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Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. J. Paul Peter Chapter 5 Marketing Research: Information and Technology Marketing.

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Presentation on theme: "Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. J. Paul Peter Chapter 5 Marketing Research: Information and Technology Marketing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. J. Paul Peter Chapter 5 Marketing Research: Information and Technology Marketing

2 Marketing Research The function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information. The process of planning, collecting, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making. The process of designing, gathering, analyzing and reporting of information that may be used to solve a specific marketing problem. The systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making marketing decisions. Definition Slide 5-1

3 Questions Marketing Research Can Help Answer Slide 5-2 Table 5.1 Questions about Markets What kinds of people buy our products? Is demand for our products increasing or decreasing? Do channels of distribution for our products need changing? Buyers DemandChannels Questions about Marketing Mix Product PricingPlacementPromotion Which product design is likely to be most successful? What price should we charge for our new products? Where, and by whom, should our products be sold? How much should we spend on promotion? Questions about Performance What is our market share overall? How does the public perceive our organization? Market Share Customer Satisfaction Reputation Are customers satisfied with our products?

4 Basics of a Marketing Decision Support System Slide 5-3 Data in Database Models in Model Base Dialogue System Information Data used to make decisions Figure 5.1 A coordinated collection of data, system tools, and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information and turns it into a basis for making management decisions.

5 Primary Data Slide 5-4 Advantages Up-to-dateDirectly Relevant Known Source Disadvantages More ExpensiveMore Time Consuming Types ObservationSurveyExperimental Data collected specifically for the purpose of the investigation at hand

6 Secondary Data Slide 5-5 Advantages Less ExpensiveRequires Less Time Disadvantages May Be ObsoleteMay Not Be Relevant Types InternalExternal Data collected for some purpose other than the immediate study at hand

7 Sources of Secondary Data SourceDescription Internal InformationSales Invoices, Accounting Records, Previous Market Research Market Research FirmsCompanies Such As A.C. Nielsen, Arbitron, IMS International, Prizm Trade Associations Associations Such As National Industrial Conference Board, National Retail Merchants Association University Research Bureaus, Professional Associations, Foundations Variety of Nonprofit Organizations Commercial PublicationsAdvertising Age, Sales Management, Product Marketing, Buying Power Index Government DataFederal Government publications such as Census of Housing, Census of Manufacturers, Economic Indicators Slide 5-6

8 Information Available from the Population Census Slide 5-7 Table 5.3 Household relationship Sex Race Age Marital status Hispanic Origin Education - enrollment and attainment Place of birth, citizenship, and year of entry Ancestry Language spoken at home Migration Disability Fertility Veteran status Employment and unemployment Occupation, industry and class of worker PopulationHousing Number of units in structure Number of rooms in unit Unit owned or rented Vacancy characteristics Value of owned unit or rent paid Source of water and method of sewage disposal Autos, light trucks and vans Kitchen facilities Year structure built Year moved into residence Number of bedrooms Shelter costs, including utilities Condominium status Plumbing Telephone

9 Formulate the Problem Steps in the Marketing Research Process: Step 1 Figure 5.3 Slide 5-8 Plan a Research Design Collect Data Analyze and Interpret Data Prepare the Research Report

10 Formulate the Problem Figure 5.3 Slide 5-9 Plan a Research Design Collect Data Analyze and Interpret Data Prepare the Research Report Steps in the Marketing Research Process: Step 2

11 Exploratory ResearchDescriptive ResearchCausal Research (Unaware of Problem)(Aware of Problem)(Problem Clearly Defined) “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying“Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.”our product? Who buys ourour products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “What features do buyers prefer “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?”in our product?” campaigns is more effective?” Basic Research Designs possible situation Initial research conducted to clarify & define the problem and generate hypotheses Research designed to describe characteristics of a population Research conducted to identify cause-and-effect relationships among variables The plan for how to collect and analyze data Slide 5-10

12 Formulate the Problem Figure 5.3 Slide 5-11 Plan a Research Design Collect Data Analyze and Interpret Data Prepare the Research Report Steps in the Marketing Research Process: Step 3

13 Observational Research Mystery shopping One way mirror Shopper Patterns Physical trace evidence Traffic counters Physiological measurement People Meters Common Forms of Observational Research Common Forms of Observational Research The collection of data by recording the actions of consumers or events in the marketplace Slide 5-12

14 Survey Research In-Home Interview Mall Intercept Telephone (Interviewer) Telephone (Central) Focus Group Interview One-Time Mail Survey Mail Panel Surveys Common Forms of Survey Research Common Forms of Survey Research The researcher interacts with people to obtain facts, opinions, and attitudes Slide 5-13

15 Formulate the Problem Figure 5.3 Slide 5-14 Plan a Research Design Collect Data Analyze and Interpret Data Prepare the Research Report Steps in the Marketing Research Process: Step 4

16 Analyze and Interpret Data Statistical Inference Sampling Error Descriptive Statistics Data Coding Nonprobability Sample Census Probability Sample Sample Editing Key Terms and Concepts Slide 5-15

17 Formulate the Problem Figure 5.3 Slide 5-16 Plan a Research Design Collect Data Analyze and Interpret Data Prepare the Research Report Steps in the Marketing Research Process: Step 5

18 Application of New Technology Geographic Information System (GIS) is a term used when we combine various kinds of demographic data with geographic information on maps. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the term used when one company’s computer systems is integrated directly with another company’s proprietary computer system. Technical-market Research is research incorporating customers by demonstrating a product in 3-D on a computer screen and asking customers to evaluate it. Usenet is a network of Internet addresses for electronic mail. Slide 5-17

19 Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing Research Slide 5-18a Table 5.5 Area of Concern Preserving participant’s anonymity Keeping the names of survey respondents anonymous, even though the client would like to use them to create a mailing list This is a basic standard of ethical research/ Exposing participants to mental stress Asking participants questions against their self-interest Example Ethical Standards When stress is unavoidable, researcher should debrief subjects afterward. Arriving late for a scheduled interview; conducting experiments in which subjects are embarrassed at their lack of knowledge about products Asking about the acceptability of various prices in order to plan a price increase Such issues tend to place ethical standards in conflict with technical standards for accurate research. Using special equipment and techniques Using equipment to measure physiological responses to a product or promotional message These must be properly maintained to avoid injury.

20 Slide 5-18b Table 5.5 Area of Concern Involving participants in research without their knowledge Secretly observing the behavior of shoppers Informed consent is a basic ethical standard unless minimal risk to subjects is involved and the research could not be practically carried out with consent. Using deception Using coercion Example Ethical Standards Incompletely informed consent is considered ethical only if there is minimal risk to subjects and research cannot be practically carried out another way. Showing subjects sample advertisements without telling them that they will have to take a recall test afterward Harassing by repeatedly requesting telephone interviews Coercion is unethical and tends to bias results. Depriving participants of their right to self- determination Changing participants in ways they could not expect, such as a taste test in which they cannot identify their preferred brand and unexpectedly lose confidence in their ability to judge Researchers should try to restore participants to their original condition when this occurs. Source: Adapted from Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Basic Marketing Research, 3rd ed. (Fort Worth: The Dryden Press, 1996), pp © 1992 by the Dryden Press, reprinted by permission of the publisher. Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing Research


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