Presentation on theme: "Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Right Plant, Right Place; Integrated Pest Management; and Attracting Wildlife John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Right Plant, Right Place; Integrated Pest Management; and Attracting WildlifeJohn Pipoly, Ph.D., FLSUniversity of Florida, IFAS/Broward CountyExtension Education SectionParks and Recreation Division
2 The Key to Landscaping Success Proper planning and plant selection:affects everything else you do in your landscape.can save energy, effort, water, money, etc.makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable.For example, layered planting:miniature firebush (Hamelia patens) bottom layercoco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco) next shrub layergumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba) treeNOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements
3 Plan First, Plant OnceThis is a process, not a one-time event! Analyze your site.Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database for your region to start selection.Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida via Try to avoid species at the edge of their ranges (e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not OPTIMALUse to determine if a species is native if you need to know.Find plants on Plant List or PlantFinder.comRhapidophyllum histrix, needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerantSuriana maritimaBay Cedar, SurianaceaeGreat shrub for dry areas.
4 Analysis of Site Characteristics Soilorganic matter content, including peatpHtexture (sand, silt, clay)geological features (limestone, coral, etc.)nutrient contentsoil testing is currently very difficultLight Exposuresun or shadeLight regime criticalFL karstSandSiltClay
5 Analysis of Site Characteristics Drainagewet vs. drydrainage patternsWind Patternsneed for wind breakspartially enclosed areasScreensprivacynoiseStanding water:plant sedge and mowSea Grape Coccoloba uvifera , in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreakGolden Bamboo Phyllostachys aureaprivacy screenBamboo Garden
6 Analysis of Site Characteristics Existing Landscapestatus of irrigationhealth, arrangement,and maintenance requirementspower linessidewalks /drivewaysbuildingsdesirable wildlifeHardscapeLimitationsCircular drive overplanted- no plan
7 Stratify Your Design Layers Increase HURRICANE Resistance and Provide Shelter for Wildlife CanopySubcanopyorUnderstoryShrub layerHerbs & GroundcoversThe greater the number of strata (layers)The greater the protection from hurricane damage andThe greater the reduction in temperature at ground level
8 Know Your Plants What is the mature size of the plant? Does it grow well in sun or shade?Does it grow well in wet or dry soils?Does it grow in salty conditions?Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control?Helianthus debilisBeach Daisy
9 Selecting and Installing Plants Be familiar with scientific names- they are key to informationBuy healthy plants.Look for new growth.Roots should be white and fibrous.Avoid pot bound plants.Avoid diseased or insect infested plants.Prepare the soil.Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost.Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over 7.4Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plantsMaster Gardeners shop for Bay Cedar, Surianamaritima , in the rain.
10 Trees in the Landscape… Provide shade.Attract wildlife; provide shelter.Add color and texture.Increase property values.Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape.Sequester and store carbon, mitigating greenhouse gasesReduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from buildingQuercus virginiana‘Live Oak’
11 Palms are different! Palms have only ONE terminal growing point. Sabal palmettoCabbage PalmshowingSolitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots”Palms have only ONE terminal growing point.Palms do not increase in diameter, annually, as they mature.Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter.Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root systemMany palms are harvested from native plant stands.Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms.Palms depend on fertilizerPalms have many growth habitsSee palm websites for specialized information
12 Selecting the Right Place Consider:Amount of sunlightOverhead power linesPresence of other trees, structures, roadsUnderground utility linesWater table, drainageTrees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home!Juniperus virginiana var. silicicolaSouthern Red Cedar
13 Shrubs and Understory Know the climatic conditions of your property. Proper planning is important.Match the plants with the site!Know the mature size of the shrubBe sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs.Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto
14 Keep It SimpleDon’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread.Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy.DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest.Blackbead Pithecellobium keyense
15 Lawns Major turf grass species in Florida St. Augustine Bahia Bermuda St. Augustine grass (70%)The most popularBahia grassVery drought- tolerantBermuda grassUsed on golf coursesCentipede grassCommon in the PanhandleNew cultivars being evaluated by UF at HastingsZoysiaNew cultivars of Zoysia matrella- Manila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FLSt. AugustineBahiaBermuda
16 Turf Alternatives Powder puff Mimosa Perennial Peanut Mimosa strigillosaPerennial PeanutArachis glabrataSee EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075
17 For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!
18 Alternatives to TurfLandscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space.Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to LAYER the landscape.
19 Native PlantsA native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil.Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE.The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds).Zamia floridana ‘Coontie’Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries
20 A Few Natives Passiflora incarnata “Passion Vine” Calicarpa americana“Beauty berry”Passiflora incarnata“Passion Vine”Rhapidophyllum hystrix‘Needle Palm’Sambucus nigra var. canadensis“Elderberry”
21 Integrated Pest Management John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent
23 Integrated Pest Management– Cultural Practices Plant Resistant plant varietiesRotate CropsDestroy- mulch and compost crop refuseTill soil and include compostVariation in time of planting or harvestingPruning or thinning of perennialsFertilization- only minimum amountsSanitation and water managementPlanting of trap cropsTraps, physical removal of pests
24 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape PictureTarget PreyHow to Attract ThemLadybugsLarvae and adults feedon aphids, scales, mites,and other insect eggsPollen & nectar plants like dill,goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum.Provide water in pan filled with gravelduring dry periodsHover or FlowerFliesLarvae feed on aphidsand small caterpillarsPollen and nectar plants, especiallyApiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel,carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower& plant sunflowers.Robber FliesAdults capture flyinginsects. Larvae live insoil and feed on soilpests (e.g., grubs).Flowering plants of any kind as a nectarsource.Ground Beetles(6-spotted TigerBeetle picturedhere)Feed on snails, slugs,cutworms and othercaterpillars, potatobeetlesPollen-providing plants. Dense covercrops and stone walkways between bedsprovide cover.Big-eyed BugsAdults eat aphids, smallcaterpillars, mites, turfgrubs, thrips and othersmall insects.goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, SweetAlyssum. Provide water in pan filledwith gravel during dry periods
25 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape PictureTarget PreyHow to Attract ThemAssassin BugsAdults and nymphs suckfluids- killing smallaphids and other smallinsects; larger assassinskill caterpillars.Perennial flowering plants provideshelter.Lacewings (Greenand Brown)Larvae (top) eat aphids,scales, thrips, mites,immature whiteflies andeggs of some pestsPlant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos,Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod.Tachnid FliesLarvae are parasites ofsquash bugs, cutworms,Japanese beetles andmany caterpillars.Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or DillFamily, Sweet Alyssum and spearmintParasitoid Waspsadults inject eggs insidelarvae, caterpillars, orpest eggs; wasp larvaeeat hostPollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) Family, mints and otherfragrant herbs. White clover and otherlegumes also attractants. Broccoli andradishes in flower provide nectar.
26 Integrated Pest Management– Organic Alternatives to Pesticides
27 Integrated Pest Management– Chemical Controls Examples:Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a drench for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees.Naturally Occurring Pesticides– Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family.Citrus oil- especially from oranges.Eucalyptus oil.Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray.Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad
28 Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent
29 Florida’s Biological Diversity BackgroundFlorida’s Biological DiversityTotal Animal Species > 17,117Vascular Plant species > 4,200 (http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/ )480 species of birds (FFWCC)96 species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern)177 species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and 3 crocodilians (FLMNH)
30 Florida’s Biological Diversity 111 species of amphibians (FLMNH)250 species of freshwater fishMore than 1,000 species of marine fish (FFWCC)Given that more than 4,675 species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are over 15,000 species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS)
31 Wildlife NeedsShelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators anddisturbance; to liveand raise youngFoodWaterSpace sufficient topermit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating
32 Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife Limit the Amount of LawnIncrease Vertical LayeringProvide Snags and Brush pilesProvide WaterPlant Native VegetationRemove Invasive Exotic PlantsProvide Bird/Bat houses and Bird FeedersManage PetsReduce Pesticide UseExpand the Scale of Habitat
33 Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance Do not clean with soap.Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substituteDo not use insecticides in areaDo clean regularly with vinegarDo change solution every 3-5 days
34 DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers) Submerged (submersed) wetland plants grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless.Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water.Emergent (immersed) wetland plants are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water.
35 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort
36 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Contact InformationFlorida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods ProgramFlorida Master Gardeners of Broward CountyUF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension EducationParks and Recreation DivisionNatureScape Broward ProgramFor yard certification, visit then contact
37 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERSBroward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender,age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior toprogram for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available.”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution” This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM, NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.