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Mycotoxins – A Challenge to Trade and Commerce Suzanne Heinen Administrator Foreign Agricultural Service U.S. Department of Agriculture February 14, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Mycotoxins – A Challenge to Trade and Commerce Suzanne Heinen Administrator Foreign Agricultural Service U.S. Department of Agriculture February 14, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mycotoxins – A Challenge to Trade and Commerce Suzanne Heinen Administrator Foreign Agricultural Service U.S. Department of Agriculture February 14, 2013

2 Aflatoxin: Impacts Food and Feed Poultry fed with Contaminated Feed ( >500 PPB) Pig on the right is consuming feed with aflatoxin.

3 35ºN 35ºS Aflatoxin Contamination: A Perennial Concern in Warm Climates

4 Regulating Aflatoxin Action Level CommodityPermitted Use (Examples) 300 ppbCottonseed meal Beef cattle, swine, poultry (regardless of age or breeding status) 300 ppbCorn, Peanut ProductsFinishing beef cattle (e.g., feedlot) 200 ppbCorn, Peanut ProductsFinishing Swine (100 lbs or more) 100 ppbCorn, Peanut Products Breeding beef cattle, breeding swine, mature poultry 20 ppb Corn, Peanut Products, Other Animal Feed/Feed Ingredients 1 Immature animals, dairy animals 0.5 ppb (M 1 ) Milk 1 Excluding cottonseed meal except for use in feeding dairy animals 20 ppbCorn, Peanut ProductsHuman food

5 Aflatoxin and US Trade ` ` 46 23 33

6 Mycotoxins and Turkish Trade

7 Specific Incidents of Aflatoxin Contamination in West Africa P RIMARY P RODUCTS Maize: 4,000 – Benin Peanut: 925 – Burkina Sorghum: 80 – Ghana Rice: 372 – Nigeria Millet: 200 – Nigeria Tiger nuts: 120 – Nigeria F OOD P RODUCTS Peanut paste: 3,278 – Ghana Peanut sauce: 943 – Ghana Leaf sauce: 775 – Gambia Maize dough: 313 – Ghana Kenkey: 524 – Ghana Cashew paste: 366 – Ghana Peanut oil: 500 – Nigeria Yam flour: 7,600 – Nigeria Local beer: 135 – Nigeria L EVELS S HOWN IN PPB C ODEX : 10-15 PPB FOR H UMAN F OOD U SES OTHER THAN MILK

8 African Trade World Bank; Mbaye (2004) Groundnut Pyramids in Nigeria during 1960s

9 Toward Improved Trade  Standards  Farmer awareness  Organized commodity markets  Sampling & testing regime  Laboratory system  Participation in international standards organizations Strong industry organization Transparent & scientific regulatory system

10 Thank You


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