Presentation on theme: "Infrared Space Astrometry mission for the Galactic Bulge"— Presentation transcript:
1Infrared Space Astrometry mission for the Galactic Bulge Naoteru GoudaJASMINE Project OfficeNational Astronomical Observatory of Japan3 Dec. 20131
2§1. Galactic Bulges§2. Surveys of the bulge of the Milky Way galaxy(the Galactic bulge)§3. Astrometry and Upcoming space astrometrymissions§4. Small-JASMINE project§5. WISH as an infrared space astrometry mission
3§1. Galactic Bulges ：key tracers of galaxy formations Bulges are complex!Classical bulges: e.g. M81 [NASA]Disk-like bulges (aka pseudo-bulges): e.g. NGC 6782 [NASA]Box/Peanut bulges (aka pseudo-bulges):e.g. ESO 597-G 036 [NASA]Classical bulgesDisk-like bulges(aka pseudo-bulges)Box/Peanut bulges(aka pseudo-bulges)〇 stick out of disk plane(not as flat as the disk)〇more or less sphroidal〇featureless: no spiral arms,bars, rings,…〇mostly old stars〇kinematically hot:dynamically supported bystellar velocity dispersions〇seem to be built mostlyby mergers,fast bursts of star formation〇 as flat as the disk〇substructures: nuclear bars, spiral arms,rings,…〇young stellar populations orongoing star formation〇kinematically cold:dynamically supported byrotation of its stars〇seem to be built mostly via diskinstabilities: continuous, smooth process〇stick out of the disk〇box or peanut-like morphology〇usually featureless〇usually does not show young stellarpopulations or star-forming regions〇kinematically cold:dynamically supported byrotation of its stars〇the inner parts of bars that growvertically thick due to dynamicalinstabilities!・Formations and evolutionary processes of galaxiesKey issue:Features of each type,origin and evolution・Orbits of stars, phase space density in complex structures of bulges
4Co-evolutions of super massive BH s and bulges ★Supper massive BH at the galactic center Activity of the galaxyOrigin and evolution of the super massive black hole at theGalactic center?merging of small and/or medium BHs?gas accretion?★The mass of SMBH correlates with the mass of the bulge.(Marconi & Hunt 2003, ApJ, 589, L21)Magorrian relation(STScI/NASA)Connected growth of BHs and bulges!?
5§2. Surveys of the bulge of the MW high-quality observational data( both kinematical and chemical) to testthe theories regarding the origin and subsequent history of the bulges=>The Milky Way: very important target galaxy!!It is possible to observe in the Milky Way indivisual stars in many directions and to obtain information on their 3-dimensional positions,3-dimensional velocities and metalicity with good accuracies, which is, in, general, still not possible for galaxies outside the MW.The Milky Waybox/peanut bulge!COBE/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, etc.Vertically thin long bar + vertically thick inner part(box/peanut)*Bars themselves can evolve secularly through angular momentumtransport, producing different boxy/peanut and X-shaped bulgesThe properties of the bar affects dynamics :spiral arm location, resonances, gas inflow, etc.Clarification of the Galactic bar/bulge and its origin Very important for studies of the formation and evolution of disk- galaxies
6★Surveys of the bulge of the MW are necessary and important! VVV survey: ZYJHKs Photometry＋100 epochs in KsBulge 300 sq deg.VISTA 4.1m telescope at ESOsensitivity:0.84 to 2.5 micronsAPOGEE survey:High-resolution H-band spectroscopic survey2.5m telescope at the Apache Point ObservatoryAPOGEE-1(SDSS-III):100,000 giants to magnitude H=12.5Bulge stars:7000R~ , S/N~100Wavelength mmvelocity error 0.5 km/s15 elements error of 0.1 dexAPOGEE-2(S) (SDSS-IV) has been proposed to NSFThe same instrument as that of APOGEE-1will be set at Las Canpanas Observatory~90,000stars in the bulgeMission period:
7★VVV, APOGEE, BRAVA, ARGOS,・・・ Photometry, radial velocities and elemental abundances of stars in the bulge of the MWFurthermore we need astrometric parameter:・annual parallax・proper motion3-dimensional positions and velocities of starswill be provided.
8Helical motion of a star §3. Astrometry and Upcoming space astrometrymissionsAstrometry: Fundamental task of measuring stellar positionsRepeated measurements2D-positions of stars in spaceTrace of a star : Helical motion annual parallatic ellipse ＋ proper motion(straight line)Helical motion of a star8
9Helical motions of stars 1. Apparent annual elliptical motion*Parallactic Ellipse (annual parallax) Distances of stars2. Systematic displacement of stellarpositionsProper motion*Proper motion + Distance Tangential velocities of starsHelical motions of starsAstrometry＝＞important information of distances and tangential velocities of stars9
10Residual motions from the helical motion Very important information !!Binary systems, Planetary systems,Gravitational lens effects, effects of starspot, etc.Periodic residual motionsPhysical characters such asmass of binary stars,mass of planets etc.
11Space Astrometry Projects Remark:Infrared astrometry mission(Small-JASMINE) hasadvantage in observing starsin the Galactic bulge,hidden by interstellar dustin optical bands. 1111
12 *Gaia will be launched at 19th Dec. ,2013. ★Gaia(ESA’s mission) *Gaia will be launched at 19th Dec. ,2013. *The final catalogue will be released in 2021.*all sky survey in an optical band *G-band（ micron）、 6mag＜G<20mag *accuracies of parallax: 7~300mas(6<G<20mag)G = V · (V-IC) · (V-IC) · (V-IC)3(fit error of 0.05mag)12The predicted errors vary over the sky
13Near the Galactic center §4. Small-JASMINE projectAstrometric Measurement in Hw-band(1.1mm~1.7mm)Infrared astrometry missions have advantage in surveying theGalactic bulge, hidden by interstellar dust in optical bands!Accuracy:parallax:10 m as ~70 m as for Hw<11.5mag*10 m as distance proper motion:10m as/yr ~70 m as/yr for Hw<11.5mag*tangential velocity accuracy:(if the distance is accurately determined)position:8 m as ~40 m as for Hw<11.5magphotometry(Hw-band)<0.01 magSurvey Area:Near the Galactic center+ some directions toward interesting target objects(e.g CygX-1, planeray systems, browndwarfs. star-forming regions besides the area near the center)13
14toward the Galactic bulge： The Number of Objects:toward the Galactic bulge：<10kpc: ~120,000 (6kpc<d<10kpc: 88,000)（highest accuracy region : <10kpc :10,000, 6kpc<d<10kpc: 6,700)Multi color photometry: J, H and Hw(astrometry)The target launch date is around ~2019Hw<11.5mag＊Proposal of SJ mission to small science-satellite missions executedby JAXA in Feb.2014.Mission life: ~3 yearsOrbits: sun synchronized orbit ~550kmLauncher: Epsilon launch vehicle(solid rocket) providedby JAXASmall JASMINEDevelopment effort of NAOJ with JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency)and universities in Japan14
15Advantage of Small-JASMINE Small-JASMINE is a unique space astrometric measurement in Hw-band to get the accurate astrometric data for many stars in our Galactic bulge.Survey area ofSmall-JASMINESmall-JASMINE: ~ a few 103 stars of the bulge in its small survey area (with <0.1)Gaia: ~a few stars of the bulge in the same area as that in Small-JASMINE (with <0.1)★Another advantage: High time resolution!!Small-JASMINE will measure the same target every 100 minutes if the target is located towards the Galactic bulge .If a target is located toward other direction and Small-JASMINE can measure itin summer or winter season, Small-JASMINE measure it frequently as needed.*Gaia can measure the same target every one or two months.15
16Scientific targets of Small-JASMINE 1. The origin and evolution of the Galactic bulge ＊3D-distributions of stellar positions and velocities in the inner partof the bulge its origin and relation togalaxy formations and evolutions ＊star formation history in the Galactic bulge2. Astrophysics around the Galactic center ＊Formation of Super massive black hole at the Galactic centerEffect on stellar velocity distribution ＊Motion of star clusters the origins of star clusters,the gravitational potential field around the Galactic center ＊existence of an inner bar structure effect on star formation around the center＊Frequent and long-period monitor of SgｒA* existence of QPOInformtion of spin of SM-BH
17Scientific targets of Small-JASMINE 3. Compact celestial objects＊Determination of orbit element of X-ray binaries and g-ray binaries Big revolution! physics of accretion disk and jets, etc. *a good candidate of X-ray bursts：Cyg X-1:(l=71°, b=+3°)period:5.6 days( unmeasurable by Gaia)companion star: mv~9mag , change of the position: 40~50μas measurableby Small-JASMINE**the Galactic ridge X-ray dim point sourcesCVs(cataclysmic variables, symbiotic star) or late-type stars4. Extra-planets＊detection of planets by astrometric method(e.:g. primary star low-mass star(late M-dwarf, brawn dwarf): H-10mag,V=16-18mag)5. Gravitational lens: Search of Wormholes!?6. Stellar physics, Star formation＊3-Ddistribution of inter -stellar dust＊annual parallax and proper motions of Mira-type variable stars in the bulgeGood candidates of g-ray bursts: LS5039, J1018, LSI+61
18Small-JASMINE for these scientific targets Information of radial velocities , chemical composition and photometry (in other bands) is complementary toSmall-JASMINE for these scientific targetsin the Galaxy.Cooperation with APOGEE-S and VVV isvery strong synergyfor studies of the Galactic bulge.MOU for powerful scientific collaborationbetween APOGEE-2(S), SDSS-IV collaboration and Small-JASMINE has been concluded.
19Design of Small-JASMINE instrument Optics design: Modified Korsch System (3mirrors)Material: Synthetic SilicaAperture size: mFocal length: mField of view: 0.6 degree degreeDetector:Hw-band: HgCdTe(H4RG), Number of detectors: 1pixel size:10mmthe number of pixels:potential well:100,000read-out noise :30eJ, H-bandsfor photometryStructure model ofthe mission system (JAXA)19
20Integration System Design task of the integration system Satellite system-Compatibility of the bus system-Control system of the pointing ofthe telescope-Thermal structurecommission the task to companies prospects are almost goodSmall-JASMINE Ｓａｔｅｌｌｉｔｅ ｓｙｓｙｔｅｍＭｉｓｓｉｏｎ systemＢｕｓ systemＴｈｅｒｍａｌ ｃｏｎｔｒｏｌＳｔｒｕｃｔｕｒｅＴｅlｅｍｅｔｒｙＤａｔａ ｈａｎｄｌｉｎｇElectronic powerAttitude control2nd propulsion第53回 宇宙科学技術連合講演会2020
21We need astrometric measurements for ★Small-JASMINE will provide many interesting results in wide fields of astronomy and astrophysics.We need astrometric measurements forthe Galactic bulge survey with larger areawhich overs the whole region of the bulgethan the survey area of the Small-JASMINE.however
22§5 . WISH as an infrared space astrometry mission WISH：wide survey with accurate measurements in infrared bandsWISH has high possibility to play a role as an infrared astrometrymission for the Galactic bulgeastrometric measurements with achievement of ~10mas accuracyWISHPointing stability（70mas/3sec) of the telescope and thermal stability(~0.1K/30h) of the instruments are required in the design of the WISH satellite.Required stability of the pointing of the telescope for WISH (70mas/300sec) issufficient enough to achieve 10μas precisions of asttrometric measurements.*The Galactic bulge survey with area of 6°(b)×16°(l)*Precisions of ~10μas（K<11mag)*necessary observation time:0.6years/5years(1.4months/1year:20days in spring and 20days in autumn)*option: survey area of 3°(b)×16°(l)0.3years/5years
23Our JASMINE team is willing to contribute to the WISH mission for the resolution of technical issues, the developmentof the satellite, and data analysisif WISH will play a role as an infrared astrometry missionfor the Galactic bulge!!We hope that the WISH mission will be successful.
24Thank you for your attention. JasmineThank you for your attention.