List of Vocabulary A Add substances together : /ˈsʌbstəns/a particular type of liquid, solid, or gasaparticulartypeofliquidsolidorgas Mixture: /ˈmɪkstʃə(r)/a combination of two or more differe nt things,people, qualities etcacombinationoftwoormorediffere ntthingspeoplequalitiesetc Taco: /ˈtækəʊ/a Mexican food consisting of a flat piece of pastry that is folded around meat, beans etc an d cooked until it is hardaMexicanfoodconsistingofaflatpiece ofpastrythatisfoldedaroundmeatbeansetcan dcookeduntilitishard Contain:/kənˈteɪn/if an area contains something, you will find that thing thereifanareacontainssomething youwillfindthatthingthere
List of Vocabulary B Stir: to move food around in a dish or pan using a s poon or other object/stɜː(r)/ tomovefoodaroundinadishorpanusingas poonorotherobject Dissolved: if a solid substance dissolves in a liq uid, it ismixed into the liquid so that it become s included in it /dɪˈzɒlv/ifasolidsubstancedissolvesinaliq uiditismixedintotheliquidsothatitbecome sincludedinit Evenly:so that all parts of a surface are covere d with the same amount of something/ˈiːv(ə)n li/sothatallpartsofasurfacearecovere dwiththesameamountofsomething
List of Vocabulary C Properties:/ˈprɒpə(r)ti/things, especially valua ble things, that areowned by someonethingsespeciallyvalua blethingsthatareownedbysomeone Undone:completely defeated or destroyedcompletelydefeatedordestroyed Lettuce:a vegetable with large thin green leav es that you eat raw in asalad/ˈletɪs/ avegetablewithlargethingreenleav esthatyoueatrawinasalad Pour:to make a liquid or substance flow out of a container that you are holding/pɔː(r)/tomakealiquidorsubstanceflowoutof acontainerthatyouareholding
List of Vocabulary D Solution:a way to solve a problem or to deal w ith a bad situation/səˈluːʃ(ə)n/awaytosolveaproblemortodealw ithabadsituation Grains of sugar:a very small individual piece of a substa nce such as sand, salt, or sugar/ɡreɪn/averysmallindividualpieceofasubsta ncesuchassandsaltorsugar Evaporate:if liquid evaporates or is evaporated, it changes into gas or steam/ɪˈvæpəreɪt/ifliquidevaporatesorisevaporateditchangesintogasorsteam Steam:the hot wet substance like a thin cloud that is produced when water is heated/stiːm/thehotwetsubstancelikeathincloud thatisproducedwhenwaterisheated
Ask your partner! Do you know how to cook? What is your favorite dish? Do you know how to cook your favorite dish? What are it’s substances and ingredients? Do you know how to mix them? Which one you put first? Can you teach it to a friend?
How to Make Salad? 1. Get a bowl, and a head of lettuce 2. Add some veggies that you like 3. Go even further with some meat 4. Mix all of your ingredients into the bowl and stir together 5. Serve
How to make Lemonade? 1. Cut up lemons, and squeeze until juice is gone 2. Make sugar-water by boiling water with an equal amount of sugar. 3. Figure that for every four cups of water (950 mL), the juice from two whole lemons should be added. 4. Add ice cubes, pour into a glass, and enjoy!
How to make soup? 1. Rinse chicken thoroughly ( ) 2. Trim off excess fat ( ) 3. Cut chicken into quarters and place in a large stock pot ( ) 4. Add the water (or broth) and 2 teaspoons salt and bay leaf ( ) 5. Cover the pot and bring to boil ( ) 6. Uncover and skim off the top froth ( ) 7. Allow to simmer 2 1/4 hours ( )simmer 8. Add the onions, celery, and carrots and parsley. ( )celerycarrots 9. Allow to simmer 45 minutes. ( ) 10. Place cooked noodles or rice in bowl and pour soup over it. ( )noodlesrice 11. Serve! Enjoy yourself! ( )
How to make Soup?- Answer 1. Rinse chicken thoroughly (10) 2. Trim off excess fat ( 11) 3. Cut chicken into quarters and place in a large stock pot ( 7) 4. Add the water (or broth) and 2 teaspoons salt and bay leaf ( 1) 5. Cover the pot and bring to boil (6) 6. Uncover and skim off the top froth ( 4) 7. Allow to simmer 2 1/4 hours ( 9)simmer 8. Add the onions, celery, and carrots and parsley. (8)celerycarrots 9. Allow to simmer 45 minutes. (5) 10. Place cooked noodles or rice in bowl and pour soup over it. ( 3)noodlesrice 11. Serve! Enjoy yourself! (2)
Combining Substances When you add substances together, you get a mixture. You eat and drink mixtures everyday. A taco is a mixture of meat, beans, and cheese. A salad is a mixture of vegetables. Chocolate milk is a mixture of chocolate and milk. Oceans are also mixtures. They contain water, salt, and bits of sand. Rocks are usually mixtures of minerals. Air is a mixture of gases. No new substances are created in a mixture. The substances in a mixture keep their own properties. This means that mixtures can be undone.
Think of a salad. You can see different substances. There are tomatoes, carrots, and lettuce. Tomatoes still have the properties of tomatoes. Carrots still have the properties of carrots. Salt water is a different kind of mixture. It is not as easy to tell its substances apart. Pour salt into a glass of water. You can’t see the salt anymore. The salt dissolved in the water. This means that the salt mixed evenly in the water. Salt water is a solution. A solution is a mixture in which one substance mixes easily into another substance.
Lemonade is another solution. Sugar dissolves in water and lemonade juice. The sugar is mixed evenly in the water and lemon juice. You cannot see grains of sugar. It’s not as easy to separate the substances in a solution. Still, it can always be done. How could you separate the salt in the saltwater solution? Leave a solution water and salt in a sunny place. The sun’s heat will make the water evaporate. Only salt will be left in the cup. You also could boil the solution. The water would escape as steam. The salt would remain. Heat changes the water from a liquid to a gass, changing the state of one substance is a common way to separate a solution.
Comprehension Write the letter of the best answer. 2. Any combination of two or more substances is a …………….. a. food b. liquid c. mixture 3. An ocean is ………….. a. a substance b. a mixture c. two substances
4. You can always separate a mixture because ………………….. a. the substances keep their own properties b. mixtures are always solid c. the new substance is easy to see 5. The substances in a solution……………….. a. don’t mix easily b. mix together evenly c. can’t be separated
6. What is one way to separate a solution? a. solutions cannot be separated b. stir the solution c. heat the solution
You can often tell the meaning of a word by reading the words around it. Look at each number in parenthesis. Find the paragraph in the reading with the same number. Then find the word that fits the given meaning, write the word. 7. a mixture of vegetables (1) 8. taken apart (3) 9. features that describe something (3) 10. same all the way through (6) 11. small pieces of sugar (7) 12. dry up (9)
Antonym Pups are little dogs, not big ones. Words with opposite meanings are antonyms. Little is an antonym of big. Read each sentence, and write the word that means the opposite of the word in bold type. 13. It is easy to make mixtures. Simple/difficult 14. You combine peanut butter and jelly to make a sandwich. Blend/separate 15. Substances are blended in a solution. Mixed/separated 16. Water is a common substance. Rare/usual
Think about it Suppose you are investigating ways to separate mixtures. You have these four mixtures: 1. Water and sand 2. Water and sugar 3. Sand and iron filings 4. Sugar and flour 17. Which mixture could be most easily separated with a sieve? 18. Which mixture could be most easily separated with a magnet? 18. 1 19. 2 20. 3 21. 4
Write about your favorite dish! Is it Spaghetti? Pizza? Iranian dish? How do you make it? What are it’s ingredients?