Presentation on theme: "Shopping, buying, evaluating and disposing Solomon et al Ch 9"— Presentation transcript:
1Shopping, buying, evaluating and disposing Solomon et al Ch 9 MS3536 Lecture 10Shopping, buying, evaluating and disposingSolomon et al Ch 9
2Outline Purchase and post-purchase issues Antecedent states Shopping motives and orientationsImpulse shoppingPost-purchase evaluationProduct disposal
3Issues related to purchase and post-purchase Solomon et al (2006) p.300
4Antecedent states; Situational effects MoodPleasure and arousalPositive or negative reactionsConsumption situationsFactors beyond the individual and productBehavioural factors (e.g. entertaining friends)Perceptual factors (e.g. feeling down or pressed for time)
5Social and physical surroundings A consumer’s physical and social environment can make abig difference in motivating product purchase and evaluation.Cues can include:decor, smells and even temperature of a consumer’s surroundings.the presence or absence of other consumers.the type of consumer patronising a store.temporal factors, e.g. time to make purchases.
6Arnold and Reynolds shopping motives (2003) Adventure shopping - to seek stimulation, adventure, and feelings of being in a different world.Social shopping - for enjoyment of shopping with friends and family, socialising while shopping and bonding with others.Gratification shopping - for stress relief, to alleviate a negative mood and as a special treat to oneself.Idea shopping - for keeping up with trends and new fashions and to seek new products and innovations.Role shopping - for getting enjoyment as a consequence of shopping for others.Value shopping (reflecting shopping for sales, looking for discounts, and hunting for bargains).
7Shopping orientation The economic shopper The personalised shopper The ethical shopperThe apathetic shopperThe recreational shopper
8Impulse buyingA sudden but powerful and persistent urge to buy a product offering immediately with diminished regard to the consequences of buying the offering (Rook, 1987)As per Rook (1987), it is relatively extraordinary, exciting, emotional rather than rational and is likely to be perceived as bad rather than good
9Four Styles of Impulse Buying Accelerator ImpulseDriven by a desire to stock up for a future needCompensatory ImpulseOccurs when a consumer feels down and low in self esteem and uses purchase as a rewardBreakthrough ImpulseTo resolve some sort of emotional conflictBlind ImpulseBuying with no apparent impulseBayley & Nancarrow (1998)
10Four Forms of Impulse Buying Pure Impulse BuyingSudden grounds of novelty or escapismReminder Impulse BuyingThe item is suddenly remembered as a wanted itemSuggestion Impulse BuyingConsumer goes through a rapid evaluationPlanned Impulse BuyingWhere the customer intends to buy but the what question is not decided prior to the shopping tripStern (1962)
11Airport Impulse Buying EffectIllustrationThe holiday effectConsumer is going on holiday with high levels of excitement and more disposable income is at hard than normalThe family effectConsumers think of buying gifts for family and friendsThe guilt effectBusiness travellers buying for spouse and children to compensate for loss of family time due to business travelThe reward effectConsumers’ self indulgenceThe occasion effectEaster, Christmas, Mother’s Day, Birthday, etc.The exclusivity effectOnly being able to buy certain products in specific travel related environments, e.g. airportThe effect of forgettingForgetting to bring an item such as an umbrellaThe effect of confusionInformation overload causing impulse buyingThe effect of disposingWanting to get rid of some foreign currency
12Post-purchase Customer satisfaction: Satisfaction is “an attitude-like feeling of a customer towards a product or service after it has been used”.Satisfaction is an important concept both for academics and managersIt is considered as the essence of success and focus of becoming a market oriented firm
13Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction 1 Disconfirmation paradigmDisconfirmation is the difference between pre-purchase expectations (belief about anticipated performance) and post-purchase beliefs (how well the product actually performed)Positive disconfirmationWhen perceived performance exceeds customer satisfaction (customer feels satisfied)Negative disconfirmationWhen perceived performance falls short of expectations (customer feels dissatisfied)
14Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction 2 Equity“A fairness, rightness or deservingness judgement that consumers make in reference to what others receive” (Oliver, 1997)Consumers feel satisfied when they perceive fair (i.e. equitable) treatmentAttributionsCustomers feel satisfied when they attribute favourable outcomes to themselves and negative to others (Oliver, 1993)
15Consequences of Customer Satisfaction Complaining behaviourThis allows consumers to get rid of their anger and frustrationConsumers are likely to complain when:1. They attribute blame to someone else2. When they experience a strong dissatisfying experience3. When there are greater chances of redress4. When consumers have the right level of ability and motivation to complain (e.g. time, monetary, word of mouth)
16Cognitive DissonanceA kind of psychological tension resulting from perceived inconsistencies in cognitions(Festinger, 1957)
17Dissonance Reducing Strategies in Smoking 1. Change one’s behaviourStop smokingChange to smoking cigar or pipe2. Distort the dissonant behaviourRefuse to accept cancer connection3. Minimise the importance of theissueTo say there is more chance of death in a car crash4. Ignore dissonant informationand seek consonant informationSeek social support
18Unethical Reassurance from Marketers Overcoming dissonance: healthy woman smoke (seeking social support) and it’s good for you! Using positive cognitions.
21Product disposal Product disposal occurs when: the products have fulfilled their designated functions.the products no longer fit with the consumer’s view of themselves.Recycling is becoming more important as consumers’ environmental awareness increases.Lateral cycling occurs when objects are bought and sold second-hand.
22Consumers’ disposal options Figure Source: Adapted from Jacob Jacoby, Carol K. Berning and Thomas F. Dietvorst, ‘What about disposition?’, Journal of Marketing 41 (April 1977): 23.
23Required reading….Bayley, G. and Nancarrow, C. (1998) “Impulse purchasing: A qualitative investigation of the phenomenon”, Qualitative Market Research, Vol.1, No.2, ppCrawford, G. and Melwar, T.C. (2003) “The importance of impulse purchasing behaviour in the international airport environment”, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol.3, No.1, pp