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Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition

2 Estimated Energy Requirements Ages: 3-8 years old Category Age (years)DRI Energy (Kcal/kg) Energy (kcal/day) Children

3 Tips for Feeding Toddlers and Preschoolers Offer a variety of foods Set a good example Serve meals at the same time each day Small meals plus snacks Never force feed or use food as a reward Food jags are common

4 Childhood Nutrition Division of Responsibility Parent’s responsibility: –What –Where –When Child’s responsibility: –What –How much

5 Estimated Energy Requirements Ages: 9-18 years old Category Age (years)DRI Energy (kcal/kg) Energy (kcal/day) Males Females

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8 Milk and Milk Products Meat and Protein Foods Breads, Cereals and Starches Fruits and Vegetable Fats and Oils 4 servings 4-6 ounces whole milk and milk products 2 servings ½-1 ½ ounce meat or egg; ¼ cup legumes 1 Tbsp. peanut butter 4 or more Servings ¾ - 1 slice bread, 1/3 – ¾ cup cereal, rice or pasta 4 or more servings 3-4 ounces juice (limit to one serving) and 2-4 tablespoons fruits and vegetables 3 servings 1-3 teaspoons 4-8 ounces low fat milk and milk products 1-2 ounce meat or egg; ¼- ½ cup legumes 1-2 Tbsp. peanut butter 1-2 slice bread, ½ –1 cup cereal, rice or pasta 4 ounces juice (limit to one serving) and 4 tablespoons fruits and vegetables 1-3 teaspoons 3 servings 8 ounces low fat milk and milk product 2-4 servings 2 ounce meat or 1egg; ½ cup legumes 2 Tbsp. peanut butter 6-11 Servings 1 slice bread, 1 cup cereal, ½ rice or pasta 4-5 servings 6 ounces juice (limit to one serving) 1 piece fruit, or ½ cup vegetables Use sparingly 1 tsp. oil, margarine, 1 Tbsp. salad dressing 8 ounces low fat milk and milk product 2 ounce meat or 1egg; ½ cup legumes 2 Tbsp. peanut butter 1 slice bread, 1 cup cereal, ½ rice or pasta 6 ounces juice (limit to one serving) 1 piece fruit, or ½ cup vegetables 1 tsp. oil, margarine, 1 Tbsp. salad dressing Age (years)

9 Adolescents Female growth spurt 10 – 11 years Fat becomes larger percent of body weight Weight increases about 35 lb during adolescence Male growth spurt years Lean muscle mass increases Weight increases about 45 lb during adolescence

10 Nutritional concerns during Adolescence NHANES – Adolescents had the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status Low intake of: –Iron –Calcium –Vitamin A & C Folic Acid

11 Nutritional concerns Iron needs increase – females start menstruating and lose iron while males increase lean body mass Calcium needs increase – for proper bone development Calcium is needed for building peak bone mass

12 Nutritional concerns Teens are drinking more soft drinks and less milk Teens are drinking more soft drinks and less milk Teens are not meeting calcium requirements Teens are not meeting calcium requirements 25% of teen girls are iron deficient 25% of teen girls are iron deficient Iron deprivation is associated with cognitive damage Iron deprivation is associated with cognitive damage American diets are poor in folic acid American diets are poor in folic acid Folic acid is critical in decreasing risk of birth defects Folic acid is critical in decreasing risk of birth defects

13 Nutritional concerns Food habits are characterized by: –Skipping meals –Eating outside the home –Fast food –Snacking –Dieting

14 Food Sources of Calcium Milk and milk products Dark, leafy green vegetables Some fish and shellfish

15 Food Sources of Iron Heme Iron: –animal food sources –ground beef, steak, oysters, Non-heme Iron: –plant food sources –spinach, avocado, black-eyed peas –not as well absorbed as heme iron –foods high in Vitamin C increase absorption

16 Food Sources of Folic Acid Orange Juice Leafy vegetables Legumes Fortified Grain Products –Cereals –Pastas –Breads –Flour

17 Food Sources of Vitamin A and C Vitamin A –Carrots –Sweet potatoes –Pumpkin pie –Etc. Vitamin C –Oranges –Strawberries –Papaya –Etc.

18 Other Influences The more time spent watching television, the more likely individuals are to have higher energy intakes, consume greater amounts of pizza, salty snacks, and soda and to be more overweight than children who watch less television.

19 Important to emphasize physical activity especially to females because they grow earlier, and fat cells grow in size (*and number) at this age. Both males and females teens in America are more overweight and obese than in past generations. (Increase of diabetes type II also.)

20 "To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art." - La Rochefoucauld This material was funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call


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