How did we do? High…… –Low Some did well the first time… some are not there yet!
To complete the picture: dressed for success… and food safety! Proper attire for working in a food processing facility Respirator and hard hat for personal protection necessary when working in the grain handling facility
Part II Food Processing and Food Product Development – Carmen Moraru and Catalin Moraru –
The peanut butter process Identified issues: –Hygiene standards have improved considerably since last visit, but still need improvement –Quality problems with the peanut butter: Phase separation Oil leakages
The peanut butter process – in 2005 Location: dust in the yard Roasting Peanut grading Peanut butter processing
The peanut butter process Sharing of the processing space with the oil extraction was a serious contamination source for the peanut butter
The peanut butter process - 2007 Peanut cleaning Peanut processing
The peanut butter process - Solutions offered - –Further improvement of hygiene and safety standards: The workshop offered information and guidance for improving personal hygiene and safe processing practices. Key: –Proper hand washing –Proper personnel attire –Proper cleaning of equipment and utensils –Pest control Some relatively easy to make space design changes suggested; details included in the report
After training: everyone is wearing proper clothing From workers To the plant manager
Preventative safety checks - Pathogen testing of the peanut butter - Qualitative fast tests performed for Salmonella and E. coli Negative results for tests performed on May 25, 2007 No color change of the test strips
Experimental runs for quality improvement of peanut butter Degree of peanut crushing diminished coarser peanut butter expected to minimize oil separation Suggestions for the emulsification process made (i.e. use lower temperatures) Shelf life study under way to evaluate the effect of the modified process
Oil leakage problems Phase separation is the main cause for leakages –Reduced phase separation will also reduce the leakage problems Additionally: –Jar closure not very tight –Jars not tamper - proof Suggested solution: –Aluminum foil discs can be heat-sealed using a hot clothes iron on top of the jars. Simple and effective. –Issue: current lids will not allow any seal to be used, due to the ridge that protrudes into jar. The ridge is meant to provide a good closure, but not working well.
Rice processing De-hulling and polishing “Transportation”
Issues in rice processing –Large percentage of breakages as a result of polishing Economic losses Need for solutions for the utilization of broken rice, other than converting it into rice flour (which does not have much market potential) –Presence of husks in the “finished” rice Significant manual grading required Time consuming and costly
Evaluation of rice processing operations –The milling process was evaluated, both qualitatively and quantitatively –Issues: Large amounts of broken rice Whole kernels found in the broken rice Quantitative data included in the report –Identified cause: design flaws of the de-hulling and polishing equipment
Solutions offered 1. Improvement of rice milling operations –Reduction of breakages can be achieved by: Increasing the gap between the metal rotor and the metal ridge that caused kernel shearing Hypothesis tested and validated: less breakages obtained after increasing the gap by 0.5 mm Further optimization required –Cleaner rice could be obtained after a low-cost re-design of the ventilation system of the rice mill Equipment design changes suggested A drawing of the suggested change was incorporated in the report
Solutions offered 1. Improvement of rice milling operations – contd. –More drastic results could be obtained by reversing the utilization of the two stages of the rice mills: Use the current polishing stage (lower stage) for de-hulling. The lower stage abrasive drum will lead to better de-hulling than the upper rubber rollers Use the current de-hulling stage (upper stage) for polishing. The rubber rollers will not break the rice and will allow for proper kernel-to kernel friction required in polishing –This, combined with the improved ventilation, could reduce drastically the percentage of broken rice and will also lead to much cleaner rice –Preliminary testing gave very promising results. Quantitative data was included in the report. Upper stage Lower stage
Solutions offered 2. Processing of value added products –Obtaining puffed rice products by extrusion could be a solution –Challenge: current configuration of the extruder does not allow high temperature – high shear extrusion for puffing applications –Issues to be addressed in the future: Retrofit the extruder with proper barrel heating and proper dies, as well as temperature monitoring capabilities Technical issues related to adding a new product line: –Define and formulate exactly the product/products that will be manufactured (product development) –Packaging, storage, and distribution solutions identified before production starts –Significant extruder cleaning required between products if multiple products will be manufactured with the same extruder Economical questions: –Is there a market for such products? –Will such a significant undertaking pay off?
Solutions offered 3. Other suggestions for value added products –Easy to make snacks can be made with limited investment –Issue: will only use up small amounts of broken rice –Products developed during the workshop (suggestions): Rice balls (crispy shell, soft core) Crispy rice chips Cooked broken rice Rice “candy” made out of toasted broken rice and caramel
Soy processing –Soy milk production kicked-off during the workshop –Some flavored versions developed. Some could be very successful –Challenges: Minor equipment troubles Water quality Proper packaging Refrigeration and distribution channels required
Tofu making –Tofu made out of soy milk during workshop –Product liked by a small panel of local people (CTC employees) –Serving suggestions for incorporation in local diet provided
Soy processing by extrusion –Another possibility –Meat analogs (or soy bits) could be made if the extruder is retrofitted with either heating capabilities or steam injection –Special die required as well
Soy processing options available with current equipment –Soy milk (plain or flavored) and tofu –Byproducts: okara and “whey”, respectively. Solutions for byproduct utilization required as well –Prospects: good