Presentation on theme: "What you see is what you get"— Presentation transcript:
1 What you see is what you get ObservationWhat you see is what you get
2 Observation Research Defined Observation research can be defined as the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them.
3 Observational Situations Situation ExamplePeople watching people Observers stationed in supermarkets watchconsumers select frozen Mexican dinners.The purpose is to see how much comparisonshopping people do at the point of purchase.People watching Observer stationed at an intersection countsphenomena traffic moving in various directions.Machines watching Move or videotape cameras record behaviorpeople as in people-watching-people example.Machines watching Traffic-counting machines monitor traffic phenomena flow.
4 What can be observed Human behaviour and physical actions Verbal behaviourExpressive behaviourSpatial relations and locationsTemporal patternsPhysical objectsVerbal or pictorial records
5 WHAT CAN BE OBSERVEDPhenomena ExampleHuman behavior or physical Shoppers movementaction pattern in a storeVerbal behavior Statements made byairline travelers who waitin lineExpressive behavior Facial expressions, tone ofvoice, and other form ofbody language
6 WHAT CAN BE OBSERVEDPhenomena ExampleSpatial relations How close visitors at anand locations art museum stand to paintingsTemporal patterns How long fast-food customerswait for their order to be servedPhysical objects What brand name items arestored in consumers’ pantriesVerbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packagesRecords
7 Approaches Natural versus contrived situations. Visible/open versus disguised/hidden situations.Structured versus unstructured observation.Human versus machine observation.Direct versus indirect observation.
8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation Research Observation research provides the researcher the opportunity to watch what people actually do rather than relying on reports of what they say they do.This approach can avoid much of the biasing factors caused by the interviewer and question structure associated with the survey approach.
9 Communication with respondent is not necessary Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability)BiasNo need to rely on respondents memoryNonverbal behavior data may be obtainedCertain data may be obtained more quicklyEnvironmental conditions may be recordedMay be combined with other methods to provide supplemental evidence
10 DisadvantagesOnly behavior and physical personal characteristics can usually be examined. The researcher does not learn about motives, attitudes, intentions, or feelings.Observation research can be time consuming and costly if the observed behavior occurs rather infrequently.Interpretation of data may be a problemPossible invasion of privacy
12 Humans observing Humans Mystery ShoppersPeople employed to pose as consumers and shop at the employer’s competitors to compare prices, displays, and the like.One-Way Mirror ObservationsThe practice of watching unseen from behind a one-way mirror.
13 Shopper Patterns Response latency Test sites Drawings that record the footsteps of a shopper through a store.Response latencyRecording the decision time necessary to make a choice between two alternatives.Test sites
14 Humans observing Physical Objects Content AnalysisA technique used to study written material (advertising copy, newspapers, minutes) by breaking it into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules.Physical trace evidenceStudy of visible signs of past event/occurrence.garbology
15 Physical AuditThe examination and verification of the sales of a product.Pantry audits
16 Machine Observing People Electroencephalogram (EEG)A machine that measures the rhythmic fluctuations in electrical potential of the brain and can be used to measure an individual’s emotional response to a stimulus.Eye tracking monitorsRecord how subject reads or views phenomenon
17 Pupilometer Psychogalvanometer Voice pitch analysis Observes and records changes in the diameter of subjects pupils which changes as a result of cognitive processingPsychogalvanometerMeasures Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)- involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skinVoice pitch analysisMeasures emotional reactions through physiological changes in voice
18 Machine Observing Phenomenon Traffic countersMachines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway.People meterA microwave computerized rating system that transmits demographic information overnight to measure national TV audiences.
19 Scanner based research A system for gathering information from a single group of respondents by continuously monitoring the advertising, sales, promotion, and pricing they are exposed to and the things they buy.