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What you see is what you get

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Presentation on theme: "What you see is what you get"— Presentation transcript:

1 What you see is what you get
Observation What you see is what you get

2 Observation Research Defined
Observation research can be defined as the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them.

3 Observational Situations
Situation Example People watching people Observers stationed in supermarkets watch consumers select frozen Mexican dinners. The purpose is to see how much comparison shopping people do at the point of purchase. People watching Observer stationed at an intersection counts phenomena traffic moving in various directions. Machines watching Move or videotape cameras record behavior people as in people-watching-people example. Machines watching Traffic-counting machines monitor traffic phenomena flow.

4 What can be observed Human behaviour and physical actions
Verbal behaviour Expressive behaviour Spatial relations and locations Temporal patterns Physical objects Verbal or pictorial records

5 WHAT CAN BE OBSERVED Phenomena Example Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement action pattern in a store Verbal behavior Statements made by airline travelers who wait in line Expressive behavior Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language

6 WHAT CAN BE OBSERVED Phenomena Example Spatial relations How close visitors at an and locations art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objects What brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packages Records

7 Approaches Natural versus contrived situations.
Visible/open versus disguised/hidden situations. Structured versus unstructured observation. Human versus machine observation. Direct versus indirect observation.

8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation Research
Observation research provides the researcher the opportunity to watch what people actually do rather than relying on reports of what they say they do. This approach can avoid much of the biasing factors caused by the interviewer and question structure associated with the survey approach.

9 Communication with respondent is not necessary
Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias No need to rely on respondents memory Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained Certain data may be obtained more quickly Environmental conditions may be recorded May be combined with other methods to provide supplemental evidence

10 Disadvantages Only behavior and physical personal characteristics can usually be examined. The researcher does not learn about motives, attitudes, intentions, or feelings. Observation research can be time consuming and costly if the observed behavior occurs rather infrequently. Interpretation of data may be a problem Possible invasion of privacy

11 Who sees what where…

12 Humans observing Humans
Mystery Shoppers People employed to pose as consumers and shop at the employer’s competitors to compare prices, displays, and the like. One-Way Mirror Observations The practice of watching unseen from behind a one-way mirror.

13 Shopper Patterns Response latency Test sites
Drawings that record the footsteps of a shopper through a store. Response latency Recording the decision time necessary to make a choice between two alternatives. Test sites

14 Humans observing Physical Objects
Content Analysis A technique used to study written material (advertising copy, newspapers, minutes) by breaking it into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules. Physical trace evidence Study of visible signs of past event/occurrence. garbology

15 Physical Audit The examination and verification of the sales of a product. Pantry audits

16 Machine Observing People
Electroencephalogram (EEG) A machine that measures the rhythmic fluctuations in electrical potential of the brain and can be used to measure an individual’s emotional response to a stimulus. Eye tracking monitors Record how subject reads or views phenomenon

17 Pupilometer Psychogalvanometer Voice pitch analysis
Observes and records changes in the diameter of subjects pupils which changes as a result of cognitive processing Psychogalvanometer Measures Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)- involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin Voice pitch analysis Measures emotional reactions through physiological changes in voice

18 Machine Observing Phenomenon
Traffic counters Machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway. People meter A microwave computerized rating system that transmits demographic information overnight to measure national TV audiences.

19 Scanner based research
A system for gathering information from a single group of respondents by continuously monitoring the advertising, sales, promotion, and pricing they are exposed to and the things they buy.

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