Presentation on theme: "SIREX WOOD WASP Pest of most southern pines, particularly loblolly. Native of Europe, Asia and North Africa. We have more than a dozen species of horntail."— Presentation transcript:
Pest of most southern pines, particularly loblolly. Native of Europe, Asia and North Africa. We have more than a dozen species of horntail wasp. No good keys to immature forms. Sirex is distinguished from native species by dark blue or black metallic body, reddish-yellow legs and all-black antenna. Problem in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont. Damage caused by larvae boring and tunneling in wood causing bleeding as shown. Researchers working on biocontrol using a nematode. APHIS and Forest Service are working on lures and traps for detection and management.
Initially found in Michigan near Detroit in summer 2002. Infestations in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland and Tennessee. Small, bright, metallic-green, flat-headed borer that infests all ash trees. Maryland removed 20,000 ash trees to try to manage this pest. Killed 20 million trees in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. Woodpeckers feed heavily on this pest, and heavy woodpecker feeding injury to trees is a good indicator of infestation.
Found in Florida in October 2005. Serious pest with a wide range of distribution and occurring on a wide host range including many crops. Economically important on strawberries, citrus, cotton, soybeans, peanuts, tomatoes and grapes. Recorded on more than 100 hosts in 40 different families. Capable of spreading tomato spotted wilt virus on peanuts, tobacco streak virus, peanut necrosis virus, and peanut chlorotic fan virus. Adult chili thrips have a pale body and dark wings. This is a very small thrip. Reproduction is both sexually and parthenogenically. Appears to be spreading via Knock Out roses. Primarily a foliage feeder causing crinkling, bronzing and defoliation of infested plants. Attacks primarily the new growth. If infestation is suspected, send samples of 5 to 6 four-to-five-inch cuttings from the terminals of new growth. Place them in a zip-lock bag and send in. Do not put in envelope alone.
. Found in Florida in 1989. Range continues to expand along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Found as far north as Charleston, South Carolina, and as far west as Mobile, Alabama. Moth has grayish forewings and white hind wings. The larva is brightly colored and striped black and orange. Feeds on the ears or pods of Opuntia cactus under a silk webbing. Eggs are laid on top of each other forming a chain that resembles the spines on the cactus. There is no satisfactory chemical management. Several known parasites are being studied for biocontrol.
Found in Florida in 1999. Has been reported from several hosts and locations in Florida. Possibly a pest as it infest several tropical and subtropical fruits and many ornamentals. The resinous secretions of the scale produce a very important product known as shellac, the base for varnish. Young are light to dark reddish brown in color. The shape is globose with 4 lobes. Young more globose than adults. Young individuals usually appear as flat “bow ties.” Adults are hard to control because of thick resinous covering. 190 woody hosts in Florida.
Ceroplastes destructor has 1 to 2 generations per year. Development depends on several factors, including host species, temperature and water availability. Mortality is density dependent, density of parasitoids and predators, and prolonged periods of extreme temperatures. No known males; reproduction is probably parthenogenic. Eggs are laid in protected concave chambers beneath the females. They lay between 37 and 6,400 eggs, averaging between 1,750 and 1,775. Oviposition occurs over 10 to 14 days. Immatures tend to settle on the foliage while later stages move to the young twigs and branches and remain there through the remainder of their development. Requires 5 month to develop. Early stages are easier to control because adults have accumulated heavy wax covering the body.
First found in Orange County, Florida, in 2002. Only infests bamboo. Mealybug is grayish pink to red in color and lacks lateral wax filaments but body is covered with a fine, powdery wax. Found beneath the sheaths of bamboo. It is native to warmer climates and possibly will have multiple generations per year. Heavy infestations of this mealybug have the potential to cause abortion of shoots. Found in Australasian and Oriental Regions and Orange County, Florida.
Brownish purple wax-covered female has tiny legs and a thick wax covering. No known males. Nymphs secrete wax tufts forming a star. Sever infestations of Japanese wax scale detract from the host plant’s appearance because of the many white scales and copious amounts of honeydew they excrete and sooty mold development similar to Florida wax scale. Found from Florida to Maryland. Host include azalea, blueberry, camellia, Chinese elm, citrus, fig, Chinese holly, yaupon, jasmine, mulberry, pear, persimmon, plum, quince, Turks cap and other plants. Once feeding begins, they begin to secrete wax. Scales mature over the summer and overwinter as adults. Control is difficult unless treated in early stages due to buildup of wax on scales body. Multiple applications may be needed because immatures emerge over a 2-to-3 week period.
Serious pest of citrus and occasionally found in trumpet flower. Found in Jefferson and Plaquemine parishes in 2007. Dense colonies of immatures are the most conspicuous sign of an infestation. Immatures are covered by a mass of wax filaments covering the surface superficially, resembling a tangled mass of wool. Adults are small about 1/8 inch or less. Stems, foliage and ground under infestations get covered with sooty mold due to the high honeydew excretions. Honeydew can be observed dripping through the mass covering the immatures. Ants tend these populations for the honeydew and can reduce natural controls. The parasite Eretmocerus jimenezi has been collected from the infestations in Jefferson Parish. Louisiana is a new state and distribution record for this parasite and the white fly. When infestations are first found, small removal of infested foliage and then spraying effectively manages this pest.
Eggs are oviposited in a spiral pattern, and white wax is deposited over each egg. Crawlers tend to remain within the egg spiral and settle down to begin feeding. The 4 th instar secretes long, glassy filaments of wax that hang down from the leaf surface 10 to 12 inches. Adult males are noted by the long claspers at the end of the abdomen. Populations may be so dense as to take your breath away when disturbed. The entire broad leaf surface of ginger plants can be completely covered by nymphs and adults. Life cycle requires about 35 days. Systemics do a good job of management and can be supplemented with ultra fine oils when sprayed. Adults have mottled wings and are very large.
Initially found in Louisiana in 2002 in Lafourche Parish in small populations that were easily managed. Since the hurricanes many orchards were unmanaged and the black fly population has exploded in Lafourche, Plaquemine, Terrebonne and Vermilion parishes. Parasitoids work well to manage this pest but will have to be brought in. Black flies infest citrus, mango, kumquat and pink trumpet. They tend to infest the lower part of the trees. At emergence the adults are bright red with the front of the head pale yellow. After 24 hours they turn slate blue. Both the nymphs and eggs are black. Eggs are laid in a spiral. Each female can lay 2 to 3 spirals of 28 to 34 eggs. Eggs hatch in 5 to 9 days depending on temperature. Black fly nymphs are fed on by lady beetles, spiders and lacewing larvae.
Fire ants are the number one pest in Louisiana. They are beneficial to crops like sugarcane and cotton because they feed on problem pests and help to reduce the number of sprays applied. The use of insect growth regulators such as Esteem, Extinguish, Award, Extinguish Plus and Firestrike use the fire ants’ foraging capabilities to manage it. These materials are safe, effective and economical for the homeowner and farmer. These are not insecticides but sterilants that sterilize the colony and the queen so the colony dies from lack of replacement workers. Once the queen is sterilized the colony gradually declines over 2 to 6 weeks depending on the product used. When treating large areas, spreaders can be borrowed from county agents for application. These materials are used at 1 to 1 ½ pounds per acre. Other insecticides can be used to manage fire ants also. They can be broadcast or used as mound treatments and are as effective when used properly. Materials such as Talstar, Advion, Top Choice and many others can be broadcast like the baits or Orthene and Indoxicarb can be used to treat individual mounds very effectively. For additional information contact your local county agent.