Presentation on theme: "The break down of Détente. 1972 over 30 countries participate in a European Security Conference. They produced a final agreement on August 1, 1975 "— Presentation transcript:
The break down of Détente
1972 over 30 countries participate in a European Security Conference. They produced a final agreement on August 1, 1975 It consisted of Three Baskets
Security: All countries recognize Europe’s borders after 1945, they cannot be changed by force. This makes Poland’s border safe from German aggression, as well as recognizes the legitimacy of two separate Germany’s.
Co-operation: It created closer ties and collaboration between countries in economic, scientific and cultural areas. By working together, countries invest more in each other and benefit from maintaining peace. A war will be much more costly to everyone
Human Rights: All countries agreed to respect human rights and individual freedoms: thought, conscience or religion and freedom of travel…Soviets were not too happy. “Well, who’s the master of this house? We are the masters of this house and each time it will be up to us to decide how to act. Who can force us?” - Andrei Gromyko (Minister of Foreign Affairs)
Soviets expected Ford to win reelection and continue détente as usual Nov Carter won due to Ford pardoning Nixon, people did not trust the government and felt Carter was a good guy who would never lie to them Carter had a combo of good intentions, strong ideas but vague policies Brezhnev assured the new president the USSR would not do anything to test him
Carter’s national security advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski was the son of a Polish diplomat and a leading scholar on Soviet totalitarianism…he was also anti-détente Neo-Conservatives began to question and attack détente, claiming it was weakening America and allowing the USSR to grow stronger
Carter insisted the Soviets live up to their promises in the Helsinki Accords and began to talk to Soviet dissidents 1977 KGB cracked down on the Helsinki watch groups and arrested activists Brezhnev was more concerned with continuing arms limitation talks, SALT II was almost complete
Brezhnev stated he does not seek superiority in delivering a first strike, that Soviet goals were purely defensive Soviets wanted to keep using back door channels with the US…but Carter saw this as dishonest and refused Carter introduces a new arms control proposal which would eliminate ½ the Soviet Satan rockets and the US would promise not to deploy any more missile systems
This meant that all the work on SALT II would be thrown out…Brezhnev’s health was failing, partly due to the stress of those talks. He could not handle any more It was time to teach the Americans a lesson, the Soviets very rudely rejected the American proposal The next Soviet-American summit was postponed and did not meet until Jun 1979, when Brezhnev was near physical and mental disintegration
World Energy crisis hit in the 70’s, hurting America and benefiting the USSR Carter moves closer to China, giving full diplomatic recognition to the CCP and breaking relations with Taiwan in 1978
Shah of Iran was put in power by the CIA in 1953, he was hated by Islamic Fundamentalists A general strike occurs, Shah flees and Islamic Fundy Ayatollah Khomeini takes over, creating a new constitution based on Islamic Law Carter allows the Shah (suffering from cancer) to seek asylum in the US, the “Great Satan” according to Khomeini who demands we return the Shah
Islamic students take 50+ American hostages at the US embassy in Tehran Carter avoided using the military as long as he could but eventually tries to rescue the hostages. It is a complete failure Iranians burn US flags and flaunt our weakness The hostages were held for 444 days. If Carter had been successful he most likely would have won reelection in 1980.
Carter put an embargo in grain sales to the Soviets and boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow Dec 24 th 1979 the USSR invaded Afghanistan, ending any ties that remained with the US DÉTENTE IS DEAD