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Chapter 3: Selling on the Web: Revenue Models and Building a Web Presence 网上销售:盈利模式与网上展示 Electronic Commerce.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Selling on the Web: Revenue Models and Building a Web Presence 网上销售:盈利模式与网上展示 Electronic Commerce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3: Selling on the Web: Revenue Models and Building a Web Presence 网上销售:盈利模式与网上展示 Electronic Commerce

2 2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Revenue models 盈利模式 How some companies move from one revenue model to another to achieve success 企业如何通过转换盈利模式取得成功 Revenue strategy issues that companies face when selling on the Web 企业进行网上销售时的盈利策略

3 Electronic Commerce3 Objectives (continued) Creating an effective business presence on the Web 进行有效的网上展示 Web site usability 网站的可用性 Communicating effectively with customers on the Web 与网上客户进行有效沟通

4 Electronic Commerce4 Revenue Models 盈利模式 Revenue Model –A general term for the combination of strategies and techniques that a company uses to generate cash flow into the business from customers.

5 Electronic Commerce5 1. Web catalog revenue model 网上目录盈利模式 Mail order or catalog model 邮购模式或商品 目录模式 –Proven to be successful for a wide variety of consumer items Web catalog revenue model 网上目录盈利 模式 –Taking the catalog model to the Web

6 Electronic Commerce6 Computers and Consumer Electronics 电脑与消费电子 Apple, Dell, Gateway, and Sun Microsystems have had great success selling on the Web Dell created value by designing its entire business around offering a high degree of configuration flexibility to its customers 提供 给客户高度的配置灵活性

7 Electronic Commerce7 Books, Music, and Videos 图书、音像制品 Retailers use the Web catalog model to sell books, music, and videos –Among the most visible examples of electronic commerce Jeff Bezos –Formed Jason and Matthew Olim –Formed an online music store they called CDnow –Used the Web catalog revenue model

8 Electronic Commerce8 Luxury Goods 奢侈品 People are still reluctant to buy luxury goods through a Web site The Web sites of Vera Wang and Versace were constructed to provide information to shoppers, not to generate revenue The Evian Web site was designed for a select, affluent group of customers

9 Electronic Commerce9 Clothing Retailers 服装零售商 Lands’ End –Pioneered the idea of online Web shopping assistance with its Lands’ End Live feature in 1999 Personal shopper 个人采购员 –Intelligent agent program that learns a customer’s preferences and makes suggestions Virtual model 虚拟模特 –Graphic image built from customer measurements

10 Electronic Commerce10 Flowers and Gifts 鲜花和礼品 1-800-Flowers 鲜花店 –Created an online extension to its telephone order business Chocolatier Godiva 巧克力商 –Offers business gift plans on its site

11 Electronic Commerce11 2. Digital Content Revenue Models 数字内容盈利模式 Firms that own intellectual property have embraced the Web as a new and highly efficient distribution mechanism 拥有知识产权 的企业将网络作为一种新兴的有效的分销机制 法律、政府信息数据库 –Provides full-text search of court cases, laws, patent databases, and tax regulations ProQuest 学术出版物数据库 –Sells digital copies of published documents

12 Electronic Commerce12 3. Advertising-Supported Revenue Models 依赖广告的盈利模式 Broadcasters provide free programming to an audience along with advertising messages 电视广播 提供免费节目,但伴有广告信息 Success of Web advertising is hampered by: 网络广告 模式的成功受到两个障碍因素的制约 –No consensus on how to measure and charge for site visitor views 没有统一的测量网站访问量的方法与计费方式 Stickiness of a Web site: the ability to keep visitors and attract repeat visitors 网站的黏度 –Very few Web sites have sufficient visitors to interest large advertisers 很少有网站具有足够大的访问量,以吸引客户

13 Electronic Commerce13 Web Portals 门户网站 Web directory 网页目录 –A listing of hyperlinks to Web pages Portal or Web portal 门户或门户网站 –Site used as a launching point to enter the Web –Almost always includes a Web directory and search engine –Examples: Yahoo!, Sina, 163

14 Electronic Commerce14 4. Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Models 广告-订阅混合模式 Subscribers pay a fee and accept some level of advertising –Typically are subjected to much less advertising This model is used by The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal

15 Electronic Commerce15 Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Models (continued) Business Week 商业周刊 –Offers some free content at its Business Week online site –Requires visitors to buy a subscription to the Business Week print magazine

16 Electronic Commerce16 5. Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models 交易费用盈利模式 Businesses offer services and charge a fee based on the number or size of transactions processed 根据交易数量或规模收取费用 Disintermediation 去中介化 –Removal of an intermediary from a value chain Reintermediation 再中介化 –Introduction of a new intermediary

17 Electronic Commerce17 6. Fee-for-Service Revenue Models 服务费用模式 Fee is based on the value of a service provided 根据服务的价值收费 Services range from games and entertainment to financial advice 包括游戏、 娱乐、理财建议和其他专业服务 Online games 在线游戏 –Growing number of sites include premium games in their offerings –Site visitors must pay to play these premium games

18 Electronic Commerce18 Fee-for-Service Revenue Models (continued) Concerts and films 音乐会和电影 –As more households obtain broadband access to the Internet, companies are providing streaming video of concerts and films to paying subscribers Professional services 专业服务 –State laws are one of the main forces preventing professionals from extending their practices to the Web

19 Electronic Commerce19 Revenue Models in Transition 盈利模式的转变 Subscription to advertising-supported model 订阅模式到广告支持模式 –Microsoft founded its Slate magazine Web site An upscale news and current events publication Charged an annual subscription fee after a limited free introductory period Was unable to draw a sufficient number of paid subscribers Now operated as an advertising-supported site

20 Electronic Commerce20 Advertising-Supported to Advertising- Subscription Mixed Model 广告模式到广告-收费混合模式 在线杂志 –Operated for several years as an advertising- supported site –Now offers an optional subscription version of its site –Subscription offering was motivated by the company’s inability to raise additional money from investors

21 Electronic Commerce21 Advertising-Supported to Fee-for- Services Model 广告支持到服务费用模式 Xdrive Technologies 网络磁盘存储服务 –Opened its original advertising-supported Web site in 1999 –Offered free disk storage space online to users –After two years, it was unable to pay the costs of providing the service with the advertising revenue it generated –Later it switched to a fee-for-services model

22 Electronic Commerce22 Advertising-Supported to Subscription Model 广告模式到订阅模式 Northern Light 搜索引擎 –Founded in August 1997 as a search engine with a twist –Revenue model Combination of advertising-supported model plus a fee-based information access service –January 2002 Converted to a new revenue model that was primarily subscription supported

23 Electronic Commerce23 Multiple Transitions 多次转变 Encyclopædia Britannica 大不列颠百科全书 –Original offerings included: The Britannica Internet Guide 免费导航网站 –Free Web navigation aid Encyclopædia Britannica Online 付费网站 –Available for a subscription fee or as part of a CD package –1999 转向免费、广告支持模式 Converted to a free, advertiser-supported site –2001 又转向混合模式 Returned to a mixed model

24 Electronic Commerce24 Revenue Strategy Issues 盈利战略问题 Channel conflict 渠道冲突 –Occurs whenever sales activities on a company’s Web site interfere with existing sales outlets –Also called cannibalization 也成为渠道相斥 Channel cooperation 渠道合作 –Giving customers access to the company’s products through a coordinated presence in all distribution channels

25 Electronic Commerce25 Creating an Effective Web Presence 进行有效的网上展示 An organization’s presence is the public image it conveys to its stakeholders 一家企 业的展示是它传递给利益相关者的公众形象 Stakeholders of a firm include customers, suppliers, employees, stockholders, neighbors, and the general public 利益相关 者包括客户、供应商、雇员、股东、周边社区 以及普通公众

26 Electronic Commerce26 Achieving Web Presence Goals Objectives of the business include: 网上展示的目标 –Attracting visitors to the Web site 吸引访问者访问 –Making the site interesting enough that visitors stay and explore 吸引访问者停留并浏览 –Convincing visitors to follow the site’s links to obtain information 吸引访问者获取信息

27 Electronic Commerce27 Achieving Web Presence Goals (continued) Objectives of the business include: –Creating an impression consistent with the organization’s desired image 塑造企业形象 –Building a trusting relationship with visitors 创建信任关系 –Reinforcing positive images that the visitor might already have about the organization 强化正面印象 –Encouraging visitors to return to the site 吸引访问者再次访 问

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31 Electronic Commerce31 Web Site Usability 网站可用性 Motivations of Web site visitors include: 网站访问者的动机包括 –Learning about products or services that the company offers 了解产品和服务 –Buying products or services that the company offers 购买 产品和服务 –Obtaining information about warranty, service, or repair policies for products they purchased 获取关于售后保障、 服务和维修的信息 –Obtaining general information about the company or organization 获取关于企业或组织的一般信息

32 Electronic Commerce32 Web Site Usability (continued) Motivations of Web site visitors include: –Obtaining financial information for making an investment or credit granting decision 了解财务 信息 –Identifying the people who manage the company or organization 了解企业的管理人员 –Obtaining contact information for a person or department in the organization 获得联系方式

33 Electronic Commerce33 Making Web Sites Accessible 网站的易用性 One of the best ways to accommodate a broad range of visitor needs is to build flexibility into the Web site’s interface 使网站界面具有灵活性 Good site design lets visitors choose among information attributes 能让访问者选择访问属性 Web sites can offer visitors multiple information formats by including links to files in those formats 提供多种信息格式 Offer easily accessible information 提供易于获得的信息

34 Electronic Commerce34 Trust and Loyalty 信任与忠诚 A 5 percent increase in customer loyalty can yield profit increases between 25% and 80% 客户忠诚度提高 5 %,利润将提高 25% - 80% Repetition of satisfactory service can build customer loyalty 重复的满意服务能提高客 户忠诚度 Customer service is a problem for many electronic commerce sites 客户服务是诸多 电子商务网站面临的问题

35 Electronic Commerce35 Usability Testing 可用性测试 Companies that have done usability tests –Watch how different customers navigate through a series of Web site test designs 可用性测试通 过一系列网站测试方案来观察不同客户的导航方式 Cost of usability testing is low compared to the total cost of a Web site design 相对于 网站建设的总体成本而言,可用性测试成本非常低

36 Electronic Commerce36 Customer-Centric Web Site Design 以客户为中心的网站设计 Customer-centric Web site design puts the customer at the center of all site designs 在网站设计时将客户放在核心 Guidelines: –Design the site around how visitors will navigate the links 按照导航方式进行设计 –Allow visitors to access information quickly 能快 速访问信息 –Avoid using inflated marketing statements 避免浮 夸性用语

37 Electronic Commerce37 Customer-Centric Web Site Design (continued) Guidelines: –Avoid using business jargon and terms that visitors might not understand 避免使用访问者难 以理解的行业术语 –Be consistent in use of design features and colors 风格以及色彩上的一致性 –Make sure navigation controls are clearly labeled 清晰的导航标志 –Test text visibility on smaller monitors 测试不同 型号的显示器

38 Electronic Commerce38 Connecting With Customers 联络客户 Personal contact model 个人接触 –Firm’s employees individually search for, qualify, and contact potential customers Mass media approach 大众媒体 –Firms prepare advertising and promotional materials about the firm and its products

39 Electronic Commerce39 Connecting With Customers (continued) One-to-many communication model 一对多沟通模式 –Communication flows from one advertiser to many potential buyers One-to-one communication model 一对一沟通模式 –Both buyer and seller participate in information exchange

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41 Electronic Commerce41 Summary Models used to generate revenue on the Web include: –Web catalog –Digital content sales –Advertising-supported –Advertising-subscription mixed –Fee-for-transaction and fee-for-service

42 Electronic Commerce42 Summary (continued) Firms must understand how the Web differs from other media Enlisting the help of users when building test versions of the Web site is a good way to create a site that represents the organization well Firms must also understand the nature of communication on the Web

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