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October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice.

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Presentation on theme: "October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice."— Presentation transcript:




4 October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice

5 Most important event


7 Domesticated animals muscovy duck turkey guinea pig llamas alpacas No large herd domesticated animals

8 cornkidney beans peanutslima beans potatoestobacco tomatoessquashes avocadosquinoa pineapplecotton PeppersCacao VanillaNutmeg

9 Peppers Columbus 1495 Within 50 years spread world Portuguese to piri-piri to Africa from Brazil, around horn of Africa to India thrived, now thought native All species in Africa today

10 Why so popular? 1.Grow easily 2.Many varieties 3.Maintain heat when dried

11 3,000 varieties worldwide

12 Peppers in nightshade family related to tomatoes, potatoes eggplant, tobacco datura, henbane

13 Chile, chilli, chili Capsaicin indestructible cold, heat, water Vitamin A9x more green pepper Vitamin C 2x more than oranges Potassium Magnesium Antioxidants

14 Chili peppers Capsaicinoids reduce blood clots dissolves fibrin relieve arthritis (topical) lower cholesterol increase blood flow in vessels release endorphins

15 Increase immune system decrease inflammation Decrease blood pressure Decrease stomach acid help ulcers Antimicrobial kills salmonella, H. pylori Antiviral stops transcription

16 Pain killer release neurotransmitter (substance P) Arthritis 3months, 81% relief Nerve pain 50% improvement Shingles Diabetic neuropathy Headaches (nostril)

17 Wilbur Scoville 1912 Now use liquid chromatography

18 Pure capsaicin 16 million SHU Pepper spray 5 million SHU Varies soil more sunlight = hotter

19 Trinidad moruga scorpion 2 million SHUs Carolina reaper 2.2 million SHUs Ghost pepper or naga 1 million SHUs

20 Uses: flavor smeared on fences hand grenades pepper spray

21 Red Savina 250,000 Scoville Habanero 100,000-350,000 SHU Cayenne 30,000-50,000 SHU

22 Serrano 10,000-25,000 SHU

23 Jalapeno 2,500-5,000 SHUs Tabasco, paprika 2,500-8,000 SHU

24 Poblano 1,000-2,000 SHU rellenos

25 Anaheim 500-2,500 SHUs Pimento, banana Pepperoncini 100-500 SHU

26 Pimiento (cherry pepper) Indigenous to Jamaica Major pepper produced in Jamaica Today export $5 million, 1000 metric tons

27 Used in cheese Sandwich meat Stuffed olives mixed with gelatin, large sheets machine stuffed 1962

28 Sweet bell peppers 0

29 Put out the fire! NO WATER Fat milk yogurt ice cream Peanut butter Alcohol beer

30 Chili powder Actually a mixture of spices Aztecs used similar Developed in Texas 1835

31 Vanilla 250 active ingredients Foods, perfumes, toothpaste Ice cream Florida, Australia, New Zealand 5.5 million ton of vanilla consumed/yr

32 Most popular flavor in the world Only edible orchid

33 Montezuma gifted to Spanish Aztecs gave to Quetzalcoatl at Tenochtitlan Gave Cortez chocolatl ground cacao annatto seeds chile pepper vanilla

34 Why expensive??? Orchid pollinated by indigenous bees, hummingbirds Seed pods take 6-9 months to mature Hand pollinated if not native soil Dried, wrapped to prevent fermentation Cured in airtight metal boxes

35 Vanilla planifolia Epiphyte


37 Commercially grown on bamboo

38 200 phytonutrients Mainly vanillin cancer influences 64 genes with a role in cancer Sickle cell anemia

39 Cacao Native to American tropics Small tree, rich soil, lots of water 4 years, harvest until 80 Flower forms on main trunk red pod full of beans fermented, dried Contains caffeine and theobromine




43 Gift from the gods Originally bitter drink used for ceremonies or added to other dishes NahuatlNahuatl word xocolātl Aphrodisiacs 1900 BC

44 OlmecVera Cruz Mayan Aztectraded 100 beans worth a canoe 100 beans worth a turkey Pueblo traded with Mesoamerica

45 Columbus found on 4 th trip did not understand its importance Cortes first to drink1519

46 1500s added sugar from West Indies Spread throughout Europe Dutchman Casparus van Houten learned to add milk found how to remove fat by hydraulic Press 1828 and make a cake of the chocolate

47 Dutched chocolate treated with alkaline lighter, sweeter neutral pH can not be used in recipes calling for baking soda Only baking powder

48 Cadburyboxed chocolates1868 Nestlemilk chocolate1875 Lindtconching (machine)1879 Hersheychoc. Covered carmels 1893

49 1831 Cadbury planned chocolate factory 1894 Milton Hershey, Penn. 1907 Hershey’s kisses 2008 3,000 products from chocolate


51 Alkaloids: salsolinol phenylethylamine antidepressant caffeine stimulant theobromine


53 Pimento tree

54 Discovered by Columbus 1494 but did not get recognized until 17 th century Only spice native to W. hemisphere Leading industry in Jamaica

55 Flavors: Jamaican jerk German sauerbraten Scandinavian Pickled herring Cincinnati chile

56 Medicine Eugenolpain desensitizer (i.e. cloves) Antiviral Antibacterial Analgesic Anesthetic AntifungalAthlete’s foot

57 Antioxidant 25 active phenols Decrease BP by increase blood flow Russian soldier, 1812, Napolean

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