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Biomolecules: Carbohydrates & Lipids Images taken without permission from and

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2 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates & Lipids Images taken without permission from and and

3 Monomers and Polymers Monomer = single unit –Examples: amino acids, monosaccharides Polymer = made up of monomers –Examples: DNA, protein Images taken without permission from and

4 Dehydration Synthesis Building reaction H 2 O is removed in order to form a new bond

5 Hydrolysis Reaction Breaking reaction H 2 O is required to break a bond

6 “Structure-Function” Theme Recurring theme on the AP exam We will look at how the physical structures in biology support their specific function –Ex. How does the structure of the cell membrane support its function?

7 Carbohydrates Biological roles –Energy –Cell to cell recognition –Etc. Monosaccharide = Monomer 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O –C 6 H 12 O 6

8 Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides linked together Key disaccharides you need to know: –Fructose + glucose  sucrose + H 2 O –Glucose + galactose  lactose + H 2 O –Glucose + glucose  maltose + H 2 O Image taken without permission from and

9 Glycosidic linkage The bond between monosaccharides What type of reaction would form this bond? –Dehydration reaction What kind of bond is a glycosidic linkage? –Polar covalent

10 Polysaccharides: Starch & Glycogen Both are used for energy storage –Starch = energy storage in plants –Glycogen = energy storage in animals When energy is needed, enzymes break the bonds between monosaccharides Image taken without permission from

11 Structure of Starch & Glycogen Branched structure –How does the branched structure support the function of these molecules? –branching allows for more points of access for enzymes to act (greater surface area) Image taken without permission from:

12 Polysaccharides: Cellulose + Chitin For structural support –Cellulose = structural support in plants –Chitin = makes up the hard exoskeleton of insects

13 Structure of Cellulose & Chitin Long, unbranched chains –Fibers form parallel chains –How would the structure of cellulose & chitin support their functions? –Long, unbranched chains provide greater strength

14 Lipids Biological roles: energy (storage), structural, protection, insulation, pigments Mostly hydrocarbons (nonpolar, hydrophobic) –Lots of C-C and C-H bonds –How would this property support its function of energy storage? –Nonpolar quality allows for them to be stored without water– more compact

15 Triglycerides: Fats & Oils Made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids What kind of reaction forms a triglyceride? –Dehydration reaction glycerol Fatty acids

16 Types of Fatty Acids Fatty Acids can be saturated or unsaturated Saturated Fatty Acid –No double C-C bonds –Molecules are more straight –Fats: solid at room temperature Unsaturated Fatty Acid –Contain at least 1 C-C double bond –Causes “kinks” in molecule –Liquid at room temperature

17 Fatty Acid Structure Why would the type of fatty acid determine its state at room temperature? –Double bonds create the kinks in the structure  can’t be packed as closely together  less Van der waals forces –This makes them more fluid at room temperature  lower melting temperature

18 The peanut butter puzzle… Fats are usually found in animals Oils are usually found in plants So why is peanut butter solid? –hydrogenation Images taken without permission from and

19 Phospholipids Structurally and chemically similar to triglycerides One fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate group Phosphate group is hydrophilic –“likes” water Fatty acids are hydrophobic –“dislikes” water

20 Steroids Chemically and structurally different from other lipid categories Classified as a lipid because of their nonpolar/hydrophobic nature Can be recognized by 6 carbon rings and 5 carbon rings Chemical messengers (hormones) Structural components in cell membranes cholesterol

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