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LegumeCHOICE: Realizing the underexploited potential of multi-purpose legumes towards improved livelihoods and a better environment in crop-livestock systems.

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Presentation on theme: "LegumeCHOICE: Realizing the underexploited potential of multi-purpose legumes towards improved livelihoods and a better environment in crop-livestock systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 LegumeCHOICE: Realizing the underexploited potential of multi-purpose legumes towards improved livelihoods and a better environment in crop-livestock systems in East & Central Africa Planning Meeting: Ethiopia Date: 2 nd -4 th February, 2015 Kenya Team: Ingrid Oborn/Maurice Shiluli/Irene Okeyo/Thomas ochinga Planning Meeting: Ethiopia Date: 2 nd -4 th February, 2015 Kenya Team: Ingrid Oborn/Maurice Shiluli/Irene Okeyo/Thomas ochinga

2 Outline Activities undertaken and outputs Decision on field sites Typology indicators Village meetings FGDs Quick baseline survey Preliminary intervention Activities undertaken and outputs Decision on field sites Typology indicators Village meetings FGDs Quick baseline survey Preliminary intervention

3 Training of field technicians  Legume-CHOICE training workshop: Nairobi July 7-9, 2014  ICRAF and KALRO staff trained on quick survey and farm characterization survey tool  Report available  Legume-CHOICE training workshop: Nairobi July 7-9, 2014  ICRAF and KALRO staff trained on quick survey and farm characterization survey tool  Report available Decision on field sites Politically defined boundaries Field sites Kenya – County : Kisii and Migori Sub-county- Location or sub-location Challenge : political interests at KCN: site not location/sub- location Masakwe: Marani+Sensi wards; Ragogo: Monyerero +Kegogi wards Politically defined boundaries Field sites Kenya – County : Kisii and Migori Sub-county- Location or sub-location Challenge : political interests at KCN: site not location/sub- location Masakwe: Marani+Sensi wards; Ragogo: Monyerero +Kegogi wards

4 Field/implementation sites

5 Proposed typology indicators Kenya  1-Wealthy 2-Medium income 3-Lower income  Indicators: Land size (acre or ha), Ownership of land (titles/no titles) Livestock ownership, types, stock size Mineral fertilizer used on main cereal crop or as defined for field site; current/previous season  Confirmation of typology was done during village meetings  1-Wealthy 2-Medium income 3-Lower income  Indicators: Land size (acre or ha), Ownership of land (titles/no titles) Livestock ownership, types, stock size Mineral fertilizer used on main cereal crop or as defined for field site; current/previous season  Confirmation of typology was done during village meetings

6 Village meetings August, 2014 Aim: Introduce project; confirm typologies; decide thresholds for typologies Identification of participants: sub-county staff, agricultural officers and village leaders Women, men, younger and older farmers represented August, 2014 Aim: Introduce project; confirm typologies; decide thresholds for typologies Identification of participants: sub-county staff, agricultural officers and village leaders Women, men, younger and older farmers represented

7 Participants by gender

8

9 Village meeting: challenges Overwhelming attendance esp. in Suna West In adequate understanding of legumes: language barrier Political agenda: Kitutu Chache North, Rongo, Suna West Overwhelming attendance esp. in Suna West In adequate understanding of legumes: language barrier Political agenda: Kitutu Chache North, Rongo, Suna West

10 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) Aim- Identify and score constrains for legume intensification: increase productivity and area of existing legume species, and to scope for niches for ‘new’ usage of legumes and introduction/adoption of ‘new’ legume types (species/varieties, for new uses; fodder, fuels, etc.)

11 FGDs Participants CountyField site Market Access MenWomenTotal Kisii1. Kitutu Chache NorthGood Nyaribari ChacheMedium14822 Migori3. Suna WestPoor RongoGood Total100 Legume types and species: 1. Seasonal grain legumes 2. Perennial grain legumes 3. Re growth herbaceous legume 4. Non regrowth herbaceous legume 5. Coppicing tree/shrub legume 6. Non-coppicing tree/shrub legume Legume types and species: 1. Seasonal grain legumes 2. Perennial grain legumes 3. Re growth herbaceous legume 4. Non regrowth herbaceous legume 5. Coppicing tree/shrub legume 6. Non-coppicing tree/shrub legume 11

12 Knowledge of legumes/legume systems Insufficient knowledge on types, benefits, management No term for legume in local dialects Some legumes identified by project team during transect walks not listed by participants Sesbania/Albizia present in farmers farms but their significance unknown BNF by legumes not understood Weed suppression; forage; carbon rich biomass; and soil cover are not well known 12

13 Legumes types/species TypeKitutuNyaribariSuna westRongo Seasonal grain legumes 6 chickpea, cowpeas, green grams, common beans, soyabean, groundnuts 4 cowpeas, green grams, common beans, soyabean 6 cowpeas, green grams, common beans, soyabean, groundnuts, dolichos lablab 5 cowpeas, green grams, common beans, soyabean, groundnuts, Perennial grain legumes 1 Pigeon peas Regrowth herbaceous 1 Desmodium Non regrowth herbaceous 1 Crotolaria Coppicing tree/shrubs 1 Calliandra2 Calliandra, Leucaena 2 Acaccia, Albizia 2 Calliandra, Leucaena Non-coppicing tree/shrubs 1 Sesbania sesban 13

14 Kisii County-legumes 14

15 Migori County-legumes 15

16 Nyaribari- legume use rank Species1234 BeansIncomeFoodMulch/compost manure Livestock feed CalliandraFodderFuel CowpeasIncomeFood Soya beansFood/beverage Green gramsFoodIncome SesbaniaFuelsupporting banana plants Soil fertilityLivestock fodder LeucaenaFodderSoil fertility 16

17 Suna-Legume use rank Species1234 BeansIncomeFoodmulchAsh/tenderizer CowpeasIncomeFoodmulch SesbaniaFuelFodderSoil fertilityErosion control LablabFood Soya beansFood/beverageIncomeSoil fertilityMedicinal - stamina boost GroundnutsIncomeFoodMulchFodder Green gramsFoodIncome CrotolariaFoodIncome Pigeon peaFood Acacia polycanthra FodderTimberFuel Albizia gummifera FodderTimberMedicinal- back pain, stiff necks, amoeba and muscle pains 17

18 Kitutu-Legume use rank Species1234 BeansFoodIncomeLivestock feedErosion control CowpeasFoodIncomeSoil cover Ground nutsFoodIncomeLivestock feedSoil fertility Soya beanFoodIncomeSoil fertility Green gramsFoodIncomeSoil fertility ChickpeaFoodIncome Pigeon peaFoodIncomeFodder SesbaniaFodderFuelPolesErosion control CalliandraFodderFuelSoil fertilityMedicinal- cure for mouth fungal infectio n DesmodiumFodderSoil fertilityErosion controlMedicinal- boosts immunity 18

19 Rongo-Legume use rank Species1234 BeansFoodIncomeSoil fertilityLivestock feed CowpeasFoodIncomeSoil fertility Ground nutsIncomeFoodSoil fertilityFodder Soya beanFoodIncomeSoil fertilityErosion control Green gramsIncomeFood Soil fertility- farm yard manure SesbaniaSoil fertilityFodderFuel Timber- making rafters CalliandraFodderFuelSoil fertilityBee forage DesmodiumFodderStriga controlSoil fertility CrotolariaFoodIncomeSoil fertility LeucaenaFodderSoil fertilityFuel 19

20 Constraints ranked-Nyaribari NoLegume productivityIncreasing area under legume Demand and utilization Management of intercrops 1Pests/diseasesSmall farm sizeIn availability of seeds Weeding complications 2Poor marketPests/diseasesHigh cost of seedsNutrients competition 3Inadequate/right legume varieties Limited fundsFood habits and preferences 4In adequate knowledge Poor markets 20

21 Constraints ranked-Kitutu NoLegume productivityIncreasing area under legume Demand and utilization Management of intercrops 1Inadequate capitalIn adequate knowledge/trainin g lack of training on legume uses and post -harvest handling Lack of training on management practices 2In adequate knowledge Pests/diseasesEating habitsCompetition for nutrients 3Poor marketsIn adequate capitalLack of marketDifficulty in controlling pests and diseases 4Pests and diseasesPoor seed qualityWeeding difficulties 21

22 Constraints ranked-Suna NoLegume productivityIncreasing area under legume Demand and utilization Management of intercrops 1lack of inputs: seeds/fertilizers Pests/diseasesLack of knowledge and exposure some legumes Weeding complications 2In adequate knowledge lack farm of inputsLack of information on market and value chains Difficulty in rodent’s control 3Pests and diseasesIn adequate capitalLow demand for fodder Negative impact on cereal 4Labor shortagePoor farm planning High cost of legume seeds 22

23 Constraints ranked-Rongo NoNo Legume productivityIncreasing area under legume Demand and utilization Management of intercrops 1High cost of inputsHigh cost of farm inputs and management Lack of knowledge on some legumes Weeding complications 2In adequate knowledge on management of legumes Preference of other crops long term benefits of legumes Low yield compared to mono crops 3Pests and diseasesLack of mechanization Low demand for fodder due to local cattle breeds Transfer of pests and diseases 4Lack of certified legume varieties Small land sizesUncertainty in markets of legumes 23

24 Niches/opportunities-Nyaribari  Plant more bean varieties to substitute for meat  Use of Sesbania poles for supporting banana plants  Calliandra and Sesbania for firewood and fodder  Plant more beans for food and income (school fees)  Introduce ground nuts for food and income  Introduce Mucuna for soil fertility, and Desmodium for soil fertility and fodder Niches/opportunities-Suna Upscale legumes for food/nutrition/income for fees Legumes for soil fertility improvement and soil erosion control Leguminous trees for fodder and fuel wood Upscale soya beans 24

25 Niches/opportunities-Kitutu  Re-introduction of French beans /green grams.  Process ground nuts into peanut butter  Using of Calliandra calothyrsus trees to put up beehives for bee keeping  Exploiting the use of Calliandra as fodder and chicken feed /currently under exploited  Selling of dry desmodium staked like hay- this fetches a higher price than hay  Fully exploiting the use of Sesbania sesban as chicken feed  Processing of soya oil  Processing of beans and ground nuts to make livestock cake 25

26 Niches/opportunities-Rongo 26 Ground nuts for cooking oil, peanut butter and cake fed to livestock Calliandra, Desmodium and Leucaena leaves can be dried, ground and mixed to make dairy meal Sesbania sesban leaves are ground and used to trap fish Processing of soya beans to make soya meat and milk Upscale soya bean production. A company from Nairobi had asked the farmers to plant soya beans on contract and supply to them

27 Cropping Seasons At Nyaribari, relay cropping is used for legumes: beans planted when maize is mature and almost ready for harvesting. Maize cropping season is March/July (LR) and Aug/Jan (SR) 27

28 Preferences Site/gender123 Nyaribari FCommon beanCow peasSoya beans Nyaribari MCommon beanGreen gramsClimbing beans Kitutu FTrainingImprove input access value addition to soya bean Kitutu MCommon beansGround nutsSoya beans Suna FCommon beanDesmodiumFodder trees/crops Suna MCommon beanGround nutscowpeas Rongo FGrain legumesLegumes for soil fertility Legumes for fodder Rongo M 28 Challenge Qs that sound repeated e.g constraints to legume productivity; constraints to increasing area under legume;…demand and utilization…cause impatience during discussions

29 Baseline Survey highlights Objective: Inform identification of entry points for legume intensification and diversification in study counties. Participants 307: Kitutu 79; Nyaribari 77; Suna 75; Rongo 76 Participants 307: Kitutu 79; Nyaribari 77; Suna 75; Rongo 76

30 Gender and age

31 Age of household heads

32 Household size

33 Age composition Implications on labor and dependency

34 Head education

35 Education cont..

36 Land tenure

37 Farm size

38 farm size by typology Kitutu >2, , ; Nyaribari>2, 1-2, 2, 1-2, 0-1, Suna>10, 4-10, 0-3

39 Area under legume/acres

40 Cropping system %

41 Yield kg/ha

42 Yield/fertilizer use

43 Livestock/fertilizer

44 Yield/fertilizer  Use of mineral fertilizer was regressed with legume yield. Results show no significant relations. Livestock/fertilizer The results show no relationship between TLU and fertilizer use

45 Preliminary interventions SR 14  On farm trials  Tree nurseries  On farm trials  Tree nurseries

46 On-farm trials implemented during SR15 Migori: 30 farmers and 1 school. Rongo 11; Suna 19 Planting:14-16 Oct., 2014 Trial: KK8 variety against GLP2 common bean varieties Harvesting: 6 th Jan, 2015 Objective: Evaluate yields performance of KK8 bean variety against root rot disease 46

47 Participating farmers 47

48 48

49 49

50 50

51 Challenges  In-adequate farmer cooperation  Land preparation practises conflicting  Pest invasion close to a trial plot  Disease observed in beans  Late implementation of planting 51 Observation: The local variety performed better than KK8 variety. Yield analysis ongoing.

52 Tree Nurseries Farmers trained: 32 in the four sites Oct, 2014 Planting dates:Nov Legumes: Calliandra, gliricidia, leucaena trichandra 24 farmers implemented Mid Dec good seedling stands observed esp. gliricidia 52

53 53

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56 Challenges Delay in pricking and potting: lack of materials; seedlings are overgrowing Leucaena species provided not trichandra Weed invasion on nursery beds Lack of shade for already pricked seedlings Poor compaction of soil poor management of some nurseries Slow germination in wet beds under a dense shade moisture stress in some beds 56

57

58 Thank You


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