Presentation on theme: "Observation What you see is what you get. Observation Research Defined Observation research can be defined as the systematic process of recording the."— Presentation transcript:
Observation What you see is what you get
Observation Research Defined Observation research can be defined as the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them.
Observational Situations SituationExample People watching peopleObservers stationed in supermarkets watch consumers select frozen Mexican dinners. The purpose is to see how much comparison shopping people do at the point of purchase. People watching Observer stationed at an intersection counts phenomena traffic moving in various directions. Machines watching Move or videotape cameras record behavior peopleas in people-watching-people example. Machines watching Traffic-counting machines monitor traffic phenomena flow.
What can be observed Human behaviour and physical actions Verbal behaviour Expressive behaviour Spatial relations and locations Temporal patterns Physical objects Verbal or pictorial records
WHAT CAN BE OBSERVED PhenomenaExample Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement actionpattern in a store Verbal behaviorStatements made by airline travelers who wait in line Expressive behaviorFacial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language
WHAT CAN BE OBSERVED PhenomenaExample Spatial relationsHow close visitors at an and locationsart museum stand to paintings Temporal patternsHow long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objectsWhat brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packages Records
Approaches –Natural versus contrived situations. –Visible/open versus disguised/hidden situations. –Structured versus unstructured observation. –Human versus machine observation. –Direct versus indirect observation.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observation Research Advantages –Observation research provides the researcher the opportunity to watch what people actually do rather than relying on reports of what they say they do. –This approach can avoid much of the biasing factors caused by the interviewer and question structure associated with the survey approach.
Communication with respondent is not necessary Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias No need to rely on respondents memory Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained Certain data may be obtained more quickly Environmental conditions may be recorded May be combined with other methods to provide supplemental evidence
Disadvantages –Only behavior and physical personal characteristics can usually be examined. The researcher does not learn about motives, attitudes, intentions, or feelings. –Observation research can be time consuming and costly if the observed behavior occurs rather infrequently. –Interpretation of data may be a problem –Possible invasion of privacy
Who sees what where…
Humans observing Humans Mystery Shoppers –People employed to pose as consumers and shop at the employer’s competitors to compare prices, displays, and the like. One-Way Mirror Observations –The practice of watching unseen from behind a one-way mirror.
Shopper Patterns –Drawings that record the footsteps of a shopper through a store. Response latency –Recording the decision time necessary to make a choice between two alternatives. Test sites
Content Analysis –A technique used to study written material (advertising copy, newspapers, minutes) by breaking it into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules. Physical trace evidence –Study of visible signs of past event/occurrence. –garbology Humans observing Physical Objects
Physical Audit –The examination and verification of the sales of a product. –Pantry audits
Machine Observing People Electroencephalogram (EEG) –A machine that measures the rhythmic fluctuations in electrical potential of the brain and can be used to measure an individual’s emotional response to a stimulus. Eye tracking monitors –Record how subject reads or views phenomenon
Pupilometer –Observes and records changes in the diameter of subjects pupils which changes as a result of cognitive processing Psychogalvanometer –Measures Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)- involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin Voice pitch analysis –Measures emotional reactions through physiological changes in voice
Machine Observing Phenomenon Traffic counters –Machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway. People meter –A microwave computerized rating system that transmits demographic information overnight to measure national TV audiences.
Scanner based research –A system for gathering information from a single group of respondents by continuously monitoring the advertising, sales, promotion, and pricing they are exposed to and the things they buy.