4Constructing appositives Appositives are used principally to expand the meaning of nouns by supplying defining or identifying details about them.We can construct an appositive from any sentence in which a noun phrase follows the to be verb (is, are, was, were). Eliminate the subject and the verb, insert commas or dashes.Generally, we position an appositive next to the noun that it identifies, whether that noun is at the beginning or end of a sentence.
5Examples:Farmers try to control the poinsettia whitefly by digging up entire fields of infested crops. The poinsettia whitefly is a pesticide-resistant superbug.(Relative clause)Farmers try to control the poinsettia whitefly, which is a pesticide-resistant superbug, by digging up entire fields of infested crops.Farmers try to control the poinsettia whitefly, a pesticide-resistant superbug, by digging up entire fields of infested crops.
6In 1904, a Saint Louis doctor introduced peanut butter as a health food for the elderly. Peanut butter is the favorite food of American children.In 1904, a Saint Louis doctor introduced peanut butter- the favorite food of American children - as a health food for the elderly.
7Appositives can be just as handy for summarizing or generalizing. To avoid bankruptcy, some major nationalairlines are joining forces with successfulregional airlines, a trend that is likely tocontinue.Example:
8Short summarizing appositives - appositives of one or two words - can produce a striking effect, especially at the end of a sentence.Half an hour later, the second police diver returned with the same report - nothing.Incorporated into humanistic programs in our schools is one of the most dehumanizing practice in education – standardized testing.
9Longer summarizing appositives can fill in important background information. The “sunbelt” states of the South and West – states that remained rural and backward during the industrialization of our country – have come to dominate the U.S. economy during the technological revolution.Bloodhounds are friendly and gentle creatures, not the vicious beasts their name would lead you to expect.
10When we pack appositives into a series, they summarize by listing characteristics: In Aesop’s fables, the animals that overcome great odds represent qualities we want for ourselves: power, intelligence, thoughtfulness, and honesty.
11Whether positive or negative, appositive are normally nouns Whether positive or negative, appositive are normally nouns. Adjectives can be used as appositives, if we move them from their normal position in front of the noun they modify.My blind date turned out to be an honest, fun-loving, affectionate, and wonderful person.My blind date turned out to be a wonderful person – honest, fun-loving, and affectionate.
12Practice:1. ____ Stark, forbidding, awesome, spectacular – Death Valley is a hauntingly beautiful place to visit.2. ____Shanghai is different from other Chinese cities – more European and cosmopolitan.3. ____ A number of U.S. presidents – including Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Kennedy – have died in office.4. ____ Appositives are generally set off by commas, dashes, or colons. The different punctuation marks create different effects.oooUse a connective (namely, including, especially, particularly, notably, mainly) for providing an example.o
13Examples:Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can now register for Medipet, a pre-paid insurance plan for dogs and cats.Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can now register for Medipet - a pre-paid insurance plan for dogs and cats.Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can now register for Medipet: a pre-paid insurance plan for dogs and cats.(hardly calls attention)(longer pause, more emphatic)(formality)
14More examples:The popular US president John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.John Kennedy, the popular US president, was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.John Kennedy the popular US president was quite different from John Kennedy the unfaithful husband.(essential information)(not essential information)(essential information)
15EnumerationA writer starts with a general class, then proceeds to break it down by listing some or all of its members or parts.Member or partMember or partGeneral classMember or partMember or part
16Four ways for Enumeration: Ordinal numbersPronounsDescending orderAscending order
17Listing signals - Ordinal numbers (1) First, there are … Second, Third,Last,(2) The first kind / type / step is…The second (Another)The third (The next)The last (The final)
18- To mention the most important one first. More importantLessimportant(3) Descending order- To mention the most important one first.most essentialmost importantprimarylargestchiefkind is…reason is…The
19Example:My chief reason for choosing that university was its wonderful study program in agriculture. Second, Bingston hires only the finest teachers to teach in its graduate program. Then, there was Bingston’s deferred payment plan; this represented a great convenience to my parents. A final reason was the reasonable tuition.
20(4) Ascending order The - The last item is the most important. LessimportantMore important(4) Ascending order- The last item is the most important.- To emphasize the importance.most essentialmost importantprimarylargestchiefBut thekind is…reason is…Thekind, however, is…reason, however, is…Finally, and most importantly, there is
21Example:There are several reasons why I decided to attend Bingston University. First of all, the tuition was reasonable. Second, the university had a deferred payment plan; this represented a great convenience to my parents. Another reason was the fact that Bingston hires only the finest of teachers to teach in its graduate program. My chief reason, however, was Bingston’s mandatory study program in argriculture.
24Structure 1 - adj. / prep. same…as similar to… like… Kennedy was killed on the same day of the week as Lincoln.(adj) (prep)exactly / almost / practically (degree of similarity)Kennedy’s death was similar to Lincoln’s in that they both died in office (adj) (prep)somewhat / rather / very / quite (degree of similarity)Kennedy’s death was like Lincoln’s.(prep)Like Lincoln, Kennedy refused to heed his secretary’s warming (basis of comparison)
25Structure 2 – attached statements …too…eitherKennedy was succeeded by a Southern Democrat,and Lincoln was too.and so was Lincoln.Kennedy could arouse the sympathy of the public,and Lincoln could too.and so could Lincoln.Kennedy’s secretary couldn’t prevent the president’s assassination, and Lincoln’s couldn’t eitherand neither could Lincoln’s.
26Structure 3 – correlative conjunction both…andNeither...norBoth Kennedy and LincolnKennedy and Lincoln both had their elections legally challenged.Neither Kennedy’s wife nor his children were expecting anything unusual to happen that day.Neither Kennedy’s children nor his wife was expecting anything unusual to happen that day.
27Structure 4 – predicate structures to resemblehave…in commonThere are similaritiesKennedy’s popularity resembled Lincoln’s.vaguely / closely / greatly (degree of similarity)Kennedy and Lincoln have features in common.certain things / many qualities / two characteristics / several aspectsThere are similarities between Kennedy and Lincoln.certain / many / several / two…
28Structure 5 – sentence connectors similarly,correspondingly,likewise,in the same way,Lincoln was succeeded by a Southern Democrat named Johnson;Lyndon Johnson, a Democrat from the South, succeeded Kennedy.Note:A semicolon is often used before a sentence connector. However, since each of the sentences can stand alone and be considered grammatically correct, a period can also be used after the first sentence.
29Structure 6 – punctuation only semicolon (;)Andrew Johnson was born in 1808; Lyndon Johnson was born in 1908.Lincoln’s secretary was Mrs. Kennedy; likewise, Kennedy’s was Mrs. Lincoln.
32Structure 1 - …than is…than as…as The introvert than the extrovert is quieteris more reliableis less optimisticlearns more slowlyThe extrovert the introvert.is not as quieter asis not as reliable asdoes not learns as slowly as
33Structure 2 – prepositions UnlikeContrary toAs opposed tothe extrovert, who craves excitement, the introvert likes a well-ordered mode of life.(basis of contrast)The extrovert, who craves excitement, the introvert likes a well-ordered mode of life in the opposite way.
34Structure 3 – adverbial structures WhereasWhilethe extrovert loses his or her temper quickly, the introvert seldom does.(basis of contrast)
35Structure 4 – adjective opposite / different There are two models in this case. They are completely opposite (different).They have opposite views on the question.
36Structure 5 – Verbal phrases contrasts withdiffers fromis different fromin regard toin respect ofwith respect tohis or her temper.The introvertthe extrovert(basis of contrast)
37Structure 6 – sentence connectors however,on the other hand,in contrast,The extrovert loves crowds;the introvert is fond of solitude.(basis of contrast)The extrovert loves crowds; the introvert,is fond of solitude.however,on the other hand,in contrast,
38Structure 7 – conjunctions The extrovert loves crowds, the introvert is fond of solitude.but
39Structure 8 – punctuation only The introvert likes books; the extrovert is fond of people.
40Practice: The extrovert loves crowds. The introvert is fond of solitude.The extrovert loves crowds; however, the introvert isfond of solitude.2. The introvert is fond of solitude; the extrovert, however,loves crowds.3. The extrovert loves crowds. However, the introvert is4. The extrovert contrasts with the introvert in regard toneed of solitude.5. Unlike the introvert, who is fond of solitude, theextrovert loves crowds.(in regard to + N/Ving = about)
41Cause and Effect development structural signals When you use a cause-effect method of development, this will often mean that your are supporting the topic sentence by listing or enumerating.
42cause # 1 cause # 2 Situation cause # 3 effect # 1 Focus on causeFocus on effectcause # 1cause # Situationcause # 3effect # 1Situation effect # 2effect # 3Effect – what a certain situation has led to or has resulted in.Cause – reasons or explanations why something is the way it is, or why it happened the way it did.
44Structure 1 – sentence connectors as a result,consequently,therefore,because of this,hence,In some areas,water levels will fall;these areas will no longerbe able to support industry.(cause) (effect)
45Structure 2 – Conjunctions sofor (because)In some areas, water levels will fall, so these areas will no longer be able to support industry.(cause) (effect)Some areas will no longer be able to support industry, for water levels will have fallen in these areas.(effect) (cause)
46Structure 3 – clause structures so…thatsuch…thatsuch a…thatbe so great thathappen so fast thatdry out so much land thatcause such terrible damage thatcause such a severe heat wave thatThe rise in temperature willagricultural patterns will change.(cause) (effect)
47Use so that to introduce a clause indicating a purpose. So that is often used with can or could.Use so … that to place emphasis on the cause. Use an adverb or adjective after so.So modifies an adjective or adverb in the cause-clause. (Note that very cannot be used in place of so.)Examples:1. We stayed out all night so that we could watch a meteor storm.2. The starts were so bright that we were amazed.3. The meteor storm was so beautiful that we watched it all night.4. The meteor storm passed so quickly that it went by in one night.5. It was such a beautiful meteor storm that we watched it all night.
48(2) Since Because Since Because Because of the fact that Due to the fact thatrainfall patterns will change, water supplies will diminish.(cause) (effect)
49Structure 4 – phrase structures Because ofDue toAs a result ofIn view ofthe increased heat, agricultural patterns will change.(cause) (effect)
50Structure 5 – predicate structures The predicate of a sentence includes everything from the verb to the end. In this group of structures, the cause-effect relationship is indicated either by the verb or the words following it.(1)causeresult inbe the reason forbe responsible forcontribute tolead toChanges in water levels willchanges in living patterns.(cause) (effect)
51(2) (effect) (cause) result from be a result of be a consequence of be due tofollow fromDrastic changes in living patterns willchanges in water levels.(effect) (cause)
52Structure 6 – participial phrases Participial phrases have no subjects, and contain verbs which are in the –ing form.(1)causingleading tocontributing toresulting inWater levels will change,changes in living patterns.(cause) (effect)
53(2) (effect) (cause) resulting from Living patterns will change, following fromLiving patterns will change,changes in water levels.(effect) (cause)
54More examples:Massive shifts in population will result from all of these environmental changes.The Greenhouse Effect will cause dramatic changes in the way we live.All of these environment will change; hence, population willshift massively.Because of all the environmental changes, the population will shift massively.In the way we live will change dramatically, resulting from the Greenhouse Effect.Dramatic changes in the way we live will follow from theGreenhouse Effect.
55Web links(common writing problems)(words that are often confused)(common mistakes)(grammar)