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1 Infrared Space Astrometry mission for the Galactic Bulge Naoteru Gouda Naoteru Gouda JASMINE Project Office JASMINE Project Office National Astronomical.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Infrared Space Astrometry mission for the Galactic Bulge Naoteru Gouda Naoteru Gouda JASMINE Project Office JASMINE Project Office National Astronomical."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Infrared Space Astrometry mission for the Galactic Bulge Naoteru Gouda Naoteru Gouda JASMINE Project Office JASMINE Project Office National Astronomical Observatory of Japan National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 3 Dec. 2013

2 §1. Galactic Bulges §2. Surveys of the bulge of the Milky Way galaxy (the Galactic bulge) §3. Astrometry and Upcoming space astrometry missions §4. Small-JASMINE project §5. WISH as an infrared space astrometry mission 2

3 §1. Galactic Bulges 3 Classical bulges: e.g. M81 [NASA] Disk-like bulges (aka pseudo- bulges): e.g. NGC 6782 [NASA] Box/Peanut bulges (aka pseudo-bulges): e.g. ESO 597-G 036 [NASA] Bulges are complex! Classical bulges Disk-like bulges(aka pseudo-bulges) Box/Peanut bulges(aka pseudo-bulges) 〇 stick out of disk plane (not as flat as the disk) 〇 more or less sphroidal 〇 featureless: no spiral arms, bars, rings,… 〇 mostly old stars 〇 kinematically hot: dynamically supported by stellar velocity dispersions 〇 seem to be built mostly by mergers, fast bursts of star formation 〇 as flat as the disk 〇 substructures: nuclear bars, spiral arms, rings,… 〇 young stellar populations or ongoing star formation 〇 kinematically cold: dynamically supported by rotation of its stars 〇 seem to be built mostly via disk instabilities: continuous, smooth process 〇 stick out of the disk 〇 box or peanut-like morphology 〇 usually featureless 〇 usually does not show young stellar populations or star-forming regions 〇 kinematically cold: dynamically supported by rotation of its stars 〇 the inner parts of bars that grow vertically thick due to dynamical instabilities! Key issue: Features of each type, origin and evolution ・ Formations and evolutionary processes of galaxies ・ Orbits of stars, phase space density in complex structures of bulges : key tracers of galaxy formations

4 4 Co-evolutions of super massive BH s and bulges (STScI/NASA) Magorrian relation (Marconi & Hunt 2003, ApJ, 589, L21) Origin and evolution of the super massive black hole at the Galactic center? merging of small and/or medium BHs? gas accretion? ★ Supper massive BH at the galactic center  Activity of the galaxy ★ The mass of SMBH correlates with the mass of the bulge. Connected growth of BHs and bulges!?

5 §2. Surveys of the bulge of the MW 5 The Milky Way  box/peanut bulge! COBE/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, etc. =>The Milky Way: very important target galaxy!! It is possible to observe in the Milky Way indivisual stars in many directions and to obtain information on their 3-dimensional positions, 3-dimensional velocities and metalicity with good accuracies, which is, in, general, still not possible for galaxies outside the MW. Vertically thin long bar + vertically thick inner part(box/peanut) The properties of the bar affects dynamics : spiral arm location, resonances, gas inflow, etc. *Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentum transport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulges Clarification of the Galactic bar/bulge and its origin  Very important for studies of the formation and evolution of disk- galaxies high-quality observational data( both kinematical and chemical) to test the theories regarding the origin and subsequent history of the bulges

6 ★ Surveys of the bulge of the MW are necessary and important! 6 VVV survey: ZYJHKs Photometry + 100 epochs in Ks Bulge 300 sq deg. VISTA 4.1m telescope at ESO sensitivity:0.84 to 2.5 microns APOGEE survey: High-resolution H-band spectroscopic survey 2.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory APOGEE-1(SDSS-III): 100,000 giants to magnitude H=12.5 Bulge stars:7000 R~20000- 30000, S/N~100 Wavelength1.52-1.69  m velocity error 0.5 km/s 15 elements error of 0.1 dex APOGEE-2(S) (SDSS-IV) has been proposed to NSF The same instrument as that of APOGEE-1 will be set at Las Canpanas Observatory ~90,000stars in the bulge Mission period: 2014-2019

7 ★ VVV, APOGEE, BRAVA, ARGOS, ・・・ 7 Photometry, radial velocities and elemental abundances of stars in the bulge of the MW Furthermore we need astrometric parameter: ・ annual parallax ・ proper motion 3-dimensional positions and velocities of stars will be provided.

8 8 Trace of a star : Helical motion annual parallatic ellipse + proper motion(straight line) Astrometry: Fundamental task of measuring stellar positions Helical motion of a star §3. Astrometry and Upcoming space astrometry missions Repeated measurements 2D-positions of stars in space

9 9 1. Apparent annual elliptical motion *Parallactic Ellipse (annual parallax) Distances of stars 2. Systematic displacement of stellar positions Proper motion *Proper motion + Distance Tangential velocities of stars Helical motions of stars Astrometry => important information of distances and tangential velocities of stars

10 Residual motions from the helical motion Periodic residual motions Physical characters such as mass of binary stars, mass of planets etc. Very important information !! Binary systems, Planetary systems, Gravitational lens effects, effects of starspot, etc.

11 11 Space Astrometry Projects Remark: Infrared astrometry mission (Small-JASMINE) has advantage in observing stars in the Galactic bulge, hidden by interstellar dust in optical bands.

12 ★ Gaia(ESA’s mission) *Gaia will be launched at 19 th Dec.,2013. *Gaia will be launched at 19 th Dec.,2013. *The final catalogue will be released in 2021. *The final catalogue will be released in 2021. *all sky survey in an optical band *all sky survey in an optical band *G-band ( 0.33-1.0 micron )、 6mag < G<20mag *G-band ( 0.33-1.0 micron )、 6mag < G<20mag *accuracies of parallax:  *accuracies of parallax:  as(6 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3456143/12/slides/slide_11.jpg", "name": "★ Gaia(ESA’s mission) *Gaia will be launched at 19 th Dec.,2013.", "description": "*Gaia will be launched at 19 th Dec.,2013. *The final catalogue will be released in 2021. *The final catalogue will be released in 2021. *all sky survey in an optical band *all sky survey in an optical band *G-band ( 0.33-1.0 micron )、 6mag < G<20mag *G-band ( 0.33-1.0 micron )、 6mag < G<20mag *accuracies of parallax:  *accuracies of parallax:  as(6

13 13 §4. Small-JASMINE project Astrometric Measurement in Hw-band (1.1  m~1.7  m) Infrared astrometry missions have advantage in surveying the Galactic bulge, hidden by interstellar dust in optical bands! Accuracy: parallax: 10  as ~70  as for Hw<11.5mag *10  as distance accuracy:~640pc@8kpc proper motion: 10  as/yr ~70  as/yr for Hw<11.5mag *t angential velocity accuracy: 0.4~2.8km/s @8kpc (if the distance is accurately determined) position: 8  as ~40  as for Hw<11.5mag photometry(Hw-band) <0.01 mag Survey Area: Near the Galactic center + some directions toward interesting target objects (e.g CygX-1, planeray systems, browndwarfs. star- forming regions besides the area near the center)

14 14 The Number of Objects: toward the Galactic bulge : <10kpc: ~120,000 (6kpc { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3456143/12/slides/slide_13.jpg", "name": "14 The Number of Objects: toward the Galactic bulge : <10kpc: ~120,000 (6kpc

15 15 Advantage of Small-JASMINE Small-JASMINE is a unique space astrometric measurement in Hw- band to get the accurate astrometric data for many stars in our Galactic bulge. Small-JASMINE: ~ a few 10 3 stars of the bulge in its small survey area (with <0.1) Gaia: ~a few stars of the bulge in the same area as that in Small-JASMINE (with <0.1) Survey area of Small-JASMINE ★ Another advantage: High time resolution!! Small-JASMINE will measure the same target every 100 minutes if the target is located towards the Galactic bulge. If a target is located toward other direction and Small-JASMINE can measure it in summer or winter season, Small-JASMINE measure it frequently as needed. *Gaia can measure the same target every one or two months.

16 Scientific targets of Small-JASMINE 1. The origin and evolution of the Galactic bulge * 3D-distributions of stellar positions and velocities in the inner part of the bulge   its origin and relation to galaxy formations and evolutions * star formation history in the Galactic bulge 2. Astrophysics around the Galactic center * Formation of Super massive black hole at the Galactic center  Effect on stellar velocity distribution * Motion of star clusters  the origins of star clusters, the gravitational potential field around the Galactic center * existence of an inner bar structure  effect on star formation around the center * Frequent and long-period monitor of Sg r A*  existence of QPO  Informtion of spin of SM-BH 16

17 Scientific targets of Small-JASMINE 3. Compact celestial objects * Determination of orbit element of X-ray binaries and  -ray binaries  Big revolution!  physics of accretion disk and jets, etc. *a good candidate of X-ray bursts : Cyg X-1:(l=71°, b=+3°) period:5.6 days( unmeasurable by Gaia) companion star: mv~9mag, change of the position: 40~50μas measurable by Small-JASMINE * *the Galactic ridge X-ray  dim point sources  CVs(cataclysmic variables, symbiotic star) or late-type stars 4. Extra-planets * detection of planets by astrometric method (e.:g. primary star low-mass star(late M-dwarf, brawn dwarf): H-10mag,V=16-18mag) 5. Gravitational lens: Search of Wormholes!? 6. Stellar physics, Star formation * 3-Ddistribution of inter -stellar dust * annual parallax and proper motions of Mira-type variable stars in the bulge 17 Good candidates of  -ray bursts: LS5039, J1018, LSI+61

18 Information of radial velocities, chemical composition and photometry (in other bands) is complementary to Small-JASMINE for these scientific targets in the Galaxy. 18 Cooperation with APOGEE-S and VVV is very strong synergy for studies of the Galactic bulge. MOU for powerful scientific collaboration between APOGEE-2(S), SDSS-IV collaboration and Small-JASMINE has been concluded.

19 19 Design of Small-JASMINE instrument Optics design: Modified Korsch System (3mirrors) Material: Synthetic Silica Aperture size: 0.3m Focal length: 3.9m Field of view: 0.6 degree 0.6 degree Detector: Hw-band: HgCdTe(H4RG), Number of detectors: 1 pixel size:10  m the number of pixels:4096 4096 potential well:100,000 read-out noise :30e Structure model of the mission system (JAXA) J, H-bands for photometry

20 第 53 回 宇宙科学技術連合講演会 20 Integration System Design task of the integration system Satellite system -Compatibility of the bus system -Control system of the pointing of the telescope -Thermal structure Small-JASMINE Satell ite sysytem Missio n system Bus system Therma l cont rol Struct ure Te l eme try Data h andlin g Electronic power Attitude control 2nd propulsion  commission the task to companies  prospects are almost good

21 21 We need astrometric measurements for the Galactic bulge survey with larger area which overs the whole region of the bulge than the survey area of the Small-JASMINE. ★ Small-JASMINE will provide many interesting results in wide fields of astronomy and astrophysics. however

22 §5. WISH as an infrared space astrometry mission 22 WISH : wide survey with accurate measurements in infrared bands  WISH has high possibility to play a role as an infrared astrometry mission for the Galactic bulge astrometric measurements with achievement of ~10  as accuracy Pointing stability ( 70mas/3sec) of the telescope and thermal stability(~0.1K/30h) of the instruments are required in the design of the WISH satellite. Required stability of the pointing of the telescope for WISH (70mas/300sec) is sufficient enough to achieve 10μas precisions of asttrometric measurements. *The Galactic bulge survey with area of 6°(b)×16°(l) *Precisions of ~10μas ( K<11mag) *necessary observation time: 0.6years/5years(1.4months/1year: 20days in spring and 20days in autumn) *option: survey area of 3 °(b)×16°(l)  0.3years/5years WISH

23 23 Our JASMINE team is willing to contribute to the WISH mission for the resolution of technical issues, the development of the satellite, and data analysis if WISH will play a role as an infrared astrometry mission for the Galactic bulge!! We hope that the WISH mission will be successful.

24 24 Jasmine Thank you for your attention.


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