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Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit5a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit5a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit5a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC

2 Computer Programming Learning Objectives Define the purpose of programming languages. (Lecture a) Differentiate between the different types of programming languages and list commonly used ones. (Lecture a) Explain the compiling and interpreting process for computer programs. (Lecture b) Learn basic programming concepts including variable declarations, assignment statements, expressions, conditional statements and loops. (Lectures c, d) Describe advanced programming concepts including objects and modularity. (Lecture e) 2 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

3 Programming Languages Specify commands for a computer to perform –Syntax –Keywords –Punctuation Create programs Pre-date computers –Jacquard looms –Player pianos 3 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

4 Software All software that runs on a computer is a program –Written using a programming language –Many different languages available Software can be small programs or large, complex ones –Operating system –Word processing program –Simple utility 4 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

5 Software Development Creating software includes more than just writing the computer program Market analysis, requirements, and design specifications are important before starting to write programs Testing is important while writing Support and maintenance are needed for the life of the software 5 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

6 Software Development Stages Planning/exploratory phase Analysis/requirements gathering Design Implementation Testing Deployment and maintenance 6 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

7 Prototyping Prototypes are initial versions of program used for feedback –Paper –Electronic, but not functional program –Functional program, but limited Can be done during any of the initial stages of development Good tool for keeping stakeholders involved 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

8 Software Development Methodology/Frameworks Frameworks describe process and structure of development –May include prototyping Development teams follow one methodology for development Some examples: –Waterfall method (Royce, 1971) –Spiral model (Boehm, 1986) –Rapid application development (Martin, 1991) 8 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

9 Algorithms Set of steps that define how a task is performed The computer program implements an algorithm Algorithm development occurred long before computers! 9 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

10 Algorithm Example #1 Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich –Get the ingredients and tools –Spread peanut butter on one slice –Spread jelly on other slice –Place two slices together 10 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a (Evan-Amos, 2010, PD-US)

11 Algorithm Example #2 Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich –Get the ingredients and tools Two slices of bread Peanut butter Jelly Knife –Spread peanut butter on one slice Dip knife into peanut butter Remove knife, bringing peanut butter with it Place knife peanut butter side down on bread Swirl knife to spread peanut butter –Spread jelly on other slice –Place two slices together 11 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a (Evan-Amos, 2010, PD-US)

12 Algorithm Uses Describes problem solution without the programming syntax –Pseudocode –Flowcharts Plan solution BEFORE programming Can determine/prove –Correctness –Time –Storage 12 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

13 Coding Programs/programming statements are also called code Writing programs is called coding Choices for programming languages: –Functionality of program –Where it will run –What is available 13 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

14 Categories of Programming Languages Low-level languages: First Generation –Machine code (1s and 0s) Second Generation –Assembly language –Words describe commands High-level languages: Third Generation –FORTRAN, BASIC, C, Java –Adds symbols to commands Fourth Generation –SQL –Powerful, complex commands Fifth Generation –Prolog, visual programming 14 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

15 First-Generation Machine Code Each computer has an instruction set –Set of tasks computer can do –Unique sequence of 0s and 1s Applications are groups of instructions Programmers used to program in 0s and 1s –Switches –Punched cards 15 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

16 Second-Generation Assembly Language Use words to represent instructions Translate assembly code into machine code Unique to each computer, just as machine code is specific to each computer.MODEL Small.STACK 100h.DATA db msg 'Hello, world!$'.CODE start: mov ah, 09h lea dx, msg ; or mov dx, offset msg int 21h mov ax,4C00h int 21h end start 16 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

17 Third-Generation Languages The next generation of languages added operations –No longer unique to computer –Programs more portable Modern programming languages are third generation –FORTRAN, COBOL, C, C++, C#, Java, VB.Net 17 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

18 Programming Paradigms Procedural –BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, C Functional –LISP, Scheme Object-oriented languages –C++, C#, Java, Ruby Others 18 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

19 Scripting Languages Languages that control other applications –Batch control—shell scripts –Web browsers—javascript –Text processing—Perl Some have evolved for general application development –Perl, Python 19 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

20 Some Languages Specifically Designated for Health Care MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System; Neil Pappalardo first developed in 1960s, standardized in 1977) MIIS (Proprietary implementation of MUMPS, 1969) MAGIC (MEDITECH Corp – founder N. Pappalardo, 1982) 20 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

21 Computer Programming Summary – Lecture a Programming languages specify commands for programs to run Software is developed using a methodology Algorithms are sequences of tasks Programming languages may be high level or low level Programming languages have been developed for healthcare 21 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

22 Computer Programming References – Lecture a References Boehm B, (1986). "A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement", ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 11(4):14-24."A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement Meditech Magic Platform. [Webpage]. c [updated 2007 Jan 18; cited 2011 Nov 13]. Available from: MIIS. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Nov 13 from Wikipedia: Morley Deborah, Parker Charles S. (2010). Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages. In: Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow.12 th ed. Boston: Course Technology. MUMPS. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Mar 1 from Wikipedia : Parsons JJ, Oja D. (2010). Chapter 12: Computer Programming. In: New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2011: Comprehensive. 13th ed. Boston: Course Technology. Programming Languages. (2011). Retrieved 2011 March 17 from Wikipedia: Programming Paradigms. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Mar 14 from Wikipedia: Rapid Application Development. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Nov 13 from Wikipedia: Scripting Languages. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Mar 11 from Wikipedia : Software Development Methodology. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Nov 13 from Wikipedia: Waterfall Model. (2011). Retrieved 2011 Nov 13 from Wikipedia: 22 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a

23 Computer Programming References – Lecture a Images Slide 10, 11: Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich Image [image on the Internet]. Evan-Amos. (2010, November 11). Retrieved January 2012, from Wikipedia website: (PD-US). 23 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Computer Programming Lecture a


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