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Stoichiometry Chemistry Matter and Change Chapter 11

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C HAPTER 11 B IG I DEA Mass relationships in chemical reactions confirm the law of conservation of mass

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11.1 Defining Stoichiometry Chemistry Matter and Change

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11.1 M AIN I DEA The amount of each reactant present at the start of a chemical reaction determines how much product can form.

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11.1 O BJECTIVES Describe the types of relationships indicated by a balanced chemical reaction. State the mole ratios from a balanced chemical reaction. Describe the types of relationships indicated by a balanced chemical reaction. State the mole ratios from a balanced chemical reaction.

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11.1 R EVIEW V OCABULARY Chemical reaction Reactant Product Chemical reaction Reactant Product Q: Why was the mole of oxygen molecules excited when he walked out of the singles bar? A: He got Avogadro's number!

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11.1 N EW V OCABULARY Stoichiometry Mole ratio Composition stoichiometry Reaction stoichiometry Stoichiometry Mole ratio Composition stoichiometry Reaction stoichiometry

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you have only one egg, how many cookies can you make? What information do you need?

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you have only one egg, how many cookies can you make? 1 egg 2 egg 60 cookies = 30 cookies

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you need to make 100 cookies, how much flour do you need? What information do you need?

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you need to make 100 cookies, how much flour do you need? What information do you need? 100 cookies2.25 Cups flour 60 cookies = 3.75 C flour

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you have 3 teaspoons of salt and 5 eggs, how many cookies can you make?

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Cookies Ingredients 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels 1 cup chopped nuts Yield: 5 dozen cookies If you have 3 teaspoons of salt and 5 eggs, how many cookies can you make? 3 t salt60 cookies 1 t salt = 180 cookies 5 eggs60 cookies 2 eggs = 150 cookies So, how many cookies can you make? Which ingredient limited the number of cookies?

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Reactions are Recipes Peanut butter and jelly sandwich –2 T peanut butter –2 T jelly –2 slices bread 2T PB+ 2 T jelly + 2 slices bread 1 PB &J Peanut butter and jelly sandwich –2 T peanut butter –2 T jelly –2 slices bread 2T PB+ 2 T jelly + 2 slices bread 1 PB &J Water – 2 moles H 2 – 1 mole O 2 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O

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Stoichiometry Two types –Composition stoichiometry: deals with mass relationships of elements in a compound –Reaction stoichiometry: deals with the mass relationships between products and reactants in a chemical reaction Two types –C–Composition stoichiometry: deals with mass relationships of elements in a compound –R–Reaction stoichiometry: deals with the mass relationships between products and reactants in a chemical reaction

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The Key is MOLE RATIOS All chemical reactions are described in moles You can convert moles of one substance to moles of another substance given a BALANCED EQUATION All chemical reactions are described in moles You can convert moles of one substance to moles of another substance given a BALANCED EQUATION

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Recall MolesMoles

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Practice For the equation –N 2 +3H 2 2NH 3 –What is the mole ratio for nitrogen to hydrogen? –What is the mole ratio for hydrogen to ammonia? –What is the mole ratio for nitrogen to ammonia? For the equation –N 2 +3H 2 2NH 3 –What is the mole ratio for nitrogen to hydrogen? –What is the mole ratio for hydrogen to ammonia? –What is the mole ratio for nitrogen to ammonia? 1 mole N 2 = 1 3 mole H 2 = 1 3 mole H 2 2 mole NH 3 1 mole N 2 2 mole NH 3 = 1

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C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 reaction type:______________________ If 12 moles of oxygen was consumed, how many moles of C 6 H 12 O 6 were consumed? reaction type:______________________ If 12 moles of oxygen was consumed, how many moles of C 6 H 12 O 6 were consumed? reaction type:______________________ If 12 moles of oxygen was consumed, how many moles of CO 2 were produced?

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2H 2 O 2 2H 2 O + O 2 reaction type:______________________ If 3 moles H 2 O 2 are consumed, what is the mass of oxygen that is produced? reaction type:______________________ If 3 moles H 2 O 2 are consumed, what is the mass of oxygen that is produced? reaction type:______________________ If 3 moles of oxygen are produced, what is the mass of water that was produced?

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C AN YOU … Describe the types of relationships indicated by a balanced chemical reaction. State the mole ratios from a balanced chemical reaction. Describe the types of relationships indicated by a balanced chemical reaction. State the mole ratios from a balanced chemical reaction.

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11.2 Stoichiometric Calculations Chemistry Matter and Change

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11.2 M AIN I DEA The solution to every stoichiometry problem requires a balanced chemical reaction.

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11.2 O BJECTIVES List the sequence of steps used in solving stoichiometric problems. Solve stoichiometric problems. List the sequence of steps used in solving stoichiometric problems. Solve stoichiometric problems.

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11.2 R EVIEW V OCABULARY Chemical reaction Diatomic element Chemical reaction Diatomic element Are you part of the solution or part of the precipitate?

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The formula that always works: You may not always need the whole thing g “A”mol “A”mol “B”g “B” g “A”mol “A” mol “B” GivenPeriodic table Balanced equation Periodic table

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2 NaOH + 1 CaBr 2 2 NaBr + 1 Ca(OH) 2 reaction type:______________________ If 27.3 g NaOH is consumed, how many moles of calcium hydroxide are produced? If 84.2 g of calcium bromide are consumed, how many moles of sodium hydroxide are consumed? reaction type:______________________ If 27.3 g NaOH is consumed, how many moles of calcium hydroxide are produced? If 84.2 g of calcium bromide are consumed, how many moles of sodium hydroxide are consumed?

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3 Pb + 2 H 3 PO 4 3 H 2 + 1 Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 reaction type:______________________ If 14.7 g of lead is consumed, what mass of hydrogen was produced? If 87.24 g of Lead phosphate needs to be produced, what mass of phosphoric acid is needed? reaction type:______________________ If 14.7 g of lead is consumed, what mass of hydrogen was produced? If 87.24 g of Lead phosphate needs to be produced, what mass of phosphoric acid is needed?

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C AN YOU … List the sequence of steps used in solving stoichiometric problems. Solve stoichiometric problems. List the sequence of steps used in solving stoichiometric problems. Solve stoichiometric problems.

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11.3 Limiting Reactants Chemistry Matter and Change

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11.3 M AIN I DEA A chemical reaction stops when one of the reactants is used up.

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11.3 O BJECTIVES Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical equation. Identify the excess reactant and calculate the amount remaining after the reaction is complete. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts of more than one reactant are given. Calculate the maximum yield and amount of excess reactant remaining. Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical equation. Identify the excess reactant and calculate the amount remaining after the reaction is complete. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts of more than one reactant are given. Calculate the maximum yield and amount of excess reactant remaining.

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11.3 M AIN I DEA Percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a reaction.

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11.3 N EW V OCABULARY Limiting reactant Excess reactant Limiting reactant Excess reactant

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11.3 R EVIEW V OCABULARY Molar mass Q: What do you call a tooth in a glass of water? A: One molar solution.

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Limiting Reagent You have 16 T PB, 8 TB jelly and 4 slices of bread. Which one is the limiting reagent? Which are the excess reagents? You have 16 T PB, 8 TB jelly and 4 slices of bread. Which one is the limiting reagent? Which are the excess reagents? Peanut butter and jelly sandwich – 2 T peanut butter – 2 T jelly – 2 slices bread 2T PB+ 2 T jelly + 2 slices bread 1 PB &J

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Limiting reagent problems 1.Calculate the yield of any of the products (If you have to solve for one, use that one and save yourself some steps!) 2.The one that gave you the least amount of product is the limiting reactant 3.All others are excess reactants 1.Calculate the yield of any of the products (If you have to solve for one, use that one and save yourself some steps!) 2.The one that gave you the least amount of product is the limiting reactant 3.All others are excess reactants

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If you have 8 car bodies and 36 tires, what will you have left over and how many complete cars will you have?

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4 tires + 1 body 1 car Given 8 bodies and 36 tires 8 bodies 1 body 1 car = 8 cars 36 tires 4 tires 1 car = 9 cars limiting

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What is left over? Calculate what you used then subtract 36 tires 4 tires 8 cars4 tires 1 car = 32 tires - 32 tires

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2.00 g sample of ammonia is mixed with 4.00 g of oxygen. Which is the limiting reactant and how much excess reactant remains after the reaction has stopped? 4 NH 3(g) + 5 O 2(g) 4 NO (g) + 6 H 2 O (g) A

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How much is left? Figure out how much was used and subtract from the initial amount

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C AN YOU … Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical equation. Identify the excess reactant and calculate the amount remaining after the reaction is complete. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts of more than one reactant are given. Calculate the maximum yield and amount of excess reactant remaining. Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical equation. Identify the excess reactant and calculate the amount remaining after the reaction is complete. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts of more than one reactant are given. Calculate the maximum yield and amount of excess reactant remaining.

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11.4 Percent Yield Chemistry Matter and Change

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11.4 O BJECTIVES Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction from data. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction. Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction from data. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction.

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11.4 R EVIEW V OCABULARY Process Yield Process Yield Q: What is the name of 007's Eskimo cousin? A: Polar Bond.

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11.4 N EW V OCABULARY Theoretical yield Actual yield Percent yield Theoretical yield Actual yield Percent yield

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Theoretical yield Calculated value If 120. g of propane, C 3 H 8, is burned in excess oxygen, how many grams of water are formed? Calculated value If 120. g of propane, C 3 H 8, is burned in excess oxygen, how many grams of water are formed?

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Actual yield The amount measured (actual) If 120. g of propane, C 3 H 8, is burned in excess oxygen and 140. g of water are formed, what is the percent yield? The amount measured (actual) If 120. g of propane, C 3 H 8, is burned in excess oxygen and 140. g of water are formed, what is the percent yield?

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Percent Yield Theoretical: 196 g water Actual: 140. g water Theoretical: 196 g water Actual: 140. g water

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C AN YOU … Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction from data. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction. Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction from data. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction.

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