Presentation on theme: "Genetic modification allows us to manipulate the characteristics of a plant by altering its genome."— Presentation transcript:
Genetic modification allows us to manipulate the characteristics of a plant by altering its genome.
Let’s go to school for a moment and learn more about Genetic Modification
Let us assume that there are four variants of wheat with different characteristics. A B C D
“A” variety grows extremely quickly A B C D
Let us assume that there are four variants of wheat with different characteristics. “B” variety is drought tolerant A B C D
Let us assume that there are four variants of wheat with different characteristics. “C” variety has a high plant height A B C D
Let us assume that there are four variants of wheat with different characteristics. “D” variety is rust resistant A B C D
A farmer wants all these four characteristics from the four seeds in one seed. A B C D ABCD
A B C D These seeds are planted into a paddock.
After a few weeks, the seeds grow, ready to flower. A B D C
Pollination occurs from A to B and from D to C. A B D C
AB CD We get the variety AB and CD.
ABCD After another season, we get ABCD.
This natural cross-breeding allows us to get crosses without investing in new technology. However, it can take a long time to achieve a perfect cross-breed and plants can get the bad characteristics as well.
It also restricts farmers from mixing genes from different organisms together, for example a banana and a fish. To overcome this problem, genetic engineering is used to provide farmers with plants with ideal characteristics.
Genetic engineering involves either modifying the existing DNA, or adding a gene to the DNA. This allows only the desired genes to be transferred. The possibilities are endless!
Say we want to change the DNA of a plant.
The DNA could have some bases replaced. bases
The DNA could have some bases added.
The DNA could have some bases removed.
The modified DNA is inserted into an Agrobacterium. inserted DNA nucleus
The Agrobacterium is then inserted into the plant.
This allows GM plants to have better features in less time. ABCD 1 st 2 nd
However, there is still some concern over GM crops.
Is it safe?
Let us look at a maize crop
One difficult task for maize farmers is to keep the pests away from the maize crop. Otherwise…
To reduce the amount of pesticide needed annually, a bacteria known as Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt, is inserted into the plant. “Natural” Peanut Plant “GM” Peanut Plant using Bt
Bt works like chocolate. Chocolate is lethal for dogs, but is consumable for humans. Similarly, Bt kills any pests that try to eat it, but presents no harmful effects to humans.
With the population rising and the amount of arable land being the same, farmers need to grow more using…
Genetic modification can increase the yield of a plant. This increases the efficiency of a farm.
The only way we can accomplish this mission is by working together, both rural and urban. If this balance is disturbed, then both rural and urban will fall.
The global goal of feeding the world is a responsibility of both the urban and rural. Agriculture does not just mean farmers. The agriculture industry relies on different occupations.
Genetic modification provides agriculture with the possibility of feeding the future with existing amount of land.
However, genetic modification has different views.
Some views are positive.
Some views are negative.
Genetic modification can cause serious problems in the nutritional value of the foods we eat. A mistake can affect millions of people instantaneously. One practice performed by GM companies is to use genetic use restriction technology (GURT). This makes the plant sterile. Sterile seeds cannot be used for making more seeds, so the farmer has to always buy seeds from the GM company for every season.
Society has the perception that GM is not natural and therefore “bad”. However, GM helps to speed up nature and allow preferred genes in a plant that would otherwise take many seasons in “natural” farming practices. Every advance in technology makes life easier for us in the long term. Genetic modification is not 100% safe, but if it is a solution to the global food crisis, it should be a field to look into.
Genetic modification allows plants Have higher crop yield Provide more nutritious food To adapt harsh environments Be resistant to pests Have longer shelf life To be a source for medicine