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Extending Student Thinking 2010: A presentation created by the Lower Dauphin Administrative team.

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1 Extending Student Thinking 2010: A presentation created by the Lower Dauphin Administrative team

2 EQ: How does Extended Thinking impact student achievement?

3 Top Five What are the Top Five Strategies that Most Impact Achievement? Percentile Gain 1. Extended Thinking Skills Summarizing34 3. Vocabulary in Context33 4. Advance Organizers28 5. Non-Verbal Representations25

4 What is Extended Thinking? Work with your partner to create a definition of Extended Thinking. Now let’s work together to create a group definition!

5 What are the Extended Thinking Skills? Abstracting Comparing/Contrasting Classifying/Categorizing Constructing Support Analyzing Perspective Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Error Analysis

6 Learning Units Acquisition Culminating Activity Test Activating Extended Thinking Can you identify each part of a Learning Unit? What does each color represent?

7

8 EQ: How can I extend my students thinking through Classification?

9 What is Classifying?

10 Remember $25,000 Pyramid? Let's Watch!

11 Now It’s your turn to give it a try!!!

12 Things you stir

13 Things that wander

14 Things put on with a brush

15 Things in a basket

16 Classifying is the process by which we organize things into groups on the basis of their attributes

17 CLASSIFY sort attributes group organize rank order

18 hoose the items to classify ist the attributes of an item sk if there are other items like it tate the rule for the category elect another item and its attributes and identify others like it dentify the rule for the new category ind other categories until all items are classified ou might need to combine or split up categories

19 How to Classify… 1. Choose the item to classify Candy bars!!!!

20 How to Classify… 2. List the attributes of an item 1.Chocolate 2.Peanut Butter 3.Multiple pieces

21 How to Classify… 3. Ask if there are other items like it 1.Chocolate 2.Peanut Butter 3.Multiple pieces

22 How to Classify… 4. State the rule for the category *Candy bars made of chocolate, peanut butter, and multiple pieces

23 How to Classify… 5. List the attributes of another item 1.Chocolate 2.Caramel 3.Nougat

24 How to Classify… 6. Ask if there are other items like it 1.Chocolate 2.Caramel 3.Nougat

25 How to Classify… 7. State the rule for the category *Candy bars made of chocolate, caramel, and nougat

26 How to Classify… 8. Repeat steps until all items are classified

27 How to Classify… 9. Is there another way I could classify these items?

28 In pairs, look at your list of fictional characters and classify them using this process Let’s Practice!

29 Now share the groups you created with your table group

30 How could you use classification in your classroom? Remember that the purpose is to extended your students’ thinking!

31 Types of triangles Math

32 Words with short vowels Language Arts

33 Symbols of America Social Studies

34 Extending Thinking through Classifying Generate 2 pyramid categories based on what you teach Keep them a secret!!! Take turns being the giver or the guesser

35 SUMMARIZER How did classifying extend your thinking? How else can you use classification to extend your students’ thinking?

36 Examples in the classroom… Social Studies – “How might the states be classified other than regions?” Math –Place the following math problems, shapes, fractions, etc. into groups. Reading – Sort words by vowel pattern, prefix, etc.; Sort by type of figurative language Writing – Write a classification essay Science – Use a matrix graphic organizer to classify animals: fish, reptile, bird, mammal, or amphibian What questions can you pose to students that are examples of classifying?

37 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? What items will students classify? Will students be given the items or will they identify their own list? Will students need a scaffold to help them identify? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

38 EQ: How can I extend my students thinking through Analyzing Perspective?

39 What is Analyzing Perspective?

40 What’s your perspective on… Dieting? Civil rights? Marriage? Animal rights? Smoking in public places? Parenting?

41 Analyzing Perspective is describing reasons for a personal viewpoint as well as the viewpoint of others

42 What is Homer Simpson’s perspective on… Dieting? Parenting? Free cable? Let's Watch!

43 Stick Figure Perspective

44

45 ANALYZE PERSPECTIVE logic opinion position evidence fact analyze

46 How to Analyze Perspective… 1. On an issue of different opinions, first identify your own perspective. What do you think?

47 How to Analyze Perspective… 2. Try to determine the reasons or logic behind that perspective Why do you think that?

48 How to Analyze Perspective… 3. Identify a different perspective What does Homer think?

49 How to Analyze Perspective… 4. Try to determine the reasons or logic behind that perspective Why does he think that?

50 How to Analyze Perspective… 5. Identify a different perspective What does The Cable Guy think?

51 How to Analyze Perspective… 6. Try to determine the reasons or logic behind that perspective Why does he think that?

52 How to Analyze Perspective… 7. Identify a different perspective What does Flanders think?

53 How to Analyze Perspective… 8. Try to determine the reasons or logic behind that perspective Why does he think that?

54 In pairs, watch the video clip and think about each character’s perspective on summer vacation. Let’s Practice! Let’s watch!!!

55 Stick Figure Perspective

56 Now share the perspectives you identified with your table group

57 How can you use Analyzing Perspectives in your classroom? Remember that the purpose is to extend your students’ thinking!

58 SUMMARIZER How did analyzing perspective extend your thinking? How else can you use analyzing perspective to extend your students’ thinking?

59 Examples in the classroom… Social Studies – Write a poem for 2 voices which illustrates 2 perspectives from a historical event (ex. King George v. George Washington) Math –You have been asked to find the area of this figure. Explain how to do the task. Then explain how someone else might do the task and why. Reading – Increase story comprehension describing it from the point of view of each character Writing – RAFT writing Science – being built near a lake in your town: describe the perspective of the chemical company, town mayor, owner of home near lake, fish What questions can you pose to students that are examples of Analyzing Perspective?

60 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? Is there an issue related to my content that would lend itself to analysis? How much of the process will students complete independently? What graphic organizer will help students to analyze various perspectives? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

61 EQ: How can deductive reasoning be used to extend student thinking about content?

62 EQ: What questions can you pose to students that are examples of deductive reasoning?

63 What is Deductive Reasoning?

64 On your own, develop a Haiku riddle about one character on the list. HAIKU

65 A HAIKU Reminder ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 5 syllables 7 syllables 5 syllables

66 When you are finished, take turns trying to guess your tablemates’ riddles. Why is solving a riddle based on a list of characters Deductive Reasoning?

67 Deductive Reasoning is identification of specific examples to support a general statement, rule, or principle.

68 DEDUCTIVE REASONING Cause & effect conclusion If…then assumption true prediction

69 Deductive Reasoning Reaching conclusions based on known facts, principles, or generalizations. (based on what I know to be true) If _____ is true then ________. Let’s watch!!! – One Minute Mystery One Minute Mystery – Worlds Smartest Dog Worlds Smartest Dog

70 Steps in Deductive Reasoning 1.Identify the generalization(s) that apply to the situation. 2.Identify the conditions or reasons that have to be in place for that generalization. 3.If the conditions are in place, determine whether the generalization is true or false.

71 Examples for the classroom… Social Studies – examine a historical event’s causes and effects Math – Tangrams cut from a square must be able to be reassembled in a square Reading – word splash: student’s make predictions on what the story is about Writing – write a riddle to be answered by a partner Science – Have students predict results of an experiment based on previous experiment results What questions can you pose to students that are examples of deductive reasoning?

72 How can you use Deductive Reasoning in your classroom? Remember that the purpose is to extend your students’ thinking!

73 You try it!! With your collaborative partner, work together develop a graphic organizer that provides an example of deductive reasoning.

74 Premise Logic is valid conclusion

75 SUMMARIZER How else can you use deductive reasoning to extend your students’ thinking? Provide an example, in your content area, where you could add a deductive reasoning extended thinking strategy to an EATS plan.

76 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? Is there an issue related to my content that would lend itself to deductive reasoning? How much of the process will students complete independently and how much will be provided? What graphic organizer will help my students to use the deductive reasoning process? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

77 EQ: How can inductive reasoning be used to extend student thinking about content?

78 EQ: What questions can you pose to students that are examples of inductive reasoning?

79 What is Inductive Reasoning?

80 Examine the characters on the list. What do you think is the title of the book they were taken from? TITLE?

81 When you are finished, take turns sharing your titles. Why is generating a title for a book based on its list of characters an example of Inductive Reasoning?

82 Inductive reasoning is inferring unknown generalizations from information or observations.

83 INDUCTIVE REASONING hypothesis observation logical assumption valid inferring

84 Inductive Reasoning Questions: What does this information tell you? What is a likely conclusion? How did you reach that conclusion? Let‘s watch!!! YouTube - A Lesson In Logic

85 Steps in Inductive Reasoning 1.Focus on specific pieces of information or observations. 2.Do not assume anything. 3.Look for patterns or connections in the identified information. 4.Make a general statement that explains the observed pattern. 5.Make additional observations to see if the generalization holds up. If not, change the generalization.

86 Examples in the classroom… Social Studies – examine artifacts from a particular culture – what inferences can you draw? Math – measure interior angles of several triangles to discover is always 180 degrees. Reading – solve Dr. Doriddles “I cover that tree, I cover that log, or else I’m a sound that’s made by a dog.” What am I? Writing – PWIM – (Picture Word Inductive Model) Teacher selects a picture - student lists words they know associated with picture - student classifies words by attributes - creates title for picture- builds sentences Science – Inquiry based experiment What questions can you pose to students that are examples of inductive reasoning?

87 How can you use Inductive Reasoning in your classroom? Remember that the purpose is to extend your students’ thinking!

88 You try it!! With your collaborative partner, work together develop a graphic organizer that provides an example of inductive reasoning.

89 Specific information or observation Patterns or connections Is there additional information I can find to support the conclusion General conclusions or predictions

90 SUMMARIZER How else can you use inductive reasoning to extend your students’ thinking? Provide an example, in your content area, where you could add an inductive reasoning extended thinking strategy to an EATS plan.

91 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? What information will students be given and in what form? How much of the process will students complete independently and how much will be provided? What graphic organizer will be best for organizing the information? How will my students summarize and show what they have learned? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

92 EQ: How do I impact student learning by using comparing and contrasting to better understand content?

93 What is Comparing and Contrasting?

94 Choose 2 characters on the list. Discuss their similarities and differences with your partner. What do you think?

95 Comparing and Contrasting is the identification of similarities and differences.

96 COMPARE & CONTRAST different although as well as however compare same

97 Steps in the Process 1.Select items to compare. 2.Select characteristics of the items on which to base comparisons. 3.Explain how items are similar and different with respect to characteristics. 4.Summarize what has been learned.

98 How to Compare and Contrast… 1.Select items to compare.

99 How to Compare and Contrast… 2. Select characteristics of the items on which to base comparisons. Whopper vs. Big Mac

100 How to Compare and Contrast… 3. Explain how items are similar and different with respect to characteristics. Taste Condiments Nutrition Quantity Grill v. Flame Broil

101 How to Compare and Contrast… 4. Summarize what has been learned.

102 Compare & Contrast: Your Turn Compare and contrast inductive and deductive reasoning with your partner.

103 How can you use Compare and Contrast in your classroom? Remember that the purpose is to extend your students’ thinking!

104 Examples for the classroom… Social Studies – Compare & contrast two different explorers Math – Write different math problems about the same picture, then compare operations and numbers used Reading- Read two poems and then use a graphic organizer to identify similarities and differences Writing – Writing a compare and contrast essay based on graphic organizer Science –Write a Diamante-Comparing & contrasting two animals that live in the in the same ecosystem What questions can you pose to students that are examples of Comparing and Contrasting?

105 SUMMARIZER How else can you use compare and contrast to extend your students’ thinking? With your partner, develop two compare and contrasting strategies that can be used as a preview, activator, teaching strategy, distributed guided practice, or a summarizing strategy.

106 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? What items will students compare? Where will they get the information they need for the comparison? What are the characteristics for the comparison? What graphic organizer will be best for organizing the information? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

107 EQ: How do I impact learning by finding and describing errors in both my own thinking or performance, and in the performance of others?

108 What is Error Analysis?

109 Do you believe this list is valid? Did the author show bias in creating it? Explain your response. What do you think?

110 Error Analysis is finding and describing errors in the thinking or performance of yourself or others.

111 ERROR ANALYSIS errors Opinions analyze credibility bias persuade

112 Steps in Error Analysis 1.Identify the situation 2.Identify unusual claims or reasoning 3.Look for errors in the claims, the thinking, or steps in the process 4.If errors are found, look for more clarification or more accurate information

113 How to Analyze Error… 1.Identify the situation

114 How to Analyze Error… 2. Identify unusual claims or reasoning A message from Tony Hayward

115 How to Analyze Error… 3. Look for errors in the claims, the thinking, or the steps in the process

116 BP Timeline April 20 - Deepwater Horizon rig hit by explosion. Eleven workers die. Rig sinks.. April 22-The Deepwater horizon rig burned for more than a day and ultimately sank into the Gulf April 24 - Incident response team reports first oil leaking from blown-out well. April 28-BP officials announced that they had underestimated the flow by fivefold. May 6-a specially constructed containment vessel was lowered into the Gulf of Mexico, but ice crystals plugged the top of the structure, preventing it from capping the leak. May 11- Lamar McKay and officials from BP service providers Transocean and Halliburton, all tried to deflect blame for the Gulf of Mexico disaster. May 17-BP reports that a tube it had inserted into a broken pipe was gathering more than one- fifth of the oil gushing from the Gulf of Mexico spill, but that sliver of good news was offset when scientists reported that the spill had found its way into the Gulf of Mexico's powerful loop current, and that oil could be headed for Florida and the East Coast of the United States May 20-Kevin Costner and his brother have created a device they say can separate fuel from water by using centrifugal force. May 24-BP officials acknowledged public frustration that they had been unable to halt the spill. May 25-members of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee vowed to hold BP 'fully accountable' for the disaster. May 29 - Effort to "top kill" the well by pumping heavy fluid into it declared unsuccessful. June 3 - BP and contractors succeed in placing cap on well to collect leaking oil.

117 How to Analyze Error… 4. If errors are found, ask for clarification or more accurate information JUNE 9, 2010 (CNN) -- Federal authorities have given BP a 72-hour deadline to provide contingency plans for the collection of oil in the Gulf of Mexico, according to a letter -- sent to the company.

118 Analyze 2 activating strategies, instructional strategies, or assessments in a specific content area. Is there bias toward one method vs. another? Persuade your partner on the merits of your method. Was there discovery of any errors regarding methodology or pedagogy?

119 Examples for the classroom… Social Studies – Study a historical event that ended badly to discover where the errors may have occurred. Math – Study a completed math problem to discover where the mistake occurred Reading- Identifying Fact and Opinion Writing – Analyzing writing with a rubric Science –Dr. Whoops just completed an experiment and it was a failure. Read the steps he took to determine why the error occurred. What questions can you pose to students that are examples of Error Analysis?

120 SUMMARIZER How else can you use error analysis to extend your students’ thinking? How can you incorporate error analysis into your teaching throughout the school year?

121 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? Is there an issue related to my content that would lend itself to error analysis How much of the process will students complete independently and how much will be provided? What graphic organizer will help my students use the error analysis process? How will students summarize and show what they have learned by using an error analysis process? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

122 EQ: How does constructing support increase student achievement?

123 EQ: How can constructing support be added to an EATS lesson?

124 What is Constructing Support?

125 With your partner, select the character on the list you believe had the biggest influence. Why did you select that character? What do you think?

126 Now share the character you chose with your table group

127 Constructing Support is providing proof to support an opinion.

128 CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT justify support opinion verify persuade proof

129 Constructing Support Our ability to provide support or proof of our statements. Why would activities that require students to construct support increase student achievement? When choice and emotions are involved students will tend to be more actively engaged.

130 What does constructing support require? Collect Data Develop a deeper understanding of new information Provide choices Use techniques and skills related to persuasion Engage our emotions as well…

131 Steps in the process 1.Identify statement or argument 2.Determine whether the situation or position warrants support 3.Identify reasons for support 4.Supply facts, evidence, examples or appeals to support the position

132 Graphic Organizer: CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT IDEA Identify the issue Decide your position, which is your “opinion” Examine the reasons Argue your position using “facts”

133 Graphic Organizer: CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT IDEA Identify the issueDecide your position, which is your “opinion” Examine the reasons Argue your position using “facts” What is the perfect food? Name of the foodGive the reasons to support your “opinion” A strong argument includes detailed “facts” as support Write a persuasive letter to the Food Network

134 Graphic Organizer: CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT IDEA Identify the issueDecide your position, which is your “opinion” Examine the reasons Argue your position using “facts” What is the perfect food? Peanut butter is the perfect food. The protein and fiber help you feel full. It contains mostly healthy fats The protein gives you energy It’s affordable It tastes great Peanut butter is the perfect food because it is nutritious, delicious, and budget friendly.

135 Graphic Organizer: CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT IDEA Identify the issueDecide your position, which is your “opinion” Examine the reasons Argue your position using “facts” What is the perfect food? ??? What food will you choose?

136 With your partner, select the character on the list you believe is the most popular. Why did you select that character? SUMMARIZE

137 Now share the character you chose with your table group

138 How could you apply this graphic organizer to your content area? IDEA Identify the issue Decide your position, which is your “opinion” Examine the reasons Argue your position using “facts”

139 SUMMARIZER How else can constructing support be used to increase student achievement?

140 Examples in the classroom… Social Studies- Which historical period, state, etc. is the most important and why -use personification Math –Name shapes and write why each is useful Reading –Which character is most important to the story and why? Writing – Write a persuasive essay Science – Which type of weather has the greatest impact on our lives and why? What questions can you pose to students that are examples of Constructing Support?

141 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? Is there a position that could be defended related to this content? How much of the process will students complete independently, and how much will be provided? What graphic organizer will be best for organizing the information? How will students summarize and show what they have learned? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?

142 EQ: How can abstracting be used to extend student thinking about content?

143 EQ: How can abstracting be added to an EATS lesson?

144 What is Abstracting?

145 What’s the relationship between or among words or concepts? Let’s try a few: IRON: ANEMIC as WATER: _____________ (caustic, dehydrated, humidified, flowing)

146 See how you do ANGLE : POLYGON as RAY : __________________ (point, line, circle, arc) COUNTY : NEW YORK as PARISH : _____________________ (priest, church, Louisiana, Colombia) SOUTH AMERICA : PAMPAS as NORTH AMERICA : _______________ (Rockies, states, prairies, borders) SONAR : SOUND WAVES as RADAR : ______________________ (light waves, telegraphy, electromagnetic waves, broadcasting)

147 Here are a few more WELDER : TORCH as PAPERER : ______________ (glue, staples, wall, sponge) DYNE : FORCE as _____________: LOUDNESS (amp, minute, sone, din) DICKENS : PIP as ______________: FANTINE (Eliot, Thackeray, Austen, Hugo) NIXON : AGNEW as EISENHOWER : ____________________ (Kennedy, Truman, Dulles, Nixon)

148 Abstracting is the process of finding, identifying, and explaining general patterns in specific information, and applying this information to a new situation.

149 ABSTRACTING relationship generalize specific associate pattern order

150 How can abstracting help improve student achievement? Being able to recognize patterns is a foundational skill for most subject areas. Patterns help us to organize and use information more easily. This process helps build connections between different sets of information, deepening our understanding of both sets of information.

151 How is this accomplished? Abstracting enables us to compare and contrast types of information, even though they may not seem similar at all. Comparing unfamiliar or new with something familiar, we can… improve communication deepen comprehension provide insight to the recipient

152 Steps in the process 1.Identify what is considered important information 2.Write the information in a more general form – Replacing specific words with more general things – Summarize information whenever possible 3.Find new information or situations where the pattern applies

153 First ExamplePatternSecond Example Graphic Organizer: ABSTRACTING

154 ABSTRACTING: Money & Food First ExamplePatternSecond Example Money comes in different denominations Something comes in different forms There are many forms of food Some money is worth more than others Some forms are more valuable than others Some foods are more nutritious than others Money can be combined in different ways to get the same amount ?? Money is exchanged for goods and services ??

155 ABSTRACTING: Money & Food First ExamplePatternSecond Example Money comes in different denominations Something comes in different forms There are many forms of food Some money is worth more than others Some forms are more valuable than others Some foods are more nutritious than others Money can be combined in different ways to get the same amount Different combinations result in the same outcome Different combinations of food can provide the same nutritional value Money is exchanged for goods and services Something is exchanged for something else Food is exchanged for energy

156 In pairs, look at your list of fictional characters and identify one to represent each of the 8 thinking strategies Let’s Practice!

157 Now share the characters you chose with your table group

158 First ExamplePatternSecond Example How could you apply this graphic organizer to your content area?

159 SUMMARIZER How else can abstracting be used to extend student thinking about content?

160 Examples in the classroom… Social Studies- Finding a pattern in a historical event (like a war), then identifying other historical events with similar patterns Math –Complete the analogy; Find the pattern Reading – Use a story map to identify story elements in a fiction story. Now find the same elements in other stories Writing – Writing a metaphor poem Science – Learning the life cycle of one organism, then identifying organisms with similar life cycles What questions can you pose to students that are examples of Abstracting?

161 Consider… What is the purpose of the lesson? What is the Essential Question that communicates the purpose? Is there an abstract pattern or theme in the information? How much of the process will students complete independently and how much will be provided? How will students summarize and show what they have learned by completing the abstracting? How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?


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