Presentation on theme: "Dietary Strategies To Improve Triathlon Training and Performance"— Presentation transcript:
1Dietary Strategies To Improve Triathlon Training and Performance Bobbi Barbarich RD MSc CandidateProfessional Nutrition Services
2NUTRITION IS IMPORTANT When athletes of equal skill & trainingmeet in competition, nutrition can makethe difference between winning and losing.
3NUTRITIONAL FACTORS LIMITING ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE Muscle & Liver Glycogen DepletionAvailability of Carbohydrates During ExerciseDehydrationGastrointestinal Problems
4Meet Nutritional Needs For Long-Term Health NUTRITIONAL GOALSMeet Nutritional Needs For Long-Term HealthVitaminsMineralsSpecial NutrientsFibreTypes of Fat
5NUTRITIONAL GOALS Provide Appropriate Nutrition that Supports Consistent, Intensive Training.Fluid & Electrolyte ReplacementCarbohydrate ReplacementAdequate ProteinAdequate EnergyAppropriate Fueling During ExerciseTiming of Intakes for Recovery Between SessionsPromote optimal return from training sessions by obtaining adequate and appropriate nutrition: fluid and electrolyte replacement, carbohydrate replacement, adequate protein, minerals, vitamins and ensure that the time of these intakes allows for recovery between training sessions and that allows for physiological adaptation to occur.
6Develop Race-Day Nutritional Strategies NUTRITIONAL GOALSDevelop Race-Day Nutritional StrategiesKnow your targets……more is not necessarily better.Experimentation & practice during training.Have a plan but be flexible.Have alternatives and expect problems.
7FUEL USE DURING EXERCISE Intensity of ExerciseDuration of ExerciseDietTraining StateEnvironmental TemperatureIntensity:Higher the intensity the greater the contribution from cho. Some cho is necessary for lower intensity exercise.Duration:The longer the exercise, usually the lower the exercise intensity thus fat makes a greater contribution. cho is still the limiting factor in endurance events.Diet:The higher the cho intake, the higher the glycogen stores in liver and muscle that are available for use.Training State:Increased aerobic capacity, which improves the mobilization of fat and sparing of limited stores of cho. Increased mitochondria, increase intramuscular fat storage, increased aerobic enzymes and an increased ability to store glycogen.Environment:Carbs are used at a higher rate in hot conditions due to increased muscule temperature and reduced muscle blood flow.
9CARBOHYDRATE: THE MASTER FUEL The Grains and Fruits & Vegetables Food GroupsSimple & ComplexGlycemic IndexFibre: Insoluble & Soluble
10Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids PROTEIN BALANCEMeats and Alternatives Food GroupDairy ProductsEssential and Non-essential Amino Acidsfunctions:structural components of the body: muscles, tendons, skin, hair, nailsfound in blood: hemoglobin carrying oxygenenzymes that control chemical processes: digestion, energy metabolismantibodies
11PROTEIN TURNOVER Dietary Proteins Oxidation (Energy) Amino Acid Pool Sweat,Urine, FecesHigh Priority Body ProteinsMuscle Tissue
12Endurance-Training Protein Needs Can Easily Be Met 80 Kg x 1.4 grams/Kg = 112 grams proteinGrams of Protein2 cups oatmeal 122 cups milk 161 boiled egg 72 slices toast with peanut butter 111 cheeseburger 352 granola bars1 chicken breast 473 cups pasta with tomato sauce 141 cup vegetables 23 medium fruitsTOTAL gramsThis provides about 2500 kcal or only 32 kcal/kg.This provides 285 grams carb or 3.6 g/kg44 kcal/kg maintenance52-60 kcal/kg building33-38 kcal/kg taper33 kcal/kg cutting
13PROTEIN Eat protein throughout the day. Protein supplements can be a convenient source of high quality protein but not necessary when an adequate diet is consumed.Most protein supplements contain a mix of egg or milk proteins: casein, whey.Whey and soy are the highest quality proteins currently available in supplements.
14HIGH PROTEIN DIETS Are fad diets and expensive to consume. Inhibit the athlete’s ability to consume adequate carbohydrates.Are not ergogenic.Are dehydrating.Result in losses of calcium in the urine.Are unhealthy.
16FAT IS ENERGY DENSE 9 Calories per gram Added and Hidden Fats Saturated, Trans and UnsaturatedEssential Fats: 1% of Total EnergyFunctionscarriers of fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,Kprotection of vital organsenergyShort-term high fat, low carb diet increase the availability of lipid substrates but reduce the storage of glycogen. As a result, although fat oxidation may be increased during exercise, fatigue resistance and exercise performance are decreased.Longer term high fat diets result in low glycogen store but resulted in longer time to exhaustion at low exercise intensites. This happens because, we think, the oxidative enzymes associated with fat oxidation are enhanced with a high fat diet. Need more research.
17Reduce Fat For A High Carbohydrate Diet 375 Calories, 41% Fat, 54% Carbohydrates355 Calories,13% Fat, 80% Carbohydrates
18Practice During Training PRE-EXERCISE EATINGGOALSEnsure adequate hydrationTop up carbohydrate storesPrevent hunger during the eventPractice During Training
19PRE-EXERCISE EATING TIMING OF EATING Full Meal 3 to 4 hours before Snack 1 to 2 hours beforeImmediately before?
20PRE-EXERCISE EATING NUTRIENT COMPOSITION High in Carbohydrates and FluidModerate in ProteinLow in Fat and Fibre
21PRE-EXERCISE EATING Pre-Race Meals and Snacks Must Be Familiar to You
31STOMACH EMPTYING RATE VOLUME The larger the volume, the faster it leaves the stomach.Average volume emptied is 800 to 1000 ml per hour.
32ENERGY DENSITY OF FLUID STOMACH EMPTYING RATEENERGY DENSITY OF FLUIDThe more concentrated the beverage, the longer it stays in the stomach: Fastest emptying with 4 to 8% carbohydrate/electrolyte beverages.
33STOMACH EMPTYING RATE NUTRIENT CONTENT Fluids Faster than Solids CarbohydratesProteinFat
34STOMACH EMPTYING RATE EXERCISE INTENSITY Higher exercise intensities tend to reduce gastrointestinal motility.Mode of exercise can also influence gastrointestinal function.
35STOMACH EMPYTING RATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS The higher the environmental temperature, the slower the emptying rate.The more dehydrated you are, the slower the gastrointestinal function.
36STOMACH EMPTYING RATE FLUID TEMPERATURE Ideal fluid temperature is 5 to 10 degrees Celsius.Colder beverages tend to be more palatable.
37Hydration Schedule 2 Hours Before Exercise: 500 ml Every 15 Minutes During Exercise:mlAfter Exercise:750 ml per lb. weight lossIngesting fluids during exercise attenuates the increases in heart rate and body temperature that are observed during prolonged exercise. This seems to be due, in part, to the maintenance of a higher blood volume and lower plasma osmolalityh during exercise, thereby facilitating skin blood flow and heat dissipation.
384 - 8% Carbohydrate/Electrolyte Drink What to DrinkWater4 - 8% Carbohydrate/Electrolyte DrinkDiluted Fruit Juices
39DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE UTILIZATION Depends on type of carbohydrate.Depends on the absorption rate.Can vary when different types are combined due to different absorption sites and rates.There is a maximum exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate: 1.0 to 1.1 grams per minute = 60 grams per hour.
40CARBOHYDRATES WITH THE FASTEST UTILIZATION Glucose (principle sugar used by the body: dextrose)Sucrose (glucose and fructose)Maltose (glucose and glucose)Maltodextrins (hydrolyzed starch: mixture of different length chains of glucose)Dextrins (5 to 10 glucose molecules)Amylopectins (branch-chained glucose)
41CARBOHYDRATES UTILIZIED 25 to 50% SLOWER Fructose (monosaccaride)Galactose (50% slower than Glucose)Amylose (straight chain glucose)
42RECOVERY NUTRITION Hydration Replenish glycogen stores Provide building blocks for muscle repair and growth
43RECOVERY NUTRITION Liquid absorbed most quickly Mixture of carbs and protein (4:1)Within 30 minutesWithin 2 hours
44Food Variety and Quality Training DietHigh CarbohydrateLimit FatAdequate ProteinPlenty of FluidsFood Variety and Quality
45Training DietNo. Servings Food Group8 to Grains8 to Vegetables & Fruits3 to 6 Milk Products2 to 4 Meat & AlternatesLimit Other FoodsFluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid, Fluid