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Salmonella in low Aw Foods A paradigm shift Brian A. Nummer, PhD. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Salmonella in low Aw Foods A paradigm shift Brian A. Nummer, PhD. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Salmonella in low Aw Foods A paradigm shift Brian A. Nummer, PhD. 1

2 Salmonella risk Which would you choose as the greatest risk … last year / this year? 2

3 Salmonella Salmonella The paradigm shift Yesterday: Growth Water activity below 0.9 pH below 4.6 Heat to approx ◦ F. (pasteurization) Drying Today: Survival Survives Aw to below 0.3 Survives in acid foods Resistant to heat Resistant to drying Known to survive many months or more 3

4 Salmonellosis outbreaks in low Aw foods chocolate dry infant formula raw almonds toasted oat cereal dry seasonings paprika-seasoned chips dried coconut infant cereals peanut butter 4

5 Few outbreaks, but high no. illnesses Although Salmonella outbreaks from low-moisture products are relatively rare, they often impact large numbers of people. >200 cases were attributed to toasted oat cereal in 11 states between April and June 1998, >600 cases were attributed to peanut butter in 47 states between August 2006 and May 2007, >600 cases have been attributed to peanut butter and peanut butter-containing products in 43 states between September 2008 and January Due to the large number of unreported cases of salmonellosis for all types of products, the actual number of cases was likely much higher. 5

6 Current outbreak 6

7 …and more Salmonella is pervasive! 7

8 …and more, still March 30, Stop eating pistachio nuts, the FDA says. They may carry food-poisoning salmonella bacteria. The nuts came from a large shipment of 1 million pounds of pistachio nuts sold to 36 different wholesalers nationwide, more recalls are expected, says FDA. 8

9 Where are they coming from? 9

10 So, why do they survive in the plant and in inhospitable foods? 10

11 Biochemistry Lesson I 11

12 Biochemistry Lesson II Polymerase transcribes DNA to mRNA – Sigma factors assist polymerase binding to genes – Several sigma factor groups (the stress sigma factor increases transcription of all genes that it binds to: heat, acid, drying, etc) 12

13 So, what exactly do we do? 13

14 No. 1. Get Management Support Dear Mr. or Ms. CEO, CFO, COO, EiEiO: There were 175 manufacturers of candy listed on the latest recall list of peanut butter products. Assuming a cost of 1-10 million dollars per company, that adds up to 175 million dollars to 1.7 billion dollars lost to the industry. Where does your bottom line meet food safety? 14

15 GMA Salmonella control plan 1.Prevent ingress or spread of Salmonella in the processing facility. 2.Enhance the stringency of hygiene practices and controls in the Primary Salmonella Control Area. 3.Apply hygienic design principles to building and equipment design 4.Prevent or minimize growth of Salmonella within the facility 5.Establish a raw materials/ingredients control program. 6.Validate control measures to inactivate Salmonella. 7.Establish procedures for verification of Salmonella controls and corrective actions. 15

16 My Salmonella control plan 1.Prevent ingress of Salmonella a.Establish a raw materials & ingredients control program 2.Prevent spread of Salmonella in plant a.Create Salmonella Control area to confine high risk ingredients within the facility b.Enhance sanitation in the Salmonella Control Area. Apply hygienic design principles to building and equipment design 3.Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP a.Apply control measures to inactivate Salmonella. b.Verify inactivation using sound science c.Keep excellent records of all CCP’s 16

17 1. Prevent ingress of Salmonella Salmonella controls 1. Prevent ingress of Salmonella Identify ingredients with risk Replace high risk ingredients (e.g. irradiated nuts) Create new HACCP Prerequisite program 17

18 2. Prevent spread of Salmonella Salmonella controls 2. Prevent spread of Salmonella Create Salmonella control area 18

19 Enhance sanitation and controls in the Salmonella Control Area Salmonella controls Enhance sanitation and controls in the Salmonella Control Area Enhanced Sanitation – Redesign plant / equipment (Use “wet” process mentality) – Rethink “dry only” sanitation Sanitation audits (internal and external) – In-house monitoring **simple! – Remove bad news barriers Create a Salmonella action plan for positives 19

20 Re-apply sanitation design Salmonella controls Re-apply sanitation design 20

21 In-house monitoring 21

22 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Salmonella controls 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Review HACCP flow chart and identify step(s) where 1 or more control measures can be instituted Consider adding control measures as CCP’s E.g. Add spice to water and pasteurize before mixing into high sugar product 22

23 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Salmonella controls 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP E.g. Add spice or high risk ingredient to water and pasteurize before mixing into high sugar product – Salmonella lethality in Aw >.95 is minutes at 150 o F – Salmonella lethality in Aw <.65 is may be as much as 260 minutes at 150 o F 23

24 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Salmonella controls 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Establish process control measures to inactivate Salmonella Validate using U.S.U. Food Safety program pathogen lab or similar resource FDA said during the peanut butter recall – “all products are considered adulterated unless scientific evidence exists demonstrating a 5-log reduction of Salmonella” 24

25 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Salmonella controls 3. Prevent survival of Salmonella in foods using HACCP Verify process has required lethalities Verify HACCP records are adequate and are produced Self audit the new HACCP plan – Will it withstand an FDA voluntary recall request? Consider an outside audit of the new HACCP Plan 25

26 Plan for a recall! Salmonella controls Plan for a recall! Revisit your recall and crisis management prerequisite program – Insert materials that would support your Salmonella Control Program, especially lethality measures Encourage management to revisit insurance, legal assistance, etc. for crisis management – Understand new pass along recall fees from major retailers Consider strengthening lot coding or tracing methods to minimize recall impact 26

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