NUTRITIONAL GOALS Meet Nutritional Needs For Long-Term Health Vitamins Minerals Special Nutrients Fibre Types of Fat
NUTRITIONAL GOALS Provide Appropriate Nutrition that Supports Consistent, Intensive Training. Fluid & Electrolyte Replacement Carbohydrate Replacement Adequate Protein Adequate Energy Appropriate Fueling During Exercise Timing of Intakes for Recovery Between Sessions
NUTRITIONAL GOALS Develop Race-Day Nutritional Strategies Know your targets……more is not necessarily better. Experimentation & practice during training. Have a plan but be flexible. Have alternatives and expect problems.
FUEL USE DURING EXERCISE Intensity of Exercise Duration of Exercise Diet Training State Environmental Temperature
Effect of Diet on Muscle Glycogen
CARBOHYDRATE: THE MASTER FUEL The Grains and Fruits & Vegetables Food Groups Simple & Complex Glycemic Index Fibre: Insoluble & Soluble
PROTEIN BALANCE Meats and Alternatives Food Group Dairy Products Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids
PROTEIN TURNOVER Amino Acid Pool Dietary Proteins High Priority Body Proteins Muscle Tissue Oxidation (Energy) Sweat, Urine, Feces
Endurance-Training Protein Needs Can Easily Be Met 80 Kg x 1.4 grams/Kg = 112 grams protein Grams of Protein 2 cups oatmeal12 2 cups milk16 1 boiled egg 7 2 slices toast with peanut butter11 1 cheeseburger35 2 granola bars 4 1 chicken breast47 3 cups pasta with tomato sauce14 1 cup vegetables 2 3 medium fruits 6 TOTAL 154 grams
PROTEIN Eat protein throughout the day. Protein supplements can be a convenient source of high quality protein but not necessary when an adequate diet is consumed. Most protein supplements contain a mix of egg or milk proteins: casein, whey. Whey and soy are the highest quality proteins currently available in supplements.
HIGH PROTEIN DIETS Are fad diets and expensive to consume. Inhibit the athlete’s ability to consume adequate carbohydrates. Are not ergogenic. Are dehydrating. Result in losses of calcium in the urine. Are unhealthy.
FAT IS ENERGY DENSE 9 Calories per gram Added and Hidden Fats Saturated, Trans and Unsaturated Essential Fats: 1% of Total Energy
Reduce Fat For A High Carbohydrate Diet 375 Calories, 41% Fat, 54% Carbohydrates 355 Calories,13% Fat, 80% Carbohydrates
PRE-EXERCISE EATING GOALS Ensure adequate hydration Top up carbohydrate stores Prevent hunger during the event Practice During Training
PRE-EXERCISE EATING TIMING OF EATING Full Meal 3 to 4 hours before Snack 1 to 2 hours before Immediately before?
PRE-EXERCISE EATING NUTRIENT COMPOSITION High in Carbohydrates and Fluid Moderate in Protein Low in Fat and Fibre
PRE-EXERCISE EATING Pre-Race Meals and Snacks Must Be Familiar to You
FLUID IS THE FORGOTTEN NUTRIENT 60% of Body Weight is Water 1 LITRE OF SWEAT = 1 KILOGRAM OF BODY WEIGHT
Effects of Dehydration 2%Impaired work capacity & temperature control 3%Increased pulse rate & core temperature 6%Increased respiratory rate, lower blood volume 9%Heat exhaustion, heat stroke
Dehydration 175 lb. (80 kg) Athlete 2% 3.5 lbs (1.6 kg) 3% 5.3 lbs (2.4 kg) 6%10.5 lbs (4.8 kg) 9%15.8 lbs (7.2 kg)
Symptoms of Dehydration Rapid weight loss Infrequent urination Dark, small volume urine Fatigue Gastrointestinal Upset
SWEAT LOSSES SODIUM 1 litre sweat = 0.5 to 1.1 grams sodium Average dietary sodium = +5 grams Depletion is of concern with ultra endurance events
SODIUM CONTENT OF HYDRATION BEVERAGES 500 to 700 mg/litre is Recommended Water is retained better when it is consumed with sodium. Carbohydrate & sodium are linked with water absorption.
FUELING DURING EXERCISE HOURLY TARGETS Carbohydrates: 50 to 70 grams Fluid: 1000 ml Sodium: 800 to 1000 mg
FUELING DURING EXERCISE GOALS 1. Rapid Stomach Emptying. 2. Provide Quickly Absorbable Nutrients. 3. Provide Appropriate Nutrients.
STOMACH EMPTYING RATE VOLUME The larger the volume, the faster it leaves the stomach. Average volume emptied is 800 to 1000 ml per hour.
STOMACH EMPTYING RATE ENERGY DENSITY OF FLUID The more concentrated the beverage, the longer it stays in the stomach: Fastest emptying with 4 to 8% carbohydrate/electrolyte beverages.
STOMACH EMPTYING RATE NUTRIENT CONTENT Fluids Faster than Solids Carbohydrates Protein Fat
STOMACH EMPTYING RATE EXERCISE INTENSITY Higher exercise intensities tend to reduce gastrointestinal motility. Mode of exercise can also influence gastrointestinal function.
STOMACH EMPYTING RATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS The higher the environmental temperature, the slower the emptying rate. The more dehydrated you are, the slower the gastrointestinal function.
STOMACH EMPTYING RATE FLUID TEMPERATURE Ideal fluid temperature is 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Colder beverages tend to be more palatable.
Hydration Schedule 2 Hours Before Exercise: 500 ml Every 15 Minutes During Exercise: ml After Exercise: 750 ml per lb. weight loss
What to Drink Water 4 - 8% Carbohydrate/Electrolyte Drink Diluted Fruit Juices
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE UTILIZATION Depends on type of carbohydrate. Depends on the absorption rate. Can vary when different types are combined due to different absorption sites and rates. There is a maximum exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate: 1.0 to 1.1 grams per minute = 60 grams per hour.
CARBOHYDRATES WITH THE FASTEST UTILIZATION 1. Glucose (principle sugar used by the body: dextrose) 2. Sucrose (glucose and fructose) 3. Maltose (glucose and glucose) 4. Maltodextrins (hydrolyzed starch: mixture of different length chains of glucose) 5. Dextrins (5 to 10 glucose molecules) 6. Amylopectins (branch-chained glucose)