The Progressive Era marks the end of the Gilded Age with its graft and corruption. Usually considered to be from roughly 1890 to World War I
The Progressive Era The desire to use the government as an agency of human welfare—the concept of the federal welfare state Antecedents of Progressivism: (1) Movement owed a great deal to Populism (2) Social Critics and Writers—
The Muckrakers were the investigative journalists of their day. Exposing evil became a flourishing business.
Important Muckrakers wrote for magazines that were newly popular.
Some of these articles were later made into books, such as Lincoln Steffens’ Shame of the Cities
Jacob Riis published a book of his photographs called How the Other Half Lives in which he depicted lives of poverty.
The Progressive Era Four features of Progressivism: Democratic Direct primaries Initiative, referendum, and recall Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913)
The Progressive Era Direct election of US Senators (XVII Amendment 1913) Government efficiency City Manager Staunton, Virginia (1908) National Association of City Managers
The Progressive Era Regulation Increased tendency to direct some business activities through federal regulations Social Justice Settlement House movement
The Progressive Era The National Child Labor Committee (1904) By 1914, 35 state legislatures had passed laws prohibiting children under age fourteen from working
The Progressive Era Liquor Prohibition—”manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors... prohibited.” (XVIII Amendment 1919)
The Progressive Era Theodore Roosevelt (R) Became President after William McKinley assassinated (1901)
The Progressive Era Roosevelt wished to avoid socialism and a return to laissez faire Used the “carrot and the stick” approach
The Progressive Era Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904) Bureau of Corporations within the Department of Commerce and Labor to collect statistics and investigate the activities of corporations.
The Progressive Era John Mitchell (1870-1913) United Mine Workers’ Union
The Progressive Era Meat Inspection Act (1906) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) In 1905, by the authority of the Forest Reserve Act (1891), 172 million acres placed under Federal protection
The Progressive Era 20% wage increase Eight-hour workday Union recognition Mine operators led by George F. Baer General John M. Schofield binding arbitration
The Progressive Era Everybody got something: 10% pay increase Nine-hour workday Operators not required to recognize the United Mine Workers’ Union Roosevelt the“Trust Buster” Northern Securities Company
The Progressive Era Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906) As Roosevelt’s Administration progressed, he favored: Income tax Inheritance tax Greater regulation of Business Industrial Safety Regulations
Upton Sinclair was a socialist, who wanted to improve the plight of the working class in America.
In 1906 Sinclair’s novel The Jungle drew outrage against the Chicago meatpacking industry for its arrogant disregard of basic health standards. This led to government regulation of food and drugs.