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Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Right Plant, Right Place; Integrated Pest Management; and Attracting Wildlife John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida,

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Presentation on theme: "Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Right Plant, Right Place; Integrated Pest Management; and Attracting Wildlife John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Right Plant, Right Place; Integrated Pest Management; and Attracting Wildlife John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division

2 The Key to Landscaping Success
Proper planning and plant selection: affects everything else you do in your landscape. can save energy, effort, water, money, etc. makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable. For example, layered planting: miniature firebush (Hamelia patens) bottom layer coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco) next shrub layer gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba) tree NOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements

3 Plan First, Plant Once This is a process, not a one-time event! Analyze your site. Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database for your region to start selection. Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida via Try to avoid species at the edge of their ranges (e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not OPTIMAL Use to determine if a species is native if you need to know. Find plants on Plant List or Rhapidophyllum histrix, needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerant Suriana maritima Bay Cedar, Surianaceae Great shrub for dry areas.

4 Analysis of Site Characteristics
Soil organic matter content, including peat pH texture (sand, silt, clay) geological features (limestone, coral, etc.) nutrient content soil testing is currently very difficult Light Exposure sun or shade Light regime critical FL karst Sand Silt Clay

5 Analysis of Site Characteristics
Drainage wet vs. dry drainage patterns Wind Patterns need for wind breaks partially enclosed areas Screens privacy noise Standing water: plant sedge and mow Sea Grape Coccoloba uvifera , in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreak Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea privacy screen Bamboo Garden

6 Analysis of Site Characteristics
Existing Landscape status of irrigation health, arrangement, and maintenance requirements power lines sidewalks /driveways buildings desirable wildlife Hardscape Limitations Circular drive overplanted- no plan

7 Stratify Your Design Layers Increase HURRICANE Resistance and Provide Shelter for Wildlife
Canopy Subcanopy or Understory Shrub layer Herbs & Groundcovers The greater the number of strata (layers) The greater the protection from hurricane damage and The greater the reduction in temperature at ground level

8 Know Your Plants What is the mature size of the plant?
Does it grow well in sun or shade? Does it grow well in wet or dry soils? Does it grow in salty conditions? Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control? Helianthus debilis Beach Daisy

9 Selecting and Installing Plants
Be familiar with scientific names- they are key to information Buy healthy plants. Look for new growth. Roots should be white and fibrous. Avoid pot bound plants. Avoid diseased or insect infested plants. Prepare the soil. Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost. Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over 7.4 Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plants Master Gardeners shop for Bay Cedar, Suriana maritima , in the rain.

10 Trees in the Landscape…
Provide shade. Attract wildlife; provide shelter. Add color and texture. Increase property values. Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape. Sequester and store carbon, mitigating greenhouse gases Reduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from building Quercus virginiana ‘Live Oak’

11 Palms are different! Palms have only ONE terminal growing point.
Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm showing Solitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots” Palms have only ONE terminal growing point. Palms do not increase in diameter, annually, as they mature. Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter. Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root system Many palms are harvested from native plant stands. Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms. Palms depend on fertilizer Palms have many growth habits See palm websites for specialized information

12 Selecting the Right Place
Consider: Amount of sunlight Overhead power lines Presence of other trees, structures, roads Underground utility lines Water table, drainage Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home! Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola Southern Red Cedar

13 Shrubs and Understory Know the climatic conditions of your property.
Proper planning is important. Match the plants with the site! Know the mature size of the shrub Be sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs. Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto

14 Keep It Simple Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread. Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy. DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest. Blackbead Pithecellobium keyense

15 Lawns Major turf grass species in Florida St. Augustine Bahia Bermuda
St. Augustine grass (70%) The most popular Bahia grass Very drought- tolerant Bermuda grass Used on golf courses Centipede grass Common in the Panhandle New cultivars being evaluated by UF at Hastings Zoysia New cultivars of Zoysia matrella- Manila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FL St. Augustine Bahia Bermuda

16 Turf Alternatives Powder puff Mimosa Perennial Peanut
Mimosa strigillosa Perennial Peanut Arachis glabrata See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075

17 For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!

18 Alternatives to Turf Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space. Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to LAYER the landscape.

19 Native Plants A native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil. Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE. The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds). Zamia floridana ‘Coontie’ Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries

20 A Few Natives Passiflora incarnata “Passion Vine”
Calicarpa americana “Beauty berry” Passiflora incarnata “Passion Vine” Rhapidophyllum hystrix ‘Needle Palm’ Sambucus nigra var. canadensis “Elderberry”

21 Integrated Pest Management
John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

22 Aspects of Integrated Pest Management

23 Integrated Pest Management– Cultural Practices
Plant Resistant plant varieties Rotate Crops Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse Till soil and include compost Variation in time of planting or harvesting Pruning or thinning of perennials Fertilization- only minimum amounts Sanitation and water management Planting of trap crops Traps, physical removal of pests

24 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape
Picture Target Prey How to Attract Them Ladybugs Larvae and adults feed on aphids, scales, mites, and other insect eggs Pollen & nectar plants like dill, goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Hover or Flower Flies Larvae feed on aphids and small caterpillars Pollen and nectar plants, especially Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel, carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower & plant sunflowers. Robber Flies Adults capture flying insects. Larvae live in soil and feed on soil pests (e.g., grubs). Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar source. Ground Beetles (6-spotted Tiger Beetle pictured here) Feed on snails, slugs, cutworms and other caterpillars, potato beetles Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover crops and stone walkways between beds provide cover. Big-eyed Bugs Adults eat aphids, small caterpillars, mites, turf grubs, thrips and other small insects. goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods

25 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape
Picture Target Prey How to Attract Them Assassin Bugs Adults and nymphs suck fluids- killing small aphids and other small insects; larger assassins kill caterpillars. Perennial flowering plants provide shelter. Lacewings (Green and Brown) Larvae (top) eat aphids, scales, thrips, mites, immature whiteflies and eggs of some pests Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod. Tachnid Flies Larvae are parasites of squash bugs, cutworms, Japanese beetles and many caterpillars. Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint Parasitoid Wasps adults inject eggs inside larvae, caterpillars, or pest eggs; wasp larvae eat host Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other fragrant herbs. White clover and other legumes also attractants. Broccoli and radishes in flower provide nectar.

26 Integrated Pest Management– Organic Alternatives to Pesticides

27 Integrated Pest Management– Chemical Controls
Examples: Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a drench for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees. Naturally Occurring Pesticides– Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family. Citrus oil- especially from oranges. Eucalyptus oil. Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray. Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad

28 Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape
John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

29 Florida’s Biological Diversity
Background Florida’s Biological Diversity Total Animal Species > 17,117 Vascular Plant species > 4,200 ( ) 480 species of birds (FFWCC) 96 species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern) 177 species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and 3 crocodilians (FLMNH)

30 Florida’s Biological Diversity
111 species of amphibians (FLMNH) 250 species of freshwater fish More than 1,000 species of marine fish (FFWCC) Given that more than 4,675 species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are over 15,000 species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS)

31 Wildlife Needs Shelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators and disturbance; to live and raise young Food Water Space sufficient to permit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating

32 Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife
Limit the Amount of Lawn Increase Vertical Layering Provide Snags and Brush piles Provide Water Plant Native Vegetation Remove Invasive Exotic Plants Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird Feeders Manage Pets Reduce Pesticide Use Expand the Scale of Habitat

33 Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance
Do not clean with soap. Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substitute Do not use insecticides in area Do clean regularly with vinegar Do change solution every 3-5 days

34 DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers)
Submerged (submersed) wetland plants grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless. Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water. Emergent (immersed) wetland plants are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water.

35 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort

36 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™
Contact Information Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education Parks and Recreation Division NatureScape Broward Program For yard certification, visit then contact

37 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™
A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Broward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior to program for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available. ”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution”  This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM, NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.

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