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GLORIA Module 6: Food Allergy

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1 GLORIA Module 6: Food Allergy
Updated: June 2011

2 Sponsored by an unrestricted educational grant from

3 Global Resources in Allergy (GLORIA™)
Global Resources In Allergy (GLORIA™) is the flagship program of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Its curriculum educates medical professionals worldwide through regional and national presentations. GLORIA modules are created from established guidelines and recommendations to address different aspects of allergy-related patient care.

4 World Allergy Organization (WAO)
The World Allergy Organization is an international coalition of 89 regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies.

5 WAO’s Mission WAO’s mission is to be a global resource and advocate in the field of allergy, advancing excellence in clinical care, education, research and training through a world-wide alliance of allergy and clinical immunology societies

6 Food Allergy A GLORIATM Module
Authors Prof. Cassim Motala University of Cape Town and Red Cross Children's Hospital Cape Town, South Africa Dr. M. Dolores Ibáñez Hospital Nino Jesus Madrid, Spain Reviewer Prof. Alessandro Fiocchi Melloni University Hospital Milan, Italy Prof. Joaquín Sastre Fundación Jimenez Diaz, Department of Medicine Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Madrid, Spain

7 Learning objectives At the end of this presentation you will be able to: Recognise the main pathogenic food allergens in adults and children Differentiate between IgE-mediated, cell-mediated and mixed IgE- and cell-mediated food-related diseases in different organ systems Discuss the diagnosis of food allergy and the limitations of diagnostic techniques Review the treatment of food allergy

8 Adverse reactions to food: definition
Any abnormal clinical response attributed to ingestion, contact or inhalation of any food, a food derivative or a food additive Toxic Non toxic or hypersensitivity

9 Adverse reactions to food
TOXIC Nontoxic Non-immune mediated Immune-mediated Intolerance Allergy Enzymatic Pharmacologic Undefined Non-IgE-mediated IgE-mediated Adverse Reactions to Food: Position Paper. Allergy 1995; 50:

10 Prevalence of food allergy
Precise prevalence is unknown, but estimates are: Adults: 1.4% - 2.4% Children < 3 years: ~ 6% Atopic dermatitis (mild/severe): ~35% Asthmatic children: 6 - 8% Prevalence depends on: Genetic factors, age, dietary habits, geography and diagnostic procedures Adapted from Sampson HA. Adverse Reactions to Foods. Allergy Principles and Practice. 2003

11 Food allergy in children: international
USA & UK Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Seafood ITALY Milk Egg Seafood SINGAPORE Birds Nest Seafood Egg Milk AUSTRALIA Milk Egg Peanuts Sesame FRANCE Egg Peanuts Milk Mustard ISRAEL Milk Egg Sesame

12 “Second tier” foods 10% reactions to foods 160 foods Fruits Vegetables
Seeds (sesame, sunflower, poppy) Spices

13 Pathophysiology: allergens
Proteins (not fat/carbohydrate) kD glycoproteins - Heat resistant, acid stable Major allergenic foods (>85% of allergy) - Children: milk, egg, soy, wheat, other depending on geographical area - Adult: peanut, nuts, shellfish, fish Single food (or related) > many food allergies Characterization of epitopes underway - Linear vs conformational epitopes - B-cell vs T-cell epitopes

14 Food allergens Class 1 food allergens:
Primary sensitizers Sensitization may occur through the gastrointestinal tract Water-soluble glycoproteins Molecular weights ranging from 10 to 70 kD Stable to heat, acid and proteases Class 2 food allergens (cross-reactive): Generally plant-derived proteins Highly heat-labile Difficult to isolate No good, standardized, extracts are available for diagnostic purposes Adapted from Sampson HA. Adverse Reactions to Foods. Allergy Principles and Practice. 2003

15 Major class 1 food allergens
Cow's milk: Caseins (, ,), -lactoalbumin, -lactoglobulin, serum albumin Chicken egg: Ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin Peanut: Vicillin, conglutin, glycinin Lentil Vicilin Soybean: Glycinin, profilin, trypsin inhibitor Shrimp: Tropomyosin Fish: Parvalbumins Fruits and other vegetables (apple, apricot, peach, plum, corn) Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)

16 Class 2 food allergens (Cross-reactive and associated with oral allergy syndrome, latex-fruit syndrome) Pathogen-related protein 2 group (glucanase): Latex, avocado, banana, chestnut, fig Pathogen-related protein 3 group (chitinase): Latex (Hev b6), avocado Pathogen-related protein 5 (thaumatin-like): Cherry, apple, kiwi Birch Bet v1 homologues (pathogen-related proteins 10): Apple, cherry, apricot, peach, pear, carrot, celery, parsley, hazelnut Birch Bet v2 homologues (celery-mugwort-spice syndrome) profilin: Latex, celery, potato, pear, peanut, soybean

17 Prevalence of clinical cross reactivity among food “families”
Food Allergy Prevalence of Allergy to > 1 Food in Family Fish % Tree Nut % Grain % Legume 5% Any %

18 Some cross-reactions between inhalant allergens and food allergens
Inhalant allergy Food allergy Birch pollen Nuts, apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, carrot, peanut, soy Ragweed pollen Melon, banana Grass pollen Tomato, peanut, pea, wheat, rye Latex Banana, chestnut, kiwi, avocado Chironomids Crustaceans This slide demonstrates cross-reactivity between inhalant allergens and food allergens (generally infrequent and typically allergen – specific) Importance of considering 3-dimensional protein structure in prediction cross-reactivity Van Ree R. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2004;4:235-40

19 Pathogenesis of food hypersensitivity: gut barrier
The immune system associated with this barrier is capable of discriminating among harmless foreign proteins or commensal organisms and dangerous pathogens Food allergy is an abnormal response of the mucosal immune system to antigens delivered through the oral route The immature state of the mucosal barrier and immune system might play a role in the increased prevalence of gastrointestinal infections and food allergy in the first few years of life Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:

20 Pathogenesis of food hypersensitivity: gut barrier
About 2 % of ingested food antigens are absorbed and transported throughout the body in an immunologically intact form, even through the immature gut The underlying immunologic mechanisms involved in oral tolerance induction have not been fully elucidated Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:

21 Pathophysiology: immune mechanisms
Protein digestion Antigen processing Some Ag enters blood IgE-Mediated IgE-receptor APC Mast cell Non-IgE- Mediated Histamine T cell B cell TNF- IL-5

22 Food allergy: clinical manifestations
IgE IgE/Non-IgE Non-IgE Protein-induced proctocolitis/enterocolitis Celiac disease Contact dermatitis Herpetiform dermatitis Heiner´s syndrome Urticaria/angioedema Rhinitis /Asthma Anaphylaxis Oral allergic syndrome Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIT) Atopic dermatitis Eosinophilic gastro-intestinal disorders Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:

23 Cutaneous food hypersensitivities: atopic eczema
Generally begins in early infancy Characterized by typical distribution, extreme pruritus, and chronically relapsing course Allergen-specific IgE antibodies bound to Langerhans cells play a unique role as “non-traditional” receptors Double blind, placebo-controlled food challenges generally provoke a markedly pruritic, erythematous, morbilliform rash Food allergy plays a pathogenic role in about 35 % of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in children

24 Cutaneous food hypersensitivities
Acute Urticaria and Angioedema: The most common symptoms of food allergic reactions The exact prevalence of these reactions is unknown Acute urticaria due to contact with food is also common Chronic Urticaria: Food allergy is an infrequent cause of chronic urticaria and angioedema

25 IgE mediated: respiratory manifestations
Asthma An uncommon manifestation of food allergy Usually seen with other food-induced symptoms Vapors or steam emitted from cooking food may induced asthmatic reactions Food-induced asthmatic symptoms should be suspected in patients with refractory asthma and history of atopic dermatitis, gastroesophageal reflux, food allergy or feeding problems as an infant, or history of positive skin tests or reactions to food Rhinoconjunctivitis Usually seen during positive controlled challenge tests, but occasionally reported by patients

26 IgE Mediated: systemic reaction anaphylaxis/anaphylaxis syndrome
Food-induced anaphylaxis - Rapid-onset - Multi-organ system involvement - Potentially fatal - Any food, highest risk: peanut, nut, seafood, milk, egg Food-dependent - exercise-induced - Associated with a particular food - Associated with eating any food

27 Fatal food anaphylaxis
Frequency: ~ 100 deaths/yr Risk: - Underlying asthma Delayed epinephrine - Symptom denial Previous severe reaction History: known allergic food Biphasic reaction Lack of cutaneous symptoms

28 Food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis
Wheat Temperature Gastrin Mediator release - Histamine - Others (LTD4,PAF, etc) ANAPHYLAXIS Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

29 IgE-mediated: GIT manifestation oral allergy syndrome (OAS)
Elicited by a variety of plant proteins that cross-react with airborne allergens Pollen allergic patients may develop symptoms following the ingestion of vegetable foods: - Ragweed allergic patients: Fresh melons and bananas - Birch pollen allergic patients: Raw potatoes, carrots, celery, apples, pears, hazelnuts and kiwi Immunotherapy for treating the pollen-induced rhinitis may reduce/eliminate oral allergy symptoms The oral allergy syndrome (OAS) appears to have become more prevalent in the past decade, but this may be due in large part to increased awareness. It is estimated that OAS affects up to 40% of adults with pollen allergy, especially to birch, ragweed and mugwort pollen. OAS is a form of contact allergy that is confined almost exclusively to the oropharynx and rarely affects other target organs. Local IgE-mediated mast cell activation provokes the rapid onset of pruritus, tingling and angioedema of the lips, tongue, palate, and throat: and occasionally a sensation of pruritus in the ears, tightness in the throat, or both. Symptoms are generally short-lived and are most commonly associated with the ingestion of various fresh fruits and vegetables. OAS has also been reported to occur in individuals who are sensitive to house dust mite after ingestion of shell fish. Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

30 Food allergy prevalence in specific disorders
Anaphylaxis % Oral allergy syndrome % in pollen allergic patients Atopic dermatitis 35% in children (rare in adults) Urticaria 20% in acute (rare in chronic) Asthma 5 - 6% in asthmatic or food allergic children Chronic rhinitis Rare

31 Mixed IgE/Non-IgE mediated: GIT allergic eosinophilic disorders
Characterized by infiltration of the esophagus, stomach and/or intestinal walls with eosinophils, basal zone hyperplasia, papillary elongation, absence of vasculitis and peripheral eosinophilia in about 50 % of patients AEE can occur in children and adults. Increasing yearly incidence (23/ population in Switzerland) In children symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux and in adults dysphagia and impaction is common Almost 50% of patients have other atopic diseases Diagnosis is based on endoscopic findings and biopsy (>15-20 eosinophils per High Power Field) Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 118:1054-9

32 Mixed IgE/non-IgE mediated: GIT
allergic eosinophilic esophagitis (AEE) Dysphagia Abdominal pain Poor response to anti - reflux drugs Biopsy:Eosinophils ++++ >20 eosinophils / HPF Eotaxin – 3 tissue expression correlates with eosinophilia – crucial in pathogenesis of this disorder Bullock et J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007

33 Allergic eosinophilic esophagitis endoscopic findings
White plaques (eosinophils) Rings

34 Mixed IgE/non-IgE mediated: GIT
allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (AEG) Weight loss, FTT+/_oedema Vomiting, diarrhoea (post-prandial) Blood loss Iron deficiency Protein/iron- losing enteropathy ↑ TH2 in blood and mucosa ↑ Mast cells, Eosinophils in mucosa Eotaxin - 3 Persistent food hypersensitivity at 5yr FU. Chehade M et al JPGN 2006;42;

35 AEE and AEG Food antigens have been implicated as one of the main etiologies Skin prick test and atopy patch tests can be useful for food allergy diagnosis Elimination diets or even amino-acid formula can be instituted on the basis of allergy testing, clinical history, biopsy and treatment response Pharmacologic treatment: oral steroids and/or swallowed aerosolized fluticasone ? Anti-IL-5 therapy Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 118:1054-9

36 Non-IgE mediated: GIT food protein induced syndromes (typically milk and soy induced)
Enterocolitis # Enteropathy Proctocolitis Age Onset: Infant Infant/Toddler Newborn Duration: mo ? mo < 12mo Characteristics: Failure to thrive Malabsorption Bloody stools Shock Villous atrophy No systemic sx Lethargy Diarrhea Eosinophil Diarrhea # Solid foods implicated: fish, corn, chicken, turkey, vegetables Nowak-Wegrzyn et al Pediatrics 2003 Zapatero Remon L et al. Allergol Immunopathol 2005

37 Non IgE mediated: GIT food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome
Occurs in infants prior to 8-12 months of age, but may be delayed in breast-fed babies (milk or soy protein-based formulas are implicated) Symptoms may include irritability, protracted vomiting 1- 3 hours after feeding, bloody diarrhoea (leading to dehydration), anaemia, abdominal distension, failure to thrive In adults and older children, fish, shellfish and cereals hypersensitivity may provoke a similar syndrome with delayed onset of severe nausea, abdominal cramps and protracted vomiting Resolved: 50% at 18 months, 90% at 36 months Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

38 Non-IgE Mediated: GIT food protein-induced enteropathy (excluding celiac disease)
Occurs from months Diarrhea (mild to moderate steatorrhea in about 80% of cases) Food implicated: milk, cereals, egg, fish Poor weight gain Diagnosis: -Biopsy shows patchy villous atrophy with prominent mononuclear round cell infiltrate, few eosinophils, -Response to exclusion diet, -Challenge test Resolved at years old Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

39 Non-IgE Mediated: GIT food protein-induced protocolitis
Usually presents in the first few months of life and is thought to be due to food proteins passed to the infant in maternal breast milk, or to milk or soy-based formulas Rectal bleeding is common Diagnosis: endoscopy and colonic biopsy (eosinophils in epithelium and lamina propia) Good response to extensively hydrolized formulas. Diet without dairy product in mother if lactating Good prognosis with resolution at 12 months of life Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

40 Non-Ige Mediated: GIT celiac disease
Extensive enteropathy leading to malabsorption Associated with an immune reaction to gliadin peptides (wheat, rye and barley) Highly associated with HLA-DQ2 1 *0501. 1 *0201) Serology: anti-transglutaminase IgA, Anti-gliadin IgA (asymptomatic and +ve serology is common) Treatment: Elimination of gluten-containing foods Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

41 Non-IgE-mediated syndromes affecting the skin and lung
Dermatitis Herpetiformis - Vesicular, pruritic eruption - Gluten-sensitive - Associated with Celiac Disease Heiner’s Syndrome - Infantile pulmonary hemosideroisis - Anemia, failure to thrive - Cow’s milk-associated - Precipitating antibodies to cow’s milk

42 Gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity? Infantile colic
Syndrome of paroxysmal fussiness characterized by inconsolable, agonized crying Generally develops in the first 2 to 4 weeks of life and persists through the third to fourth months Diagnosis can be established by the implementation of several brief trials of hypoallergenic formula Adapted from J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113:

43 Disorders not proven to be related to food allergy
Migraines Behavioral/Developmental disorders Arthritis Seizures Inflammatory bowel disease

44 Diagnosis: history / examination
History: symptoms, timing, reproducibility Acute reactions vs chronic disease Diet details / symptom diary Specific causal food/s “Hidden” ingredient/s Physical examination: Evaluate disease severity Identify general approach Allergy vs intolerance IgE-mediated vs non-IgE mediated

45 Diagnosing food hypersensitivity disorders: IgE-mediated
Identification and relationship with the food: Medical history To identify specific IgE: Skin tests/serum specific IgE To demonstrate that IgE sensitization is responsible for the clinical reaction: Controlled challenge tests Diagnosis is based on the medical history, supported by identification of specific IgE antibodies to the incriminated food allergen and confirmed by challenge Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14: 3

46 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Medical history: Symptoms Symptoms described by patient Length of time between ingestion and development of symptoms Severity of symptoms Frequency of symptoms Time from last episode Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14:

47 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Medical history: Timing of reaction An immediate reaction (1- 2 hours) is suggestive of an IgE mediated reaction to foods It may be preceded by previous tolerance of minimal symptoms It may occur apparently after the first contact Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14:

48 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Medical history: food Identification of food How food was prepared Quantity ingested Previous tolerance Cross-reactions with other food Hidden foods, additives, contaminants Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14:

49 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Medical history: Patient Age at onset of symptoms Other factors (eg, brought on by exercise) Personal and family history of atopic diseases Risk factors Physical examination: Atopic dermatitis, dermographism, nutritional status Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14:

50 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
The diagnosis of food allergy cannot be performed on the basis of a non-compatible medical history No diagnostic analysis (skin tests, specific IgE in serum, etc) is of value if it is interpreted without reference to medical history The clinical history is paramount in the diagnosis of food allergy. Skin tests and specific IgE levels may provide additional information, especially for decision to performing challenge testing or not. Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999; 14: 4

51 Clinical symptoms compatible with allergic reaction to food
Immediate reactions (from minutes to 1- 2 hours) after ingestion/contact/inhalation with food Late gastrointestinal or atopic dermatitis reactions (>2 hours) Any age After last reaction, patient could not tolerate the food Allergy Assessment Early correct positive diagnosis allows a suitable diet to be followed and avoids the risks of inappropriate dietary restrictions Negative diagnosis avoids unnecessary dietary restrictions

52 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Skin tests Prick: Reproducible, sensitive, not irritant Prick-prick: Use raw or cooked food. Highly recommended for fruits and vegetables (commercially prepared extracts are generally inadequate because of the lability of the allergens, so the fresh food must be used for skin testing)

53 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Skin Prick Tests are used to screen patients for sensitivity to specific foods Allergens eliciting a wheal of at least 3 mm greater than the negative control are considered positive Overall positive predictive accuracy is < 50 % Negative predictive accuracy > 95 % (negative skin test results essentially confirm the absence of IgE-mediated reactions) + Diameter  3 mm

54 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Skin tests Intradermal: Not indicated Atopy Patch test (APT): Atopic dermatitis, delayed reactions Fresh food or dry food recommended Non-standardized Difficult to interpret Diagnosing IgE-Mediated food hypersensitivity disorder skin tests

55 Specific IgE to food (CAP / Radioallergosorbent tests)
Sensitivity similar to skin prick tests Good correlation with other procedures Efficiency: Depends on the allergen Indicated if SPT are contraindicated (eg, skin disease, medications) Useful if discrepancy exists between history and SPT The use of quantitative measurements has shown to be predictive, for some allergens, of symptomatic IgE-mediated food allergy Possibility to perform component-resolved diagnosis very useful in cross-reactivity reactions: profilins (Bet v2, Phl p12), polcalcins (Bet v4, Phl p7), LPT (Pru p3, Cor a8), Gly m4, Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinants or CCDs

56 Diagnostic food-specific IgE values (CAP-system fluorescent enzyme immunoassay) of greater than 95% positive predictive value Food Serum IgE Value (kU/L) Egg ≥7.0 ≤ 2 yr old ≥2.0* Milk ≥15.0 ≤ 2 yrs old ≥5.0** Peanut ≥14.0 Fish ≥20.0 Tree nuts ≥15.0 From Sampson HA: JACI 107: ,2001. Sampson and Ho reported that quantification of food-specific IgE provided increased positive predictive accuracies for egg, milk, peanut, and fish hypersensitivity compared with skin prick tests. In individuals with serum food allergen-specific IgE levels in excess of the 95% predictive value may be considered reactive, and the need for an oral food challenge would be obviated. A patient with a food allergen-specific IgE less than the 95% predictive value may be reactive and would require a food challenge to confirm the diagnosis. In addition, recent data suggest that monitoring the allergen-specific IgE values may be useful in predicting when follow-up challenges are likely to be negative (i.e. when patients “outgrow” their food allergies). Based on these data, the patient evaluation may begin with the history, progress to skin testing for the suspected foods, and then provide quantification of the level of serum food-specific IgE to determine the probability that a reaction will occur. * Boyano-Martinez T, Garcia-Ara C, Diaz-Pena JM, et al: Clin Exp Allergy 31: ,2001. ** Garcia-Ara C, Boyano-Martinez T, Diaz-Pena JM, et al: JACI 107: ,2001.

57 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Serum specific IgE (CAP / RAST) Advantages Multiple determinations with one blood sample Quantitative and comparable measurements Use of recombinant allergens Component-resolved diagnosis Disadvantages Cost Results delayed

58 Interpretation of laboratory tests
Positive prick test or RAST / CAP - Indicates presence of IgE antibody NOT clinical reactivity (~50% false positive) Negative prick test or RAST - Essentially excludes IgE antibody (>95%) Intradermal skin test with food - Risk of systemic reaction & not predictive

59 Cross-reactivity among foods
Patients often have positive SPTs or RAST results to other members of a plant family or animal species - immunological reactivity – does not always correlate with clinical reactivity Cross reactions caused primarily by “Type 1” sensitization Legumes, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, cereal grains, mammalian and avian food products Cross reactions caused by “Type 2” sensitization - Pollen-food allergy syndrome (oral allergy syndrome), - Latex- food syndrome Proper clinical evaluation (ideally by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge testing) is necessary in patients who demonstrate immunological cross-reactivity to foods and when tolerance to food is unknown (to avoid unnecessary restriction of certain foods)

60 Cross reactions with foods: clinical implications
If the patient is diagnosed with allergy to a food, assessment of clinical sensitization to foods with known cross reactivity is recommended If the patient is diagnosed with allergy to a food with known cross reactivity with another food which he / she is not eating (unknown tolerance) that food must be challenged to assess tolerance

61 Cross reactivity in food allergy: clinical relevance
OAS = Oral Allergy Syndrome CMA = Cow’s Milk Allergy Scott H. Sicherer. AAAAI San Francisco 2004:Seminar 3508.

62 Diagnosing IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders
Other Techniques Histamine release with foods: Similar sensitivity and specificity to serum specific IgE Sulphidoleukotrienes released from basophils with food: Not well studied For monitoring food challenges: - Plasma and urinary histamine: High sensitivity, low specificity - Serum tryptase: High specificity, low sensitivity

63 Unproven / experimental tests (useless)
Provocation / neutralization Cytotoxic tests Applied kinesiology Hair analysis IgG4

64 Diagnosis: elimination diets and food challenges
Elimination diets (1 - 6 weeks): - Eliminate suspected food/s, or - Prescribe limited “eat only” diet, or - Elemental diet Oral challenge testing: - Physician supervised - Emergency room medications must be available

65 Basic elimination diet: ALLOWED foods
Rice Fruit: Pear, Apple, Grape Meat: Lamb, Chicken Vegetables: Asparagus, Beetroot, Carrots, Lettuce, Sweet potatoes, Butternut Squash Other: Black Tea, Rooibos Olive oil, Sunflower oil, Sugar, Salts NB: No Preservatives, no tinned or packet foods

66 Controlled food challenges: indications
Patients of any age with history of adverse reaction to a food: For establishment or exclusion of the diagnosis of food intolerance / allergy For scientific reasons in clinical studies For determination of the threshold value or degree of sensitivity For assessment of tolerance - once diagnosed, when a patient is suspected to have outgrown clinical allergy -especially in children, because food allergies are normally outgrown during childhood (eg, milk or hen’s egg allergies) EAACI Position Paper, Allergy 2004; 59:

67 When a controlled food challenge is not necessary for diagnosing food allergy
Repetitive reactions with minimal quantities of food with positive SPT / CAP-RAST Recent (children) severe systemic reaction or (adults) anaphylaxis In selected cases where positive test results makes challenge unnecessary (e.g. Children with convincing history to egg and +ve SPT and specific IgE (CAP) 17.5 Ku/L to egg )

68 Controlled food challenges
Methods Patient without symptoms, and fasting The quantity of food to start the challenge may depend upon the quantity of food that induced the last reaction Is highly recommended to start with minimal doses, with a slight increase at intervals superior to the latency period that the patient has experienced in previous reactions

69 Controlled food challenges
Methods The quantity of the last challenge dose will be related to the age of the patient (normal amount) Challenge with different foods on different days In asthma ensure long wash-out periods, FEV1 ≥ 80%, and follow-up with FEV1 or peak expiratory flow (PEF) hourly for 6 hours Atopic eczema and chronic urticaria: If partial improvement after exclusion diet and on minimal treatment

70 Types of challenge testing
Double -blind Single-Blind Open Exercise + oral challenge Inhalation challenge

71 Controlled food challenges: double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPCFC)
DB is the procedure generally recommended, especially if a positive challenge outcome is expected DB is the method of choice for scientific protocols DB is the method of choice when studying late reactions or chronic symptoms, such as atopic eczema, isolated digestive late reactions, or chronic urticaria DB is the only way to conveniently study subjective food-induced complaints, such as acute subjective adverse reactions, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, migraine or joint complaints EAACI Position Paper. Allergy 2004; 59:

72 Controlled food challenges: eligible patients for DBPCFC include
All patients with suspicion of an immediate, systemic allergic reaction to a food, for establishment or exclusion of the diagnosis Infants and children  three years: An open challenge controlled and evaluated by a physician is most often sufficient Patients with pollen related oral allergy syndrome as their only symptom should only undergo DBPCFC in selected cases; eg, in cases with discrepancy between the case history and the outcome of in vivo and/or in vitro tests EAACI Position Paper. Allergy 2004; 59:

73 Controlled food challenges: double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPCFC)
An open challenge may precede DBPCFC in older children and adults because a negative result renders DBPCFC unnecessary Open challenges should not be applied in cases with a high probability of a positive outcome, or in cases with subjective and/or controversial symptoms only EAACI Position Paper. Allergy 2004; 59:

74 Placebo controlled food challenges
Intercalate food and placebo Active and placebo should have identical characteristics and ensure allergenicity Masking of food: Appearance, colour, flavor, texture Placebos: Dextrose, liquids Vehicles: Capsules (lyophilized) Liquids (placebo) There are many recipes published for masking foods. Capsules: Limit quantity (cereals, dry fruits) Avoid contact with oral mucosa (not used in oral allergy syndrome)

75 Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge testing: limitations
Tedious Time-consuming and expensive Potential risk requires specialist unit (research) IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated?

76 Controlled food challenges: single-blind challenge
Single-blind challenge carries the same difficulties for blinding foods as for double-blind, and introduces subjective bias of the observer It needs additional work (cross-over by an external technician) The recommendation of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology is to always perform double-blind food challenge EAACI Position Paper. Allergy 2004; 59:

77 Controlled food challenges: open challenge
A negative double-blind challenge should always be followed by an open challenge A positive open challenge could be sufficient when dealing with IgE-mediated acute reactions manifesting with objective signs For practical reasons, an open challenge can be the first approach when the probability of a negative outcome is estimated to be very high EAACI Position Paper. Allergy 2004: 59:

78 Controlled food challenges: open challenge
In infants and children  3 years, an open, physician-controlled challenge is often sufficient for suspected immediate type reactions (unless a psychological reaction of the mother is expected) For patients with pollen-related oral allergy syndrome as their only symptom, an open challenge could be sufficient as a regular procedure. However, double-blind challenge is recommended for scientific protocols and other selected cases for example, when discrepancies exist between the clinical history and the outcome of diagnostic tests EAACI Position paper Allergy 2004: 59:

79 Diagnostic approach: IgE-mediated allergy
Test for specific-IgE antibody - Negative: Reintroduce food* - Positive: Start elimination diet Elimination diet - No resolution: Reintroduce food* - Resolution Open/single-blind challenges to “screen” DBPCFC for equivocal open challenges * Unless convincing history warrants supervised challenge

80 Diagnostic approach: non-IgE-mediated disease
Includes disease with unknown mechanisms - Food additive intolerance Elimination Diets (may need elemental diet) Oral Challenges - Timing / dose / approach individualized for disorder - Enterocolitis syndrome can elicit shock - Enteropathy / eosinophilic gastroenteritis-prolonged feedings to develop symptoms May require ancillary testing (endoscopy / biopsy)

81 Food allergy: treatment
Correct diagnosis Treatment of reactions Avoidance Role of dietician Tolerance assessment Prevention Immunotherapeutic strategies Adapted from Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

82 Treatment emergency medicines
Epinephrine: drug of choice for reactions - Self-administered epinephrine readily available - Train patients: Indications / technique Antihistamines: Secondary therapy Emergency plan in writing - Schools, spouses, caregivers, mature siblings / friends Emergency identification bracelet

83 Treatment: avoidance Mainstay of treatment
Must be considered as a therapeutic approach Risk-benefit must be assessed - Correct diagnosis is essential Very restrictive diets can lead to malnutrition Dietician’s role is crucial

84 Vitamins and minerals which will be affected by restricted diet
Allergen Vitamin and Minerals Milk Vitamin A, vitamin D, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, calcium, & phosphorus Egg Vitamin B12, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, & selenium Soy Thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, & zinc Wheat Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, & folate if fortified Peanut Vitamin E, niacin, magnesium, manganese, & chromium

85 Treatment: dietary elimination
Hidden ingredients Labelling issues Cross contamination (shared equipment) “Code words” (“Natural flavor” may be cow’s milk) Seeking assistance Registered dietician: ( Food Allergy Network ( ( )

Some foods (allergens) are masked and may be taken un-noticed during diagnostic procedure: Spices: Mustard, pepper, sesame Legumes and tree nuts: Peanut, soy Milk protein (protein supplements): Caseine, caseinates Vaccines Kitchen tools, volatile allergens Transgenic foods with new proteins Parasitized food: Mites in flour ( pasta, pizzas) Anisakis simplex in fish READ LABELS IN PREPARED FOOD!!!

87 Example: milk elimination
Artificial butter flavor, butter fat, buttermilk, casein, caseinates (sodium, calcium, etc), cheese, cream, cottage cheese, curds, custard, Half&Half®, hydrolysates (sasein, milk, whey), lactalbumin, lactose, milk (derivatives, protein, solids, malted, condensed, evaporated, dry, whole, low-fat, non-fat, skim), nougat, pudding, rennet casein, sour cream, sour cream solids, sour milk solids, whey (delactosed, demineralized, protein concentrate), yogurt. MAY contain milk: brown sugar flavoring, natural flavoring, chocolate, caramel flavoring, high protein flour, margarine, Simplesse®

88 Substitute infant formulas
Soy (confirm soy IgE negative) <15% soy allergy among IgE-cow’s milk allergy ~50% soy allergy among non-IgE cow’s milk allergy Cow’s milk protein hydrolysates: 90% tolerance in IgE-cow’s milk allergy Partial hydrolysates: Not hypoallergenic! Amino acid-based formulas: Lack allergenicity

89 Natural history Dependent on food & immunopathogenesis
IgE-mediated allergy: - CM 85% remit by 8 yrs Saarinen et al JACI Egg 66% remit after 5 yrs Bovano-Martinez et al JACI Peanut 20% may remit (8% may recur) Fleischer et al JACI Treenut, seafood typically persist Declining/low levels of specific-IgE predictive Non-IgE-associated GI allergy - Infant forms resolve 1- 3 years - Toddler/adult forms more persistent

90 Treatment: follow-up Re-evaluate for tolerance periodically
Interval and decision to re-challenge: - Type of food allergy - Severity of previous symptoms - Allergen Ancillary testing - Skin prick test/RAST/CAP may remain positive - Reduced concentration specific-IgE encouraging

91 Food specific IgE cut off levels which predict 50% pass rate for challenge tests
Food IgE level (KUA/l) Milk 2 Egg 2 Peanut 2 Wheat ? Soy ? Perry et al. JACI 2004

92 Prevention of food allergy / allergic disease
Identify patients at risk (difficult) There is no reliable or genetic immunological marker Atopic background in parents, siblings Dietary restriction (milk, egg, fish, nut) In pregnancy: No benefit Adverse effects on maternal-fetus nutrition Hydrolyzed formula (HF): Variable effect (Cochrane Database Syst Rev Oct 18); GINI Study, JACI Mar 2007; extensively HF & partially HF reduce incidence of AD, but not that of asthma Delayed introduction of solid food: Variable effect (Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:10-20) Prolonged breast feeding? Probiotics??

93 Future immunomodulatory therapies
Humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy “Engineered (mutated) allergen protein immunotherapy Antigen-immunostimulatory sequence (CpG)-modulated immunotherapy Peptide immunotherapy Plasmid-DNA immunotherapy Cytokine-modulated immunotherapy Induction of tolerance or oral immunotherapy (milk, egg, hazelnut…….)

94 Summary IgE & non-IgE mediated food allergy conditions exist
History and examination paramount Diagnosis is by elimination and challenge testing Avoidance / education / preparation for emergencies are current therapies Periodic re-challenge to monitor tolerance as indicated by history, allergen, and level of food specific-IgE



97 World Allergy Organization (WAO)
For more information on the World Allergy Organization (WAO), please visit or contact: WAO Secretariat 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100 Milwaukee, WI 53202 United States Tel: Fax:

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