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Dietary Strategies To Improve Triathlon Training and Performance Bobbi Barbarich RD MSc Candidate Professional Nutrition Services

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Presentation on theme: "Dietary Strategies To Improve Triathlon Training and Performance Bobbi Barbarich RD MSc Candidate Professional Nutrition Services"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dietary Strategies To Improve Triathlon Training and Performance Bobbi Barbarich RD MSc Candidate Professional Nutrition Services 451-5843/

2 NUTRITION IS IMPORTANT When athletes of equal skill & training meet in competition, nutrition can make the difference between winning and losing.

3 NUTRITIONAL FACTORS LIMITING ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE  Muscle & Liver Glycogen Depletion  Availability of Carbohydrates During Exercise  Dehydration  Gastrointestinal Problems

4 NUTRITIONAL GOALS Meet Nutritional Needs For Long-Term Health  Vitamins  Minerals  Special Nutrients  Fibre  Types of Fat

5 NUTRITIONAL GOALS Provide Appropriate Nutrition that Supports Consistent, Intensive Training.  Fluid & Electrolyte Replacement  Carbohydrate Replacement  Adequate Protein  Adequate Energy  Appropriate Fueling During Exercise  Timing of Intakes for Recovery Between Sessions

6 NUTRITIONAL GOALS Develop Race-Day Nutritional Strategies Know your targets……more is not necessarily better. Experimentation & practice during training. Have a plan but be flexible. Have alternatives and expect problems.

7 FUEL USE DURING EXERCISE  Intensity of Exercise  Duration of Exercise  Diet  Training State  Environmental Temperature

8 Effect of Diet on Muscle Glycogen

9 CARBOHYDRATE: THE MASTER FUEL  The Grains and Fruits & Vegetables Food Groups  Simple & Complex  Glycemic Index  Fibre: Insoluble & Soluble

10 PROTEIN BALANCE  Meats and Alternatives Food Group  Dairy Products Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids

11 PROTEIN TURNOVER Amino Acid Pool Dietary Proteins High Priority Body Proteins Muscle Tissue Oxidation (Energy) Sweat, Urine, Feces

12 Endurance-Training Protein Needs Can Easily Be Met 80 Kg x 1.4 grams/Kg = 112 grams protein Grams of Protein 2 cups oatmeal12 2 cups milk16 1 boiled egg 7 2 slices toast with peanut butter11 1 cheeseburger35 2 granola bars 4 1 chicken breast47 3 cups pasta with tomato sauce14 1 cup vegetables 2 3 medium fruits 6 TOTAL 154 grams

13 PROTEIN Eat protein throughout the day. Protein supplements can be a convenient source of high quality protein but not necessary when an adequate diet is consumed. Most protein supplements contain a mix of egg or milk proteins: casein, whey. Whey and soy are the highest quality proteins currently available in supplements.

14 HIGH PROTEIN DIETS  Are fad diets and expensive to consume.  Inhibit the athlete’s ability to consume adequate carbohydrates.  Are not ergogenic.  Are dehydrating.  Result in losses of calcium in the urine.  Are unhealthy.


16 FAT IS ENERGY DENSE  9 Calories per gram  Added and Hidden Fats  Saturated, Trans and Unsaturated  Essential Fats: 1% of Total Energy

17 Reduce Fat For A High Carbohydrate Diet 375 Calories, 41% Fat, 54% Carbohydrates 355 Calories,13% Fat, 80% Carbohydrates

18 PRE-EXERCISE EATING GOALS Ensure adequate hydration Top up carbohydrate stores Prevent hunger during the event Practice During Training

19 PRE-EXERCISE EATING TIMING OF EATING  Full Meal 3 to 4 hours before  Snack 1 to 2 hours before  Immediately before?

20 PRE-EXERCISE EATING NUTRIENT COMPOSITION High in Carbohydrates and Fluid Moderate in Protein Low in Fat and Fibre

21 PRE-EXERCISE EATING Pre-Race Meals and Snacks Must Be Familiar to You

22 FLUID: THE FORGOTTEN NUTRIENT Hourly Sweat Losses During Exercise -5 degrees Celsius0.6 - 1.4 litres +10 degrees Celsius1.2 - 1.5 litres +20 degrees Celsius1.6 - 2.5 litres +30 degrees Celsius2.0 - 2.8 litres


24 Effects of Dehydration 2%Impaired work capacity & temperature control 3%Increased pulse rate & core temperature 6%Increased respiratory rate, lower blood volume 9%Heat exhaustion, heat stroke

25 Dehydration 175 lb. (80 kg) Athlete 2% 3.5 lbs (1.6 kg) 3% 5.3 lbs (2.4 kg) 6%10.5 lbs (4.8 kg) 9%15.8 lbs (7.2 kg)

26 Symptoms of Dehydration  Rapid weight loss  Infrequent urination  Dark, small volume urine  Fatigue  Gastrointestinal Upset

27 SWEAT LOSSES SODIUM 1 litre sweat = 0.5 to 1.1 grams sodium Average dietary sodium = +5 grams Depletion is of concern with ultra endurance events

28 SODIUM CONTENT OF HYDRATION BEVERAGES 500 to 700 mg/litre is Recommended  Water is retained better when it is consumed with sodium.  Carbohydrate & sodium are linked with water absorption.

29 FUELING DURING EXERCISE HOURLY TARGETS Carbohydrates: 50 to 70 grams Fluid: 1000 ml Sodium: 800 to 1000 mg

30 FUELING DURING EXERCISE GOALS 1. Rapid Stomach Emptying. 2. Provide Quickly Absorbable Nutrients. 3. Provide Appropriate Nutrients.

31 STOMACH EMPTYING RATE VOLUME  The larger the volume, the faster it leaves the stomach.  Average volume emptied is 800 to 1000 ml per hour.

32 STOMACH EMPTYING RATE ENERGY DENSITY OF FLUID The more concentrated the beverage, the longer it stays in the stomach: Fastest emptying with 4 to 8% carbohydrate/electrolyte beverages.

33 STOMACH EMPTYING RATE NUTRIENT CONTENT  Fluids Faster than Solids  Carbohydrates  Protein  Fat

34 STOMACH EMPTYING RATE EXERCISE INTENSITY  Higher exercise intensities tend to reduce gastrointestinal motility.  Mode of exercise can also influence gastrointestinal function.

35 STOMACH EMPYTING RATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS  The higher the environmental temperature, the slower the emptying rate.  The more dehydrated you are, the slower the gastrointestinal function.

36 STOMACH EMPTYING RATE FLUID TEMPERATURE  Ideal fluid temperature is 5 to 10 degrees Celsius.  Colder beverages tend to be more palatable.

37 Hydration Schedule 2 Hours Before Exercise: 500 ml Every 15 Minutes During Exercise: 150 - 300 ml After Exercise: 750 ml per lb. weight loss

38 What to Drink Water 4 - 8% Carbohydrate/Electrolyte Drink Diluted Fruit Juices

39 DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE UTILIZATION  Depends on type of carbohydrate.  Depends on the absorption rate.  Can vary when different types are combined due to different absorption sites and rates.  There is a maximum exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate: 1.0 to 1.1 grams per minute = 60 grams per hour.

40 CARBOHYDRATES WITH THE FASTEST UTILIZATION 1. Glucose (principle sugar used by the body: dextrose) 2. Sucrose (glucose and fructose) 3. Maltose (glucose and glucose) 4. Maltodextrins (hydrolyzed starch: mixture of different length chains of glucose) 5. Dextrins (5 to 10 glucose molecules) 6. Amylopectins (branch-chained glucose)

41 CARBOHYDRATES UTILIZIED 25 to 50% SLOWER 1. Fructose (monosaccaride) 2. Galactose (50% slower than Glucose) 3. Amylose (straight chain glucose)

42 RECOVERY NUTRITION Hydration Replenish glycogen stores Provide building blocks for muscle repair and growth

43 RECOVERY NUTRITION  Liquid absorbed most quickly  Mixture of carbs and protein (4:1)  Within 30 minutes  Within 2 hours

44 Training Diet High Carbohydrate Limit Fat Adequate Protein Plenty of Fluids Food Variety and Quality

45 Training Diet No. Servings Food Group 8 to 15 + Grains 8 to 15 + Vegetables & Fruits 3 to 6Milk Products 2 to 4Meat & Alternates LimitOther Foods Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid

46 Thank You Bobbi Barbarich RD MSc Cand Professional Nutrition Services

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