Presentation on theme: "Dr. Paul A. Hall, RM (NRCM) President"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Paul A. Hall, RM (NRCM) President Protecting Our Products and Consumers in a Global Economy A Presentation at the 6th Dubai International Food Safety Conference February 27 – March 1, Dubai, United Arab EmiratesDr. Paul A. Hall, RM (NRCM)President
2 Producing Safe Food is Our Top Priority! Consumer protection and trustConsumers must be able to trust the brands they buy and the food they eatFood safety is absolutely critical to that trustBusiness survival/self-interestOur brands are our most important assetHistory is replete with brands and businesses being destroyed because of a lapse in food safetyIndustry responsibilityMoral obligation to produce food as safe as practicalIndustry pledge not to make safety a competitive issue
3 Why is Food Safety our Top Priority? It is a smart investment in doing food safety rightThe changing global food safety landscape demands more diligence, flexibility, and speed than ever before.The cost impact of not doing food safety right is higher than it’s ever been.The benefits of doing food safety right contributes directly to the bottom line – and not just in cost avoidance.Consumer and regulatory scrutiny are at an all time high.World class companies that win in the marketplace have world class food safety principles.
4 Our Global Food Supply Food is a heavily traded commodity Global agricultural trade in 2009 was valued at $1.01 trillion (WTO, 2011)Food imports into the U.S. has averaged >10% annual growth over the past 5 yearsProjected to climb to over $80B in 2011>9M entries of imported food into the U.S. passing through >300 entry points each yearThe United Arab Emirates imports approximately 80% of their food with China, India, and the United States being the top three sourcing countries
5 Factors Impacting Food Safety There are a number of factors directly impacting the safety of today’s food supply:Globalization of our food supplyIntensive animal husbandry and agricultural practicesCentralized food processing and manufacturingDemographic changes and consumer behaviorChanges in the microbes themselvesClimatic and environmental changesIncreased regulatory and public scrutiny
6 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Globalization of Our Food Supply Sourcing of food ingredients and commodities outside of the U.S. has dramatically grown over the past decadeFrom $32.44B in 1996 to $77B in 2009 (USDA ERS)Food imports from developing countries is skyrocketing:Mexico/Central America $13.2BSouth America $ 9.0BChina/Asia $10.9BAfrica $ 1.6BMiddle East $ 0.8BIMPLICATION: Imported foods, especially from developing countries, are inherently riskier as food safety systems are rudimentary or non-existent
7 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Intensive Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Practices The world’s population is projected to grow by 2025 to over 7.8B people, with the U.S. population growing to over 337 million peopleAn estimated 20 million acres of farmland is replaced annually due to growing populations and urbanizationGiven these trends, large-scale, intensive animal production and farming practices are projected to accelerate in future yearsIn the U.S., intensive animal husbandry accounts for ~53% of total domestic agricultural incomeAs a result, about 130 times more animal waste is produced than human waste – roughly 5 tons for every U.S. citizen.Manure has been the source of pathogens in a number of major foodborne illness outbreaksThe FAO estimates that worldwide food production will have to increase 70% by 2050IMPLICATION: Increasing pressure from ranching and farming practices on the environment will increase the likelihood of pathogens entering the food supply
8 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Centralized Food Processing and Manufacturing In the early 20th century and before, food processing was confined to relatively small surrounding geographic areasIngredients and raw materials were obtained from the local area and distribution and consumption was limited to that localeFoodborne illness outbreaks at that time were smaller and limited in scopeToday with modern transportation and distribution systems, food processors source ingredients and raw materials from around the world as well as distribute finished products globallyImprovements in mechanization, distribution systems, and food production techniques have enabled producers to leverage scale through the centralization of food manufacturingThis trend allows for efficiency of scale, more consistent quality product, and enables the use of economically-favorable labor and localesIMPLICATION: When a failure in food safety systems occur, more people become ill and outbreaks are dispersed over a wide geographic range and more product is involved in resulting recalls
9 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Demographic Changes and Consumer Behaviour International migration will continue to a major factor impacting foodborne illness in the U.S.Changing ethnicity patterns result in changing food preferences and practices that can result in food safety issuesThe aging of the population is a major factor impacting food safetyThe population aged 65 years and over is projected to increase by 78.6% by 2025Infectious diseases, including foodborne diseases, are a problem for the elderly because of declining immune functionOther segments of the population that are more susceptible to foodborne disease include pregnant women, neonates, and the immunocompromisedIt is estimated that 20-25% of the population is at increase risk for foodborne disease at any given time
10 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Demographic Changes and Consumer Behaviour (con’t) Changing trends in food consumption patterns impact food safety:Per capita Consumption (lbs/person)ChickenRed MeatFish/ShellfishFruits/Vegetables (1970)The consumer trends toward the consumption of organic, natural, and less processed foods has led to increased food safety challengesResearch has shown that organic food products are riskier from a microbiological safety perspective than conventional foodsConsumers engage in risky food safety practices despite health warnings and recommendationsIMPLICATION: New technologies and systems are needed to ensure the safety of today’s consumer-preferred food products. New approaches to consumer education are needed regarding safe food handling practices
11 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Changes in the Microbes Themselves Microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, have evolved a variety of strategies to ensure their survivalOver the past two decades, there have been a number of foodborne pathogens that have emerged with newly-acquired characteristics including:Escherichia coli O157:H7 (tolerates high acid products)Listeria monocytogenes (able to survive and grow at refrigerated temperatures)Campylobacter jejuni (leading of diarrheal illness in the U.S.)Salmonella enteriditis DT104 and other salmonellae (resistant to multiple antibiotics)Food formulation and processing changes can induce changes in pathogens (cross-tolerance effects)Exposure to acidic environments can confer increase heat resistance and increased tolerance to saltIMPLICATION: Food safety systems must be designed to be robust enough to cover ever-evolving foodborne pathogens
12 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Climatic and Environmental Changes It is well-documented that climate can have a dramatic influence on the prevalence of foodborne diseaseSeasonality has been described for a number of foodborne and waterborne pathogens:Outbreaks of E.coli O157:H7 peak during the warmest months (May – October)Salmonella and Vibrio infections also tend to peak in the warmer monthsThe type of intensity of precipitation also has a dramatic effect on disease occurrenceEl niño weather pattern changes have been linked to a number of foodborne and waterborne outbreaksContaminated groundwater has been the source of contamination of many types of food products in the pastIMPLICATION: Efforts must be made protect food products and ingredients from environmental influences
13 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Increased Regulatory and Public Scrutiny The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has in place a foodborne epidemiologic surveillance network (FoodNet) that enables the rapid detection of foodborne outbreaksThe CDC also has a companion genetic detection network (PulseNet) that allows for rapid identification and genetic “fingerprinting” of foodborne isolatesThese capabilities allow the government to quickly trace the source of contamination from patient to product to plantFoodNet data from 2009 has confirmed an increase in foodborne illnesses due to Vibrio but a decline in other pathogensAllergen and chemical contaminant concerns over the past decadeAllergens are the second leading cause of recalls in the U.S. behind microbiological pathogensMelamine in pet food is one of the latest chemical contaminants of concern
14 Factors Impacting Food Safety: Increased Regulatory and Public Scrutiny (con’t) Because of the ability to identify and trace the source of foodborne outbreaks there is much more activity in the regulatory arena and public awareness and scrutiny is higher than everFood recalls continue at an unabated rateMore regulations are being promulgated to address food safety issuesConsumer groups are increasingly active and continue to gain influence in the area of food safetyCongressional pressure is being applied to FDA/USDA to be more aggressive in addressing food safety issues (e.g. passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act in the U.S.)Continued press coverage contributes to the erosion of consumer confidence in the safety of the food supplyLawsuits related to foodborne illnesses continue at an unprecedented rateFood safety has become a “hot button” from an international trade perspective (e.g. BSE, bioterrorism, chemical contaminants)IMPLICATION: These drivers of the changing food safety landscape mean that managing food safety issues are more challenging and more is at stake than ever before
15 Causes of Foodborne Contamination Food Products can become contaminated via several routes:Naturally occurring (raw foods)Underprocessing/improper processingRecontamination/cross-contaminationPathogensSpoilage organismsAllergensChemical contaminantsIntentional contaminationEconomic adulteration (e.g melamine)Bioterrorism
16 Managing the Food Safety Landscape Progress continues to be difficult as shown by recent events that have shaken consumer confidence in the safety of the U.S. food supplyMajor outbreaks continue in the U.S. resulting in a continuing stream of costly product recalls:Pot pies (Salmonella) $20+ millionPeanut butter (Salmonella) $66+ millionSpinach (E. coli O157:H7) $25-50 millionPet food (melamine) $40+ millionChili sauce (botulism) $35 million
17 Salmonella in Low Moisture Foods Salmonella is found in a wide variety of low moisture food products:Chocolate/cocoa productsDesiccated coconutAlmondsPeanuts and peanut productsFlour and grainsDairy powdersJerkyDried fruitsDehydrated vegetablesCereal and cereal productsSpicesDry pet foods
18 Food Producers Must Challenge Old Beliefs in Food Safety! Example: moisture control of pathogens in foodsControl of moisture content to preserve foods has been done since antiquityControl from the microorganism’s perspective is measured in terms of the available water (versus unavailable bound water) that can be utilized for growth and metabolismFood microbiologists generally describe the water requirements of microbes in terms of the water activity (aw) of the foodAw also has an interactive effect with other variables such as pH, salt, heat, and preservativesReduced aw can induce a number of “stress response” changes in the microbe that can enhance heat resistance and prolong survival in the product
19 Approximate aw Values for Growth of Selected Pathogens in Food
22 Peanut Butter Industry Facts Peanut butter is a ~1 billion $ industry in U.S.5 major manufacturers account for 75% of production50% of U.S. peanut crop used for peanut butterPeanut butter is found in 90% of homes in U.S.Average consumer eats peanut butter 27 times/year
23 Peanut Butter Characteristics Peanut Butter is produced from roasted shelled peanutsFat content ranges 49-52%Salt is usually added at a 1-2% final concentration (lower in dietetic formulations)Moisture content <1%, aw <0.3%Low aw precludes the active growth of spoilage organisms and pathogens
24 Peanut Butter Manufacturing Raw Shelled Nuts Roasted (Continuous or Batch 170º -180º C)Blanched to Remove SkinsGround and Milled(Salt/Dextrose/Stabilizers Added)Homogenized (optional)Packaged
25 Salmonella in Peanut Butter Raw peanuts, as with other raw agricultural commodities, are known to be contaminated with Salmonella sppStudies have shown that the most heat resistant strain (Salmonella seftenberg) is inactivated by peanut roastingContamination of peanut butter with Salmonella spp. occurs via post- roasting recontaminationPrevention of recontamination depends largely upon effective separation of raw peanuts (and associated dust/fines) and the post-roast processing areasOnce peanut butter is contaminated with Salmonella spp., it will survive for prolonged periods of time
26 History of Salmonella in Peanut Butter First outbreak linked to peanut butter was reported in Australia in (Salmonella Mbandaka)Salmonella Agona outbreaks reported in 1996 in 4 countries was associated with the consumption of a peanut butter coated RTE savory snackFirst outbreak in the U.S. traced to Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter was reported in February 2007A second major outbreak in the U.S. was traced to Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter in 2008 – 2009
27 Factors Contributing to the 2007 Salmonella Recall Inadequate separation of pre-roast/post-roast processing areas.Dust/fines present in the post-roast areasRoof leak and faulty sprinkler head leak introduces moisture into the environment allowing for potential growth of Salmonella TennesseeDuring subsequent processing, handling, and filling, Salmonella Tennesee found its way into the product
28 Factors Contributing to the 2007 Salmonella Recall Typical dry cleaning procedures were not able to eliminate the pathogen from the environmentEnvironmental monitoring procedures were insufficient to detect the organism in the environmentFinished product testing also did not detect the organism implying sporadic contamination
30 Avoiding Food Safety Issues – Putting it all Together
31 Putting it all Together The food industry must be committed to the highest possible standards of food safety throughout its operations and should take significant measures to that end:Each food company should have an established Senior Leadership position, to bring additional focus to developing and implementing programs that continuously improve product safety and design.Companies should consider the use of external expert food safety advisory bodies and process authorities to provide guidance on issues of food safety.Companies should have the proper checks and balances to ensure that their suppliers and co-manufacturers are in compliance with established food safety standards.
32 Putting it all Together HACCP and associated pre-requisite programs should be the cornerstone of a company’s food safety program:HACCP plans should be reassessed ideally on an annual basis or if there are any significant process changes.HACCP plans should be developed using experienced cross-functional teams and reviewed/approved by a third-party expert authority if in- house expertise is not available.Food Safety Assessments should be conducted to determine if the HACCP plan and pre-requisite programs are being followed and to identify gaps in the food safety system.Food companies should require that their suppliers and co- manufacturers have implemented a valid HACCP plan and associated pre-requisite programs.
33 Putting it all Together Food Companies must commit to making significant capital and resource investment to ensure the production of safe food:Installation of state-of-the art equipment and process redesign.Complete separation of raw ingredients from finished product areas.Implementation of an aggressive environmental monitoring program for pathogens or indicators of pathogens in the plant.Implementation of a validated allergen control plan.Implementation of statistical sampling plan for finished product testing on all lots of finished product (where it adds value).Use of the latest leading-edge detection technologies for all pathogen testing.
34 Putting it all Together Sponsorship of leading-edge research for control of pathogens in food products from farm to fork.Proactive leadership in external committees, trade organizations, and research institutions to promote food safety.Conduct in-depth safety and quality system and capabilities assessments using cross-functional teams and independent technical experts at targeted manufacturing plants.Assess overall recall and traceability processes across our supply chain.Assess organizational capabilities across Operations to ensure proper resource allocation.
35 Future NeedsNeed a quantum leap forward in hygienic equipment design and cleaning/sanitation of equipment for dry processesNeed to understand how novel technologies can be brought to bear to improve the safety of these products (many of which are low margin, commodity type products)Need to understand the distribution, incidence, and levels of pathogens in raw materials such as raw peanuts so that meaningful quantitative risk assessment can be doneNeed to develop industry-wide approach to sampling and testing plans, especially when a positive result occursNeed to educate management that just because a low moisture product does not support pathogen growth, it does not mean it is a “safe product”