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In lipids the number of H atoms is more than the number of O atoms. This is the reason why lipids give more energy. They are made up of C, H and O atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "In lipids the number of H atoms is more than the number of O atoms. This is the reason why lipids give more energy. They are made up of C, H and O atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 In lipids the number of H atoms is more than the number of O atoms. This is the reason why lipids give more energy. They are made up of C, H and O atoms. LIPIDS Lipids are found in all cells. They are insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar organic solvents such as ether, chloroform, benzene. Sometimes P and N atoms can join the lipid structure.

2 LIPIDS STEROIDSPHOSPHOLIPIDSGLYCOLIPIDSNEUTRAL LIPIDS (Triglyceride) The structural units of lipids are glycerol and fatty acids. The type and function of the lipid molecule differs due to the type of fatty acid.

3 Glycerol + 3 fatty acidsTriglyceride + 3 H 2 O 3ATP GLYCEROLGLYCEROL O O O H HO fatty acids 3 ATP enzyme GLYCEROLGLYCEROL __ O__ fatty acids +3H 2 O ester enzyme A) Triglycerides (Neutral Lipids)

4 GLYCEROL: is an alcohol that has three –OH (hydroxide groups) FATTY ACIDS: are long chains of H and C atoms. At the end of the chain, there is carboxyl (- COOH) group. A) Triglycerides (Neutral Lipids)

5 FATTY ACIDS Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated Fatty Acids  solid at room temperature  only single C-C bonds occur  ex: butter, lard  liquid at room temperature  one or more double bonds between C atoms  ex: olive oil, peanut oil, corn oil,sunflower oil

6 B) Phospholipids  Found in the cell membrane structure  The third fatty acid of fat molecule is replaced by phosphate group. They have hydrophilic (loves-water) and hydrophobic (hates water) Hydrophilic (polar because of PO 4 -3 ) Hydrophobic (non-polar)

7 B) Phospholipids

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9 B) Glycolipids  Found in the cell membrane structure of neurons  The third fatty acid of fat molecule is replaced by a glucose or galactose molecule.

10 B) Steroids  They are important in membrane structure and in metabolism.  They all have the same backbone made up of carbon rings.  They are lipids without fatty acids.

11 IMPORTANCE OF LIPIDS  Lipids are great energy sources. They store twice the energy of carbohydrates because they have more H atoms in their structure.  Lipids are used as structural units of cell structure.  Lipids are stored in animal body, under the skin and around the organs. This helps protect the body from mechanical effects and is a long-term energy storage. Also this helps in heat isolation.

12  Lipids are solvent for A, D, E and K vitamins, so these vitamins can be stored in the body.  Because they include more H atoms than carbohydrates, they result in production of more water molecules when used in aerobic respiration. This provides animals living in dry environments with water. IMPORTANCE OF LIPIDS

13  It is thought that fats (saturated fatty acids) increase the level of cholesterol in the blood. High blood cholesterol levels may be linked to atherosclerosis and other heart diseases. IMPORTANCE OF LIPIDS


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