Nutrition Basics 100% calories distributed: ~50% Carbohydrate ~20% Protein ~30% Fat Carbohydrate includes: –all grains (wheat, rye, oats, barley, rice, corn), anything made from flour (breads, bagels, pasta, buns, pretzels, –starchy vegetables (mainly potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, peas, starchy beans – all beans but the green bean), –all fruits (including dried, canned, fresh or juice) –milk and yogurt –Sweets (anything made from sugar, brown sugar, honey, syrup, jelly) “Good carbs” contain at least 3 grams of fiber per serving
Nutrition Basics Protein includes : –Beef, pork, chicken, turkey, fish, lamb, veal, etc… –Egg –Cheese, –Cottage cheese –Tofu –Peanut Butter “Smart Protein” examples are meat with visible fats removed prepared either baked, grilled, roasted or broiled, eggs prepared w/o fat, peanut butter (high in fat but fats are mostly healthy), light or fat-free cheese and cottage cheese. Protein provides satisfaction – include: ~1-2 oz (1-2 eggs or 1-2 Tbsp P. Butter) at Breakfast ~3-4 oz (3-4 oz lunch meat or deck of cards size lean meat) at lunch and dinner
Nutrition Basics Fat includes 4 types (two good and two bad): “Good Fats” are Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’S): C. – Canola oil O. – Olive oil P. – Peanut oil Olives, Most nuts Nut Butters Avocado Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’S): Flaxseed and oil Other nuts (walnuts) Fatty fish (salmon, herring) “Bad Fats” are –Saturated fatty acids: butter, bacon, sausage, fried greasy foods, fatty meats (hot dogs), “creamy” foods, tropical oils (coconut, palm and palm kernel), chocolate –Trans fatty acids: “man-made”, makes shelf stable, margarine, pastries, doughnuts
Nutrition Basics Bare minimums for a nutritious day: Never exceed 5 hours without eating (while awake). Never skip meals – snacking encouraged to prevent large gaps between meals. At least 2 servings of fruits per day (tennis ball fresh, ½ cup canned or juice, ¼ cup dried). At least 3 servings of vegetables per day (1 cup fresh, ½ cup cooked or juice). ~16-24 oz of milk or yogurt per day. At least 8 oz of protein per day. At least 25 grams of fiber per day – richest sources are certain grains (cereals, breads, bagels, fresh fruits and vegetables – especially legumes, nuts, seeds and beans). Lots of fluid – particularly calorie-free. Restrict “bad fats” (saturated and trans) to 15 grams or less per day combined. Attempt to make each meal balanced: protein, grain, fruit, vegetable and dairy. Very moderate with alcohol.
Nutrition During Training If “regular” workout, “regular” balanced nutrition. If “extensive” workout (>60-90 minutes), need “special” nutrition – particularly high carbohydrate (≥ 60% cals). Pre-exercise timing of eating/hydration: FOODTIMING large meal4-6 hrs prior light meal2-3 hrs prior snack0.5-1 hr prior Best foods are high carbohydrate, moderate protein, low fat and high fluids – experiment during training. Why Carbohydrates (CHO)? CHO’s convert to glucose most efficiently – glucose is our primary & quickest source of energy – easily utilized. For endurance training and events, we use glucose from our storage in muscle and liver (stored glucose is called glycogen). If sufficient CHO’s are eaten before, during and after training/event, our glycogen stores should remain adequate. Fats, although an energy source, provide < 1/3 energy than muscle glycogen. In other words, fats are extremely inefficient and slow energy sources. Proteins do not really provide energy; they are used primarily for muscle repair.
Nutrition During Training Pre-exercise/Training What types of carbohydrates are best? Wholesome and low-fat – ie: cereals, bagels, breads, muffins, English muffins, rice, pasta, potatoes, yogurt, milk, fruits or whatever found tolerated and practiced (Tried and True). How much carbohydrate should be consumed through-out the day while training? grams for average woman grams for average man This may look like the following: Breakfast: grams Lunch: grams Dinner: grams Snacks:15-30 grams each Carbohydrate servings are thought of in 15 gram increments, ie: 1 slice bread, ½ English muffin, ¼ of a bagel, 1/3-1/2 cup cereal, 6-8 oz light yogurt or milk, ½ cup potato, tennis ball fruit or baked potato, CD size pancake
Nutrition During Training The Week Before the Event Diet really remains mostly the same – biggest changes at this time are rest, cut back on exercise and saturating muscles with CHO. Days 6, 5, 4 typical “training” diet – 60% CHO women – g men – g Days 3, 2, 1 Carbo-load – increase to 70% women – g men – grams These three days are primarily CHO and very little fats and proteins. Caution with high fiber – may cause GI upset. Extra fluids – 4-8 extra glasses - but eliminate caffeine and alcohol. Day prior to event, may want large meal to be lunch to allow digest time. This week is all about familiarity – eat/drink what you’ve been consuming the entire training – this is not the time to try new things.
Nutrition During Training Pre-Exercise/Training if tolerate immediately before training or event: “light” CHO – ie: small bowl of cereal, small bagel or English muffin (~45-60 grams) may also desire 1-2 servings of protein ie: 1-2 poached eggs, light string cheese, a spoonful of low fat cottage cheese, 2-3 thin slices turkey or chicken Absolutely must hydrate: If workout <60 minutes, water okay. Otherwise need CHO in fluid (ie: sports drinks). Never wait for thirst – thirst signals “too late” to hydrate. ~2 hours prior to workout/event – need 2-3 cups of fluid (ideally water). The kidneys need minutes to process excess liquid. ~5-15 minutes prior to workout/event – consume 1-2 cups (this fluid will be ready to replace the sweat losses).
Nutrition During Training During Exercise/Event Most Importantly – Hydration, Hydration, Hydration! For > minutes, need 8 oz fluid every 15 min. First 1-2 aid stations, drink water. After that, start consuming either water with CHO sources (gels, sports beans, candy) or sports drinks. To determine individual fluid needs, use sweat rate: determine weight loss: Pre-workout weight158# Post-workout weight154# Total weight loss 4# determine sweat loss: Weight loss 4# Fluid consumed 2# (32 oz) Total lost in sweat 6# Each # lost, should be replaced with at least 16 oz fluid.
Nutrition During Training Best nutrition during extensive workouts/events: CARBOHYDRATES! Best CHO’s to choose: quick “sugars”, but NOT fructose (fruit juice) Body cannot use >60 grams CHO per hour. Ideal CHO solutions or sports drinks are 6-8% CHO or ~15 grams CHO per 8 oz. Therefore, if 8 oz of fluid is needed every 15 minutes and most 8 oz solutions contain ~15 grams CHO, the consumption would total around 60 grams CHO per hour. Also, total fluid in that hour would be 32 oz – which is the approximate amount needed to replenish pounds and sweat loss. Solid CHO solutions can also be used – ie: gels, sports beans, Gu, candy such as jelly beans, fruit snacks, jolly ranchers, or bars such as Power Bar, Clif, Luna, Pria. Most of the sports solid solutions are perfectly formulated for endurance needs. If use solid CHO, still need to drink water. Trial solids during training, some experience gastrointestinal upset (dumping or diarrhea).
Nutrition During Training Post-Exercise/Recovery As soon as event or workout is over, what should I eat? CHO will replete muscle glycogen – need to consume as soon as possible or 1-4 hours ~0.5 grams CHO (within first 2 hours) – 150# person should consume ~75 grams Consume another 75 grams 2 hours later Best sources are nutrient-rich: cereal with milk and fruit, fruit juice and bagel, yogurt with fruit and cereal. Protein – mixed recommendations – not a bad idea to encourage muscle/tissue repair - ~1-2 servings (7-14 grams) – recommend low fat as may cause GI upset. Easy suggestions include: bread, bagel or pita sandwich with 2 oz lunch meat (plus fruit and/or yogurt or milk), light string cheese with crackers and fruit and/or yogurt/milk. Fluids – never stop drinking – can be water or sports drinks – may be most tolerated immediately after a long, strenuous event If event longer than 4-6 hours, may need to replace sodium. Consume popcorn, pretzels, crackers, V-8.
Agenda General Nutrition – CHO, Protein, Fat – 100% calories Need balance – no meal skipping – high fiber, lean protein, fruits, vegetables, dairy/calcium sources, fluids Nutrition during Training – higher CHO – higher fluids – lower protein and fat CHO’s convert to glucose most efficiently – glucose fuels our muscles and stores as glycogen (muscle and liver). We use this storage for endurance and brain food. Wholesome CHO’s best – breads, cereals, grains, starches, fruits, vegetables – during training – practice to find what you tolerate or works best. Quantity: grams for women grams for men 3-days prior to event – CHO load and increase fluids During event – 15 grams CHO every 15 minutes 8 oz fluid every 15 minutes Recovery – start minutes post event – need 0.5 grams/# body weight – within 2 hours later need another 0.5 grams/#. Protein 1-2 servings. NEVER stop drinking fluids