CS Administration Next and final presentations Sign up now Team members who were unable to come to the first presentation should attend the second Office hours No office hours tomorrow, October 18.
CS Administration Tests There are 4 tests, each with 2 questions. The final grade will be based on the best 6 questions out of 8. Uncollected answer books are at 301 College Avenue. Average grades: Test 1 Q1Test 1 Q2Test 2 Q1Test 2 Q Last time that this course was taught, poor test results were a common reason for getting a poor overall grade for the course
CS Test 2 Question 2 The Pizza Ordering System allows the user of a web browser to order pizza for home delivery. To place an order, a shopper searches to find items to purchase, adds items one at a time to a shopping cart, and possibly searches again for more items. When all items have been chosen, the shopper provides a delivery address. If not planning to pay with cash, the shopper also provides credit card information. The system has an option for shoppers to register with the pizza shop. They can then save their name and address information, so that they do not have to enter this information every time that they place an order.
CS Test 2 Question 2 (i) Develop a use case diagram, for a use case for placing an order, PlaceOrder. The use case should show a relationship to two previously specified use cases, IdentifyCustomer, which allows a user to register and log in, and PaybyCredit, which models credit card payments. Definition from Lecture 9: A use case is a a task that an actor needs to perform with the help of the system.
CS Test 2 Question 2 (i) Authenticate TakeExam > CheckGradesExamTaker Example from Lecture 9:
CS Test 2 Question 2 (i) FAQ about Use Cases See: mu.edu/course/ /umlucdfaq.html
CS Test 2 Question 2 (i) Example from Wikipedia:
CS Test 2 Question 2 (i) Shopper PlaceOrder > IdentifyCustomer PaybyCredit > Correct solution Optional link
CS System Design: Data Intensive Systems Examples Electricity utility customer billing (e.g., NYSEG) Telephone call recording and billing (e.g., Verizon) Car rental reservations (e.g., Hertz) Stock market brokerage (e.g., Charles Schwab) E-commerce (e.g., Amazon.com) University grade registration (e.g., Cornell)
CS Example: Electricity Utility Billing Requirements analysis identifies several transaction types: Create account / close account Meter reading Payment received Other credits / debits Check cleared / check bounced Account query Correction of error etc., etc., etc., Architectural Style: Master File Update
CS Electricity Utility Billing First attempt: Data input Master file Transaction Bill Each transaction is handled as it arrives.
CS Criticisms of First Attempt Where is this first attempt weak? All activities are triggered by a transaction A bill is sent out for each transaction, even if there are several per day Bills are not sent out on a monthly cycle Awkward to answer customer queries No process for error checking and correction
CS Electricity Utility Billing Batch Processing: Edit and Validation Data input Master file Edit & validation read only errors Batches of validated transactions Batches of incoming transactions
CS Electricity Utility Billing Batch Processing: Master File Update Master file update Bills Validated transactions in batches Sort by account errors Reports Batches of input data Checkpoints and audit trail
CS Electricity Utility Billing Benefits of Batch Updating All transactions for an account are processed together at appropriate intervals Backup and recovery have fixed checkpoints Better management control of operations Efficient use of staff and hardware Error detection and correction is simplified
CS Architectural Style: Master File Update (basic) Master file update Data input and validation Mailing and reports Example: billing system for electric utility Advantages: Efficient way to process batches of transactions. Disadvantages: Information in master file is not updated immediately. No good way to answer customer inquiries. Sort
CS Online Inquiry: Use Case CustomerRep AnswerCustomer NewTransaction > A customer calls the utility and speaks to a customer service representative. The representative can read the master file, but not make changes to it. If the representative wishes to change information in the master file, a new transaction is created as input to the master file update system.
CS Online Inquiry Master file read only Customer Service Representative Customer Service department can read the master file, make annotations, and create transactions, but cannot change the master file. New transaction
CS Architectural Style: Master File Update (full) Example: billing system for electric utility Advantages: Efficient way to answer customer inquiries. Disadvantages: Information in master file is not updated immediately. Customer services Master file update Data input and validation Mailing and reports Sort
CS Data Intensive Systems with Real Time Transactions Transactions Received by mail or over telephone For immediate or later action Complex customer inquiries Highly competitive market Example: A Small-town Stockbroker
CS Real-time Transactions & Batch Processing Customer & account database Real-time transactions Data input This is a combination of the Repository style and the Master File Update style
CS Extending the Repository Architectural Style: A Small-town Stockbroker Databases Customer and account database Financial products (e.g., account types, pension plans, savings schemes) Links to external databases (e.g., stock markets, mutual funds, insurance companies)
CS Practical considerations to include in Architecture and Specification Can real-time service during scheduled hours be combined with batch processing overnight? How will the system guarantee database consistency after any type of failure? reload from checkpoint + log detailed audit trail How will transaction errors be avoided and identified? How will transaction errors be corrected? How will staff dishonesty be controlled? These practical considerations may be major factors in the choice of architecture.
CS System Design: Non-Functional Requirements In some types of system architecture, non-functional requirements of the system may dictate the software design and development process.
CS Non-functional requirements: Continuous Operation Many systems must operate continuously Software update while operating Hardware monitoring and repair Alternative power supplies, networks, etc. Remote operation These functions must be designed into the fundamental architecture.
CS Time-Critical Systems A time-critical (real time) system is a software system whose correct functioning depends upon the results produced and the time at which they are produced. A soft real time system is degraded if the results are not produced within required time constraints e.g., a network router is permitted to time out or lose a packet A hard real time system fails if the results are not produced within required time constraints e.g., a fly-by-wire control system for an airplane, must respond within specified time limits.
CS Time Critical System: Architectural Style - Daemon Daemon Example: Web server The daemon listens at port 80 When a message arrives it: spawns a processes to handle the message returns to listening at port 80 Spawned process A daemon is used when messages might arrive at closer intervals than the the time to process them.
CS Software Considerations: Testing Example: Testing multi-threaded and parallel systems Several similar threads operating concurrently: Re-entrant code -- separation of pure code from data for each thread May be real-time (e.g., telephone switch) or non-time critical The difficult of testing real-time, multi-threaded systems may determine the entire software architecture. Division into components, each with its own acceptance test.
CS Software Considerations: Time-Critical System Developers of advanced time-critical software spend much of their effort developing the software environment: Monitoring and testing -- debuggers Crash restart -- component and system-wide Downloading and updating Hardware troubleshooting and reconfiguration etc., etc., etc.