BEHAVIOR NO PROJECTIVE METHODS SCANNER DATA (e.g., brand choice, impact of advertising, previous purchases, competing brands, demographics) EXPERIMENTATION (determine causality—e.g., impact of product design, advertising message) PHYSIOLOGICAL (e.g., determine reactions, attention, arousal) OBSERVATION (e.g., how long does the shopper spend? What does he or she look at? Is anyone else involved?) Can the relevant behavior be observed in the customer’s natural environment? NO YES

8 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 8 Surveys Forms –Mail (self-administered, single time) –Mail panel (self-administered, multiple surveys administered over time) –Telephone (from central location) –Mall Intercept –Computer/Internet Planned questions –Open-ended –Closed-ended Need large sample sizes for precise conclusions SURVEY COSTS: USUALLY LOW

9 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 9 Continuum Questions Questions rating the degree of a characteristic (e.g., agreement or product usage) tend to be more effective than binary “Yes/No” questions E.g., 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Neither Strongly Agree Agree Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Disagree

10 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 10 Some Areas Suited for Continuum Ratings Interest Purchase likelihood Satisfaction/ Dissatisfaction Brand loyalty Price sensitivity Knowledge Experience Involvement Decision control Frequency or level of use Awareness Information search Personality traits Variety seeking

11 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 11 Experimentation Subjects in different groups treated differently –E.g., for some, “target” product is given better shelf space –E.g., some get coupon Can help isolate causes Subject is not biased by questions—does not know how others are treated EXPERIMENT COSTS: HIGH

12 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 12 My Simulated Store… A shopper in the everyday low price condition…

13 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 13 Ash’s Instant Coffee Study GROCERY SHOPPING LIST Ground beef Potatoes Apples Flour Sugar Laundry detergent Instant coffee 6 cups of yogurt Paper towels Bananas GROCERY SHOPPING LIST Ground beef Potatoes Apples Flour Sugar Laundry detergent Ground coffee 6 cups of yogurt Paper towels Bananas Respondents were asked to describe their impressions of a housewife based only on her shopping list. These shopping lists differ only on one item.

14 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 14 The Color Study Subjects were shown a photo of one of eight combinations (2x2x2x2) –Hue (red or blue) –Chroma (intensity) (high, low) –Value (lightness) (high, low) –Advertising copy (relaxing, exciting) Everything else was kept constant

15 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 15 Car Study, Part 2 Respondents reported –How they felt (manipulation check) Excitement –Evaluation of the Suzuki Esteem

16 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 16 Definition Confound: The tendency of some phenomenon to be caused at least in part by some variable other than the one of interest. E.g., does having more toys cause children to be more intelligent?

17 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 17 Confounds What is cause, what is effect, and what is coincidence? Correlation is not necessarily cause “Lurking” factors may be real cause of –Does sitting in front of the room cause higher grades? –Do fish-heavy diets cause stomach cancer? –Does fraternity/sorority membership cause higher grades?

18 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 18 Observation Looking at consumes in the field— e.g., –Searching for product category area –Number of products inspected and time spent on each –Apparent scrutiny of labels or other information –Involvement of others –Behavior under limiting circumstances (e.g., time constraints) OBSERVATION COSTS: LOW TO HIGH (DEPENDING ON CODING AND ANALYSIS NEEDED)

19 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 19 Taste Tests Not experiments unless –Two or more groups of people are treated differently (e.g., get different food version) or –The same person is being treated differently at separate times (e.g., half the participants receive new formulation, then current; half the participants receive in the opposite order) “Triangle” Measure –Each respondent is given three items: One current, one new, and one duplicate of either old or new –Asked to identify the one that is different and explain why

20 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 20 Focus Groups Groups of 8-12 consumers assembled Start out talking generally about context of product Gradually “focus” in on actual product Usually NOT the best approach. Should NOT be chosen as default research method! MOST APPROPRIATE AS EARLY STAGE METHOD FOCUS GROUP COSTS: HIGH (ESPECIALLY FOR THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION COLLECTED)

21 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 21 REMINDER Focus groups are most useful for identifying issues that should be studied in more detail with more precise methods Due to the small sample size and social influence on individual responses, it is difficult to generalize much from focus groups

22 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 22 In-depth interviews Structured vs. unstructured interviews Generalizing to other consumers Biases –Subtle, inadvertent feedback IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW COSTS: HIGH

23 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 23 Projective Techniques Getting at motivations that may not be consciously known— “Tell a story about this picture.” Measurement of attitudes consumers are unwilling to express –It is easier to admit something embarrassing about someone else Consumer discusses what other consumer might think, feel, or do PROJECTIVE METHODS COSTS: USUALLY HIGH IF PERSONAL INTERVIEWS OR EXTENSIVEINTERPRETATION IS NEEDED

24 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 24 Projective Examples “Please tell me a story of what is going on in this picture.”

25 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 25

26 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 26

27 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 27

28 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 28 More Projective Examples

29 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 29 Projective Techniques--Examples

30 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 30 Physiological Measures Consumer bodily responses are watched at various phases of advertisement or other marketing exposure Tracking of –Eye movements For areas of focus For attention, involvement –Heart rate –Skin conductivity –Brain waves State of mind Attention PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS COSTS: HIGH

31 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 31 Online Research—Analysis of Customer Search Queries Unmet demand— search for product not found on site Consumer vocabulary ONLINE SURVEY COSTS: USUALLY LOW

32 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 32 Online Surveys Conditional branching—direct skip to relevant question Quality of response –Time pressures –Willingness to write out answers or respond to multiple closed-ended questions –Willingness to read and follow instructions is limited Reliability and browser compatibility issues

33 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 33 Conditional Branching Traditional surveys: Have you bought a new car during the last six months? If not, please skip to Question 11. Conditional branching: Respondent will be taken to the appropriate question according to answer Customization of questions –E.g., consumer lists three brands  subsequent questions ask about these specific brands by name

34 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 34 Other Online Tools “Click Stream Analysis:” Analysis of “clicking” path— how does the consumer get to a desired page or product? Shopping cart analysis COSTS: HIGH START-UP COSTS; LOW VARIABLE COSTS POSSIBLE WITH DEVELOPED ALGORITHMS USUALLY LOW COSTS: HIGH START-UP COSTS; LOW VARIABLE COSTS POSSIBLE WITH DEVELOPED ALGORITHMS USUALLY LOW

35 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 35 Searching for Reports of Personal Experience Sources –Blogs (blogsearch.google.com) –Photos (e.g., Flickr, Webshots, Picasaweb, Google image search) –Video (e.g., Youtube) Cautions –May be “staged” or sensationalized –May represent what the writer or photographer wants to show –May be limited entries on certain “mundane” tasks such as dishwashing Some issues –Joy, enjoyment –Decisions –Anxiety –Social setting and influence

36 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 36 Electronic Interpretation of Blogs and Other Content Technology has been developed to “estimate” –Demographics of an individual (e.g., based on word choice) of a blogger –Overall positive or negative evaluation

37 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 37 Online Market Research Concerns Representativeness of –Population—are relevant groups reached in desired proportions? –Sample—even if the desired population is reached, do respondents respond in desired proportions? Willingness of participants to follow instructions Timing of survey participation requests Panel recruitment Privacy

38 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 38 Conjoint Analysis Consumers rate several “profiles” (combinations of features) Statistical analysis is used to “decompose” ratings into preferences

39 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 39 Example Car #1 Gas mileage: 30 mpg Price:$18,200 Safety record:Average PerformanceHigh ReliabilityPoor How would you rate car #1 overall on a scale from 1 (Very poor) to 7 (Excellent?) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Car #2 Gas mileage: 20 mpg Price:$15,200 Safety record:Excellent PerformancePoor ReliabilityExcellent How would you rate car #2 overall on a scale from 1 (Very poor) to 7 (Excellent?) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Each subject will evaluate several combinations. A statistical technique determines the importance of each feature.

40 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 40 Conjoint Analysis: Advantages Reveals ultimate preferences of consumers when competing influences exist Able to predict desirability of combinations not actually explored Can estimate contribution of each factor and assess its cost effectiveness –Will consumers pay $500.00 to reduce the weight of a laptop computer by 2 lbs?

41 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 41 Conjoint Analysis: Disadvantages May be difficult for subjects to rate many combinations May need a large number of subjects for accurate measurement/sufficient precision Must identify relevant attributes and levels in advance Subject must know about product category (attributes must be meaningful)

42 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 42 Scanner Data Panel members in test communities agree to –Swipe a card prior to each purchase –Have purchases matched to Demographic profiles Media/coupon exposure Promotional status of competing brands Past purchases Problems: –Aggregation over household –Aggregation bias--averages of disparate segments obscure! –Only available for grocery and some drugstore products COSTS: HIGH START-UP COSTS; LOW VARIABLE COSTS POSSIBLE WITH DEVELOPED ALGORITHMS USUALLY LOW

43 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 43 Scanner Data Research TELEVISION EXPOSURE DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ANALYSIS RECORDED PURCHASES HOUSEHOLD FILE Purchase on occasion: Yes, no Time since previous purchase Previous purchases Current price Previous price Current promotional status Previous promotional status Current display status Previous display status Display status of competing brands Promotional status of competing brands Coupon used: Yes, no Coupon available: Yes, no Coupon available for other brands? Yes, no Amount of coupon Family size Occupation Family size Income Home ownership No. of ads seen by shopper Ads seen for competing brands “Split cable”

44 MKT 450 PRIMARY CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS Lars Perner, Instructor 44 Choosing a Primary Research Method Does the question involve OPINIONS or BEHAVIOR? Can the respondent answer accurately? (What someone consciously believes may differ from “deeper” opinions; beliefs about hypothetical products may not be well developed.) OPINIONS EXPLORATORY or PRECISION research? YES FOCUS GROUPS INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS SURVEYS EXPLORATORYPRECISION BEHAVIOR NO PROJECTIVE METHODS SCANNER DATA (e.g., brand choice, impact of advertising, previous purchases, competing brands, demographics) EXPERIMENTATION (determine causality—e.g., impact of product design, advertising message) PHYSIOLOGICAL (e.g., determine reactions, attention, arousal) OBSERVATION (e.g., how long does the shopper spend? What does he or she look at? Is anyone else involved?) Can the relevant behavior be observed in the customer’s natural environment? NO YES


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