Critical Thinking and MemoryCritical Thinking and Memory Critical thinking is being in charge of your thinking –Evaluate assumptions –Discover the facts –Recognize contradictions –Explore consequences –Compare perspectives –Analyze arguments
Memory Learning takes time –Focus –Repeat material to remember –Have a positive attitude –Use your Learning Preference style Flash Cards Acronyms (first letter of sentences) Acrostics (poem or song to remember sequences) 2 hours of homework for every hour in class
Group Map projectGroup Map project Place of birth or parent place of birth far away. Tell something unique about your birthplace or one of your parent’s birthplaces. What are the similarities and differences between your birthplace and your parent’s birthplaces?
Definitions: From: Global Citizen 2000, Rutgers http://gc2000.rutgers.edu/GC2000/
Stereotype In social sciences, humanities, and journalism – simplifying generalizations people use when they think about and/or act toward other individuals or groups. Provide ready-made images or list of attributes that purportedly reflect “the true essence” of a group Stereotypes do not take into account the many differences that exist among individual members Hamper ability to develop more accurate concrete and empathetic understanding of other groups or individuals Targets of stereotypes often become victims of PREJUDICE and DESCRIMINATION
Discrimination vs PrejudiceDiscrimination vs Prejudice Discrimination When a person is subjected to restrictions or receives unfair treatment on the basis of ascription to a group (or social category) without consideration for the individual merit. Based on prejudice or stereotype Discrimination is actual behavior Prejudice Negative or hostile attitude toward a person or group formed without just grounds or sufficient knowledge and based on negative stereotypes. Based on hasty, unconsidered judgment and can lead to discrimination Prejudice is an attitude.
Anti-Semitism Prejudice or discrimination against Jewish people when Jews are considered an inferior race
Homophobia Prejudice or discrimination against homosexuals (gays or lesbians) Based on the negative stereotype of their sexual orientation
Racism Prejudice or discrimination based on two assumptions 1.Humans can be meaningfully divided into biologically separate races 2.Race determines specific traits and abilities such as: Intelligence Type of skills General ability to acquire and develop “culture”
Sexism Prejudice or discrimination based on stereotypes of gender.
Diversity and ToleranceDiversity and Tolerance What is diversity? Why is diversity important?
Diverse environmentsDiverse environments …can help to prevent discrimination and promote inclusiveness.
Diversity …encompasses acceptance and respect. …means: –understanding that each individual is unique –recognizing our individual differences
Diverse PopulationsDiverse Populations Have different: –backgrounds –experiences, –knowledge –Understanding –Customs –Favorite foods
Diverse WorkplacesDiverse Workplaces …make the product better for consumption for all lifestyles.
Diversity and LearningDiversity and Learning …go hand in hand. People of different cultural, ethnic, religious, and societal backgrounds bring their various experiences with them
Prejudice, Fears, & StereotypingPrejudice, Fears, & Stereotyping Are learned behaviors Interfere with healthy communication and trust between individuals and groups of different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds
Unlearn These BehaviorsUnlearn These Behaviors Just as these behaviors are learned, they can also be unlearned.
1 Out of 100 College Educated1 Out of 100 College Educated
Quote You have not converted a man because you have silenced him. ~John Manley~ Canadian lawyer, businessman, and politician
Multiculturalism In a Diverse Society Erika Delamar Modified by Jenny Peters
Why Is Diversity a Concern? Kern County population breakdown: American Indian (.6%) Asian (4.1%) Black (5.3%) Hispanic (49.2%) Multirace (2.1%) Pacific Islander (.1%) White (38.6%) Source: Kern Economic Development Corporation 2014
Why should you be concerned with diversity? Educational institutions are mandated by the government to teach diversity Differences exist: –In your neighborhood –At school –At work –In society You are unique –So is everyone else –Think about it What can you do to help someone be more positive? What can you do to help someone feel accepted? How can you increase your own self esteem? What are some good ways to not let anyone ridicule you? –One solution: Understand your own family culture Compare similarities and differences from other cultures
Appreciate your culture Goal: Ask family members (parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles) about family traditions and customs Learn about your own heritage Regardless of culture, human beings are more similar than different.
We are the Same, Yet Different! Goal: E xplore similarities and differences. What do you have in common with others? How do you differ from others? What are some of the common elements that every culture has?
The World How many people there are in the world? –6 billion people How many different languages are spoken? –2800 languages –If an equal number of people spoke each language that would be 2 million people per language
America: the Flag of Diversity Individuality helps make America a wonderful and diverse nation. Appreciate others for their own individualities and differences. Class discussion What makes America unique? What are some major differences Americans have? What do all Americans have in common?
Friendship Chain Friends –Express positive feelings towards each other Class discussion What makes a good friend? How did hearing good things about yourself make you feel? What does chain of friendship mean to you?
Accountability Diversity and tolerance: understand and appreciate my culture understand and appreciate other cultures respect the difference among others identify similarities and differences of my classmates express positive feelings towards others identify ways to build my self-esteem Open mindedness helps me to feel: better about myself more comfortable with self and culture comfortable sharing and expressing feelings to others tolerate of people’s differences
A Class DividedA Class Divided Jane Elliot video video
Personal RightsPersonal Rights 1.The right to be treated with respect 2.The right to express your feelings 3.The right to be heard and taken seriously 4.The right to set your own priorities and say “no” without feeling guilty 5.The right to make mistakes 6.The right to assert yourself 7.The right to tell someone else what your needs are, even if the other person feels your needs are illogical, doesn’t want to hear about your needs, feels hurt of upset about your needs, or feels that it isn’t appropriate that you have these needs. Cheryl Gallegos Nell, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor
News BiasNews Bias “Only the Facts Please” By Frederick Allen Saturday Evening Post May/June 2013
How do you know you can trust what you read? Ways to identify non-political bias: Commercial Bias – preference for existing stories over less dramatic news Bad News Bias – Bad news that scare us sell better than good news Status Quo Bias – Assumption that the system works and things are mostly okay. Visual Bias – Preference for stories with good pictures
How to recognize news bias?How to recognize news bias? Start by recognizing there is no such thing as completely unbiased news.
How to recognize the objective truth in news 1. Is the news source slanted or liberal? –Fox News –MSNBC News
How to recognize the objective truth in news 2. Separate news from opinion –Ask yourself: is the news a report or opinion? Front Page News vs. Editorial Commentary Talking Points Memo (left) vs Drudge Report (right)
How to recognize the objective truth in news 3. Be Suspicious – Separate Truth from Fiction –Keep your antennae out for anything that sounds untrue –If something you hear or read seems questionable: Google or Google News Factcheck.org Politifact.com Snopes.com
How to recognize the objective truth in news 4. Balance your news diet –It is vital to take in opposing positions –Between one extreme and the other lies the truth But above all…
How to recognize the objective truth in news 5. Recognize your own Biases –News sources present news the way you like it –This tends to strengthen people’s prejudices –Be aware of prejudice tendency in yourself –It’s there in all of us
Quick-Write 8Quick-Write 8 “We all live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same.” ~ Anne Frank ~
Diversity Paper TopicDiversity Paper Topic 50 points Due next week Write a Diversity paper based on the following quotation by Donald Williams: “For those who have seen earth from space, and for the hundreds and perhaps thousands more who will, the experience most certainly changes your perspective. The things that we share in our world are far more valuable than those which divide us”.
Shadows of HateShadows of Hate Acknowledge – similarities and differences Acceptance – of other cultures who do not believe as you do Action – Choose your responses to prejudice and discrimination with the truth, understanding, critical thinking and open mindedness.
Tolerance Respect – yourself and others Honesty Self-Esteem Protect the innocent “Persist against social injustice” Learned behavior can be relearned
Why relearn?Why relearn? How I feel about myself and others affects: Health Attitude Society And Children
Homework RecapHomework Recap Due next week: Diversity Paper Read pp. 36-56 of Successful Strategies –Intro to Career Development, Education Pays, Personality Mosaic, Choosing a Major, Making Decisions Read pp. 6-14 of How to Write a Student Educational Plan –Programs, Certificates & Degrees