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John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division

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Presentation on theme: "John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division"— Presentation transcript:

1 John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division

2 Proper planning and plant selection:  affects everything else you do in your landscape.  can save energy, effort, water, money, etc.  makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable. For example, layered planting:  miniature firebush (Hamelia patens) bottom layer  coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco) next shrub layer  gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba) tree  NOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements

3  This is a process, not a one-time event! Analyze your site.  Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database x.php for your region to start selection. x.php  Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida via http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.ed u/ Try to avoid species at the edge of their ranges (e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not OPTIMAL http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.ed u/  Use to determine if a species is native if you need to know.  Find plants on Plant List or Rhapidophyllum histrix, needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerant Suriana maritima Bay Cedar, Surianaceae Great shrub for dry areas.

4 Soil  organic matter content, including peat  pH  texture (sand, silt, clay)  geological features (limestone, coral, etc.)  nutrient content  soil testing is currently very difficult Light Exposure  sun or shade Sand Silt Clay Light regime critical FL karst

5 Drainage  wet vs. dry  drainage patterns Wind Patterns  need for wind breaks  partially enclosed areas Screens  privacy  noise Standing water: plant sedge and mow Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea privacy screen Bamboo Garden Sea Grape Coccoloba uvifera, in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreak

6 Existing Landscape  status of irrigation  health, arrangement, and maintenance requirements  power lines  sidewalks /driveways  buildings  desirable wildlife Hardscape Limitations Circular drive overplanted- no plan

7 Canopy Subcanopy or Understory Shrub layer Herbs & Groundcovers The greater the number of strata (layers) The greater the protection from hurricane damage and The greater the reduction in temperature at ground level

8  What is the mature size of the plant?  Does it grow well in sun or shade?  Does it grow well in wet or dry soils?  Does it grow in salty conditions?  Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control? Helianthus debilis Beach Daisy

9  Be familiar with scientific names- they are key to information  Buy healthy plants.  Look for new growth.  Roots should be white and fibrous.  Avoid pot bound plants.  Avoid diseased or insect infested plants.  Prepare the soil.  Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost.  Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over 7.4 Master Gardeners shop for Bay Cedar, Suriana maritima, in the rain. Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plants

10  Provide shade.  Attract wildlife; provide shelter.  Add color and texture.  Increase property values.  Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape.  Sequester and store carbon, mitigating greenhouse gases  Reduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from building Quercus virginiana ‘Live Oak’

11  Palms have only ONE terminal growing point.  Palms do not increase in diameter, annually, as they mature.  Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter.  Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root system  Many palms are harvested from native plant stands.  Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms.  Palms depend on 8-2-12 +4 fertilizer  Palms have many growth habits  See palm websites for specialized information Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm showing Solitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots”

12 Consider:  Amount of sunlight  Overhead power lines  Presence of other trees, structures, roads  Underground utility lines  Water table, drainage  Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home! Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola Southern Red Cedar

13  Know the climatic conditions of your property.  Proper planning is important.  Match the plants with the site!  Know the mature size of the shrub  Be sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs. Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto

14 Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread. Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy. DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest. Blackbead Pithecellobium keyense

15 Major turf grass species in Florida  St. Augustine grass (70%)  The most popular  Bahia grass  Very drought- tolerant  Bermuda grass  Used on golf courses  Centipede grass  Common in the Panhandle  New cultivars being evaluated by UF at Hastings  Zoysia  New cultivars of Zoysia matrella- Manila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FL 15 Bahia Bermuda St. Augustine

16 PERENNIAL PEANUT Arachis glabrata POWDER PUFF MIMOSA Mimosa strigillosa See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075

17 For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!

18  Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space.  Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to LAYER the landscape.

19  A native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil.  Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE.  The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds). Zamia floridana ‘Coontie’ Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries;

20 Rhapidophyllum hystrix ‘Needle Palm’ Passiflora incarnata “Passion Vine” Calicarpa americana “Beauty berry” Sambucus nigra var. canadensis “Elderberry”

21 Integrated Pest Management John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

22 Aspects of Integrated Pest Management

23 23 Plant Resistant plant varieties Rotate Crops Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse Till soil and include compost Variation in time of planting or harvesting Pruning or thinning of perennials Fertilization- only minimum amounts Sanitation and water management Planting of trap crops Traps, physical removal of pests Integrated Pest Management– Cultural Practices

24 24 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial InsectPictureTarget PreyHow to Attract Them LadybugsLarvae and adults feed on aphids, scales, mites, and other insect eggs Pollen & nectar plants like dill, goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Hover or Flower Flies Larvae feed on aphids and small caterpillars Pollen and nectar plants, especially Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel, carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower & plant sunflowers. Robber FliesAdults capture flying insects. Larvae live in soil and feed on soil pests (e.g., grubs). Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar source. Ground Beetles (6-spotted Tiger Beetle pictured here) Feed on snails, slugs, cutworms and other caterpillars, potato beetles Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover crops and stone walkways between beds provide cover. Big-eyed BugsAdults eat aphids, small caterpillars, mites, turf grubs, thrips and other small insects. Pollen & nectar plants like dill, goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods

25 25 Integrated Pest Management– Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial InsectPictureTarget PreyHow to Attract Them Assassin BugsAdults and nymphs suck fluids- killing small aphids and other small insects; larger assassins kill caterpillars. Perennial flowering plants provide shelter. Lacewings (Green and Brown) Larvae (top) eat aphids, scales, thrips, mites, immature whiteflies and eggs of some pests Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod. Tachnid FliesLarvae are parasites of squash bugs, cutworms, Japanese beetles and many caterpillars. Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint Parasitoid Waspsadults inject eggs inside larvae, caterpillars, or pest eggs; wasp larvae eat host Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other fragrant herbs. White clover and other legumes also attractants. Broccoli and radishes in flower provide nectar.

26 26 Integrated Pest Management– Organic Alternatives to Pesticides

27 27 Integrated Pest Management– Chemical Controls Examples: 1.Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a drench for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees. 2.Naturally Occurring Pesticides– Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family. 3.Citrus oil- especially from oranges. 4.Eucalyptus oil. 5.Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray. 6.Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad

28 Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

29 Total Animal Species > 17,117 Vascular Plant species > 4,200 ( ) 480 species of birds (FFWCC) 96 species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern) 177 species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and 3 crocodilians (FLMNH) Background Florida’s Biological Diversity

30 111 species of amphibians (FLMNH) 250 species of freshwater fish More than 1,000 species of marine fish (FFWCC) Given that more than 4,675 species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are over 15,000 species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS) Florida’s Biological Diversity

31 Wildlife Needs  Shelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators and disturbance; to live and raise young  Food  Water  Space sufficient to permit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating

32 Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife Remove Invasive Exotic Plants Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird Feeders Manage Pets Reduce Pesticide Use Expand the Scale of Habitat Limit the Amount of Lawn Increase Vertical Layering Provide Snags and Brush piles Provide Water Plant Native Vegetation

33 Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance Do not clean with soap. Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substitute Do not use insecticides in area Do clean regularly with vinegar Do change solution every 3-5 days

34 DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers) Submerged (submersed) wetland plants grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless. Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water. Emergent (immersed) wetland plants are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water.

35 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort

36 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Contact Information NatureScape Broward Program For yard certification, visit Certified.aspx, then contact Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education Parks and Recreation Division 954-357-5270

37 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Broward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior to program for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available. ”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution” This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about Florida- Friendly Landscaping TM, NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.

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