Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition
Estimated Energy Requirements Ages: 3-8 years old Category Age (years)DRI Energy (Kcal/kg) Energy (kcal/day) Children 3851200-1400 4701400 5-6651400-1600 7-8601600
Tips for Feeding Toddlers and Preschoolers Offer a variety of foods Set a good example Serve meals at the same time each day Small meals plus snacks Never force feed or use food as a reward Food jags are common
Childhood Nutrition Division of Responsibility Parent’s responsibility: –What –Where –When Child’s responsibility: –What –How much
Estimated Energy Requirements Ages: 9-18 years old Category Age (years)DRI Energy (kcal/kg) Energy (kcal/day) Males9-13471800-2200 14-18332400-2800 Females9-13401600-2000 14-18322000
Milk and Milk Products Meat and Protein Foods Breads, Cereals and Starches Fruits and Vegetable Fats and Oils 4 servings 4-6 ounces whole milk and milk products 2 servings ½-1 ½ ounce meat or egg; ¼ cup legumes 1 Tbsp. peanut butter 4 or more Servings ¾ - 1 slice bread, 1/3 – ¾ cup cereal, rice or pasta 4 or more servings 3-4 ounces juice (limit to one serving) and 2-4 tablespoons fruits and vegetables 3 servings 1-3 teaspoons 4-8 ounces low fat milk and milk products 1-2 ounce meat or egg; ¼- ½ cup legumes 1-2 Tbsp. peanut butter 1-2 slice bread, ½ –1 cup cereal, rice or pasta 4 ounces juice (limit to one serving) and 4 tablespoons fruits and vegetables 1-3 teaspoons 3 servings 8 ounces low fat milk and milk product 2-4 servings 2 ounce meat or 1egg; ½ cup legumes 2 Tbsp. peanut butter 6-11 Servings 1 slice bread, 1 cup cereal, ½ rice or pasta 4-5 servings 6 ounces juice (limit to one serving) 1 piece fruit, or ½ cup vegetables Use sparingly 1 tsp. oil, margarine, 1 Tbsp. salad dressing 8 ounces low fat milk and milk product 2 ounce meat or 1egg; ½ cup legumes 2 Tbsp. peanut butter 1 slice bread, 1 cup cereal, ½ rice or pasta 6 ounces juice (limit to one serving) 1 piece fruit, or ½ cup vegetables 1 tsp. oil, margarine, 1 Tbsp. salad dressing Age (years) 2-4 4-6 7-12 13-18
Adolescents Female growth spurt 10 – 11 years Fat becomes larger percent of body weight Weight increases about 35 lb during adolescence Male growth spurt 12- 13 years Lean muscle mass increases Weight increases about 45 lb during adolescence
Nutritional concerns during Adolescence NHANES – Adolescents had the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status Low intake of: –Iron –Calcium –Vitamin A & C Folic Acid
Nutritional concerns Iron needs increase – females start menstruating and lose iron while males increase lean body mass Calcium needs increase – for proper bone development Calcium is needed for building peak bone mass
Nutritional concerns Teens are drinking more soft drinks and less milk Teens are drinking more soft drinks and less milk Teens are not meeting calcium requirements Teens are not meeting calcium requirements 25% of teen girls are iron deficient 25% of teen girls are iron deficient Iron deprivation is associated with cognitive damage Iron deprivation is associated with cognitive damage American diets are poor in folic acid American diets are poor in folic acid Folic acid is critical in decreasing risk of birth defects Folic acid is critical in decreasing risk of birth defects
Nutritional concerns Food habits are characterized by: –Skipping meals –Eating outside the home –Fast food –Snacking –Dieting
Food Sources of Calcium Milk and milk products Dark, leafy green vegetables Some fish and shellfish
Food Sources of Iron Heme Iron: –animal food sources –ground beef, steak, oysters, Non-heme Iron: –plant food sources –spinach, avocado, black-eyed peas –not as well absorbed as heme iron –foods high in Vitamin C increase absorption
Food Sources of Folic Acid Orange Juice Leafy vegetables Legumes Fortified Grain Products –Cereals –Pastas –Breads –Flour
Food Sources of Vitamin A and C Vitamin A –Carrots –Sweet potatoes –Pumpkin pie –Etc. Vitamin C –Oranges –Strawberries –Papaya –Etc.
Other Influences The more time spent watching television, the more likely individuals are to have higher energy intakes, consume greater amounts of pizza, salty snacks, and soda and to be more overweight than children who watch less television.
Important to emphasize physical activity especially to females because they grow earlier, and fat cells grow in size (*and number) at this age. Both males and females teens in America are more overweight and obese than in past generations. (Increase of diabetes type II also.)
"To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art." - La Rochefoucauld This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.