Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a flat organization? A.Few Middle Managers B.Program Based Budgets C.Shared Responsibility for Implementation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a flat organization? A.Few Middle Managers B.Program Based Budgets C.Shared Responsibility for Implementation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a flat organization? A.Few Middle Managers B.Program Based Budgets C.Shared Responsibility for Implementation D.Employees empowered to make decisions

2 Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a flat organization? A.Few Middle Managers B.Program Based Budgets C.Shared Responsibility for Implementation D.Employees empowered to make decisions

3 In the 1930’s states started a functional classification system for highways that included all of the following EXCEPT A.Interstate B.Primary C.Secondary D.Local

4 In the 1930’s states started a functional classification system for highways that included all of the following EXCEPT A.Interstate B.Primary C.Secondary D.Local

5 The next two questions refer to the following list of authors. Select from the list of authors the one who has directly contributed to each of the following specified fields of knowledge. A section may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Analysis of the intrinsic suitability of land for urban development A.Kevin Lynch B.Saul Alinsky C.Ian McHarg D.Richard Babcock

6 The next two questions refer to the following list of authors. Select from the list of authors the one who has directly contributed to each of the following specified fields of knowledge. A section may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Analysis of the intrinsic suitability of land for urban development A.Kevin Lynch B.Saul Alinsky C.Ian McHarg D.Richard Babcock

7 Select from the list of authors the one who has directly contributed to each of the following specified fields of knowledge. A section may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Urban design and the form of the city A.Kevin Lynch B.Saul Alinsky C.Ian McHarg D.Richard Babcock

8 Select from the list of authors the one who has directly contributed to each of the following specified fields of knowledge. A section may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Urban design and the form of the city A.Kevin Lynch B.Saul Alinsky C.Ian McHarg D.Richard Babcock

9 Listed above are two types of employment percentages for industries X, Y, and Z in a metropolitan area. The local employment for each industry is listed as a percent of total local employment and the national employment in each industry is listed as a percent of total national employment. Under the location quotient method, an economic planner can assign which of these industries to the export sector of the metropolitan area? A.X only B.Y only C.Z only D.Y and Z only IndustryLocal EmploymentNational Employment X3%6% Y10%7% Z11%3%

10 Ebenezer Howard is best know for the concept of self-sufficient towns with mixed economies which are called A.New Towns B.Garden Cities C.Planned Unit Developments D.Suburbs

11 Ebenezer Howard is best know for the concept of self-sufficient towns with mixed economies which are called A.New Towns B.Garden Cities C.Planned Unit Developments D.Suburbs

12 The new town of Columbia, Maryland, has which of the following planned features? I.Neighborhood Clusters II.A rail commuter system III.Prior land assembly IV.Prohibition of industry A.II only B.I and III only C.II and IV only D.I, III, and IV only

13 The new town of Columbia, Maryland, has which of the following planned features? I.Neighborhood Clusters II.A rail commuter system III.Prior land assembly IV.Prohibition of industry A.II only B.I and III only C.II and IV only D.I, III, and IV only

14 The two lines on the graph above best represent which of the following combinations of travel behavior in a metropolitan area of 2 million population? A.Transit and private automobile trips B.Weekday and weekend trips C.All work and nonwork trips D.Office and retail generated trips

15 The two lines on the graph above best represent which of the following combinations of travel behavior in a metropolitan area of 2 million population? A.Transit and private automobile trips B.Weekday and weekend trips C.All work and nonwork trips D.Office and retail generated trips

16 The next two questions refer to the following information. The desirability and feasibility of a proposed shopping center are to be evaluated. The primary concerns are that conditions of the city zoning ordinance be met and that the project be a profitable venture. The developer owns a 30-acre parcel and proposes to construct a 250,000-square-foot leasable area with 1,300 on-site parking spaces. The shopping center will serve a trade area that contains 20,000 households. The average household income is $12,000. The shopping center will have a 50:50 split of square footage between convenience and shopper’s goods. Which of the following would be appropriate in a shopping center of this size? A.A major grocery and a drug store as prime tenants B.Either a department or discount store as the anchor tenant C.Three department stores of approximately the same size D.A series of smaller stores rather than an anchor tenant

17 The next two questions refer to the following information. The desirability and feasibility of a proposed shopping center are to be evaluated. The primary concerns are that conditions of the city zoning ordinance be met and that the project be a profitable venture. The developer owns a 30-acre parcel and proposes to construct a 250,000-square-foot leasable area with 1,300 on-site parking spaces. The shopping center will serve a trade area that contains 20,000 households. The average household income is $12,000. The shopping center will have a 50:50 split of square footage between convenience and shopper’s goods. If an average of 400 square feet is needed to accommodate each parking space and associated driveways, what would be the appropriate acreage of the blacktop area of the site? A.Less than 10 acres B.Between 10 and 15 acres C.Between 15 and 20 acres D.More than 20 acres

18 Plan Implementation Part II Jennifer Evans-Cowley, PhD, AICP Professional Development Officer, Ohio

19 Key Concepts Taxes Budgeting Organizational Structure Comprehensive Planning Strategic Planning Citizen Participation

20 “A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags attached” Aaron Wildavsky

21 Types of Taxes Regressive Progressive

22 Types of Revenue Property Tax Income Tax Sales Tax Fees for Service Grants

23 Methods of Finance Pay as you go Reserve Funds General Obligation Bonds Revenue Bonds Lease-Purchase Special Districts Special Assessments Grants Tax Increment Financing

24 Types of Budgeting Systems Line Item Budgeting Planning, Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) Management by Objective (MBO) Zero-Base Budget (ZBB)

25 Capital Improvements Program What is a Capital Improvement? –Is a public facility that constitutes a major expenditure and a long life involving nonrecurring expenditures What is a Capital Improvement Program? –A guide to the provision of capital improvements by balancing revenues, expenditures, as well as sequencing of acquisition actions. It is linked to the goals established within the comprehensive plan.

26 Bond Rating System Firms –Standard & Poor’s AAA - C –Moody’s Investors Service Aaa - C Two Types Issuer and Issue Rating

27 Certificates of Obligation What is a CO? –Higher Interest Rate –Does not have to be Voter Approved

28 Project Management Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT): Project management technique that defines shared activities and creates a sequence of events. Critical Path Programming (CPP): The critical path of activities to complete a project.

29 Forms of Local Govt Weak Mayor-Council Strong Mayor-Council Commission Plan Council-Manager

30 Types of Local Governments General-purpose local government – counties, municipalities, towns and townships. Single-purpose local government – School districts and special districts.

31 Span of Control Heirarchical Manager Technical Manager Technician Administrator Planner Planning Assistant Planner Planning Assistant Administrativ e Asst. Clerk Intern

32 Span of Control Flat Manager TechnicianAdministrator Administrative Asst. Clerk

33 Organizational Center Staff Functions – Support line positions –Budgeting, Human Resources Line Functions – Provide direct service –Water, Parks

34 Work Areas Function – transportation, historic preservation Process – zoning review, demographic analysis Time – current v. long range Area - neighborhoods

35 Centralization Centralized - functional Decentralized – typically by area

36 Comprehensive Planning The official statement of a legislative body that sets forth its major policies concerning desirable future physical development Should be adopted by the governing body Key Elements –Demographics –Land use –Transportation –Community facilities –Infrastructure

37 Strategic Planning Analyze Community Needs Determine Long Term Objectives SWOT Analysis Involve stakeholders Develop and evaluate alternatives Develop policies Conduct evaluation

38 Citizen Participation Computer simulation Design Charrette Facilitated Meetings Neighborhood organizations Delphi Method Task Force Visioning Public Hearings

39 Plan Making

40 Research methods and techniques Collecting data Techniques for organizing information Analysis of information (quantitative and qualitative) Demographics Fiscal impact analysis

41 Statistics

42 Key Topics Data Types/Measurement Descriptive Statistics Normal Distribution Sampling Distribution Estimation

43 Types of Statistics Descriptive – describes data Inferential – tells about population –Sample statistic to estimate population parameter

44 Types of Data Nominal: no order: social security number Ordinal: order, but no magnitude: letter grade Interval: order, magnitude, but no fixed interval: example temperature Ratio: order, magnitude, and interval (used for measures of central tendency): distance

45 Measures of Central Tendency Mean (average) Median (middle number), best for skewed data Mode (most frequent number)

46 Categorized Data Frequency Cumulative Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency

47 Frequency ClassFrequencyRelative FreqCumulative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency Total

48 Normal Distribution

49 Planning Analysis

50 Key Topics Population Projections Employment Forecasting Sources of Data Methods of Data Analysis

51 Population Current Estimates –Most recent US Census –Migration and Natural Increase Birth and Death Rates (aggregate) Net Migration – school enrollment –Step Down Method Using data for state/county/MSA –Other: Telephone hookups, electric meters Population Projections

52 Growth Curves –Take Current Population and Historical Population to identify a pattern of growth, which is used to estimate future population.

53 Straight Projection Exponential Gompertz

54 Population Projections Step-down Methods (state, county, MSA) –Use ratio of population of community to a larger area Cohort Survival –Birth Rate/Death Rate –Migration Rates

55 Population Pyramid Source: Vicki Male

56 Birth Rates Need a birth rate of 2.1 to maintain the population size Birth rates are generally going down –Europe birth rate of 1.5 (European Union) –United States rate of 2.0 – 2.1 (US Census)

57 Data Sources US Bureau of the Census (http://www.census.gov)http://www.census.gov FedStats (http://www.fedstats.gov)http://www.fedstats.gov National Center for Health Statistics (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/)http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ State-level Department of Health for information on birth and death rates

58 Employment Data US Bureau of the Census – 5 year economic census (http://www.census.gov)http://www.census.gov County Business Patterns (http://www.census.gov)http://www.census.gov Census Transportation Planning Package (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ctpp/)http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ctpp/

59 Economic Base Analysis Economic Base Analysis tries to determine the multiplier effect –Location Quotient (concentration of a given industry in a given place and compares it to the nation) Location Quotient = Regional Employment in Industry I in Year T / National Employment in Industry I in Year T Total Regional Employment in Year T Total National Employment in Year T

60 Economic Base Model If Location Quotient is >1 exporting employment If Location Quotient is <1 importing employment Basic Activities can be exported, while non- Basic Activities cannot be exported

61 Multiplier Effect Total Employment/Basic Employment 20,000/10,000 = 2.0 Every basic employee generates 2.0 employees. That person plus 1.0 additional employees.

62 Shift-Share Analysis Analyzes change in employment in a given area and given industry Look at two periods Between 1990 and 2000 the helium industry increased employment by 3 percent in the Amarillo, Texas Metropolitan Area. The MSA’s employment increased by 10 percent. Between 1990 and 2000 the helium industry growth was 5 percent nationally and overall employment grew 10 percent.

63 Thank You!


Download ppt "Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a flat organization? A.Few Middle Managers B.Program Based Budgets C.Shared Responsibility for Implementation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google