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Where can we find bacteria?. What are bacteria? Unicellular microorganisms Different shapes – sphere (coccus), rod (bacillus), spiral Don’t have a membrane.

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Presentation on theme: "Where can we find bacteria?. What are bacteria? Unicellular microorganisms Different shapes – sphere (coccus), rod (bacillus), spiral Don’t have a membrane."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where can we find bacteria?

2 What are bacteria? Unicellular microorganisms Different shapes – sphere (coccus), rod (bacillus), spiral Don’t have a membrane bound nucleus – genetic material is typically in a single circular chromosome

3 What are bacteria? Found in every habitat on Earth Approximately 10 times as many bacterial cells as human cells in the human body First discovered in 1676 using a microscope First antibiotic developed in 1910

4 What diseases are caused by bacteria? Necrotizing faciitis – flesh eating bacteria – Caused by different types of bacteria

5 What diseases are caused by bacteria? Anthrax – caused by Bacillus anthracis – Unusual because it can form long-lived spores – Has been used as a biological warfare agent and in bioterrorism

6 What diseases are caused by bacteria? Plague Leprosy Tuberculosis Food poisoning

7 Salmonella

8 Salmonella enterica Rod–shaped flagellated bacterium Discovered by American scientist named Daniel Salmon Infects cattle and poultry (chicken and eggs) Disease Salmonellosis – included diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps 40,000 cases reported a year, about 400 people a year die of Salmonellosis Avoid by not eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs

9 Peanut Butter and Salmonella Salmonella enterica typhimurium recently found in peanut butter products that came from a peanut processing facility Hundreds have become sick, possibly 6 died as a result

10 E. coli

11 Commonly found in lower intestines of warm- blooded animals Most strains are harmless but some cause food poisoning Harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut – they benefit the host by producing vitamin K or by preventing the establishment of harmful bacteria

12 E. coli Harmful strains produce toxins that cause illness Illness is associated with eating unwashed vegetables or contaminated meat Fecal-oral transmission The illness can be fatal In 2006, E. coli strain O157:H7 found in spinach Prevent illness by washing hands, cooking food thoroughly, washing veggies, avoid unpasteurized dairy

13 Is all bacteria bad? Who likes cheese? Yogurt? – Bacteria is used in dairy processing -Lactobacillus

14 Is all bacteria bad? Bacteria to clean up oil spills – Bacteria feed on the toxin and break it down – Pseudomonas putida

15 Is all bacteria bad? Nitrogen fixing bacteria – plants

16 Is all bacteria bad? Useful in science – molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry Grow quickly and have simple DNA Can insert DNA into them and get many copies of it – cloning Or insert DNA and determine function of a gene or what effect a mutation has

17 What are fungi? Eukaryotic organisms Heterotrophs – get their energy from organic materials (do not photosynthesize) Most are multicellular, some unicellular Includes yeasts, molds, mushrooms

18 Diseases caused by fungi Ringworm Athelete’s foot

19 Are all fungi bad? Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum produces the antibiotic Penicillin

20 Practices to avoid bacteria and fungi Hand washing Cooking food properly Washing fruits and vegetables

21 Practices to avoid bacteria and fungi What else?

22 Photo Credits Slide 1 (Title): and L_MaC_P jpghttp://www.norcalblogs.com/ L_MaC_P jpg Slide 2: Slide 4: Slide 5: and and Slide 6: Slide 7: Slide 9: Slide 10: Slide 13: and Slide 14: and Slide 15: Slide 18: and Slide 19: and 0CYA% jpghttp://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/images/pen1.jpg Slide 20 and 21: and and ??http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/Specials/Swine-flu-2009/images/washing-hands.jpghttp://www.curebum.com/images/washing_vegetables_fruits.jpg


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