Instructional Design D. Lemon NC Teach II April 4, 2009
Teaching is Complex Teaching involves much more than telling students information. It involves classroom management, short and long term planning, knowledge of content, knowledge of learning styles, use of materials, and an understanding of varied instructional skills and strategies
Are you good enough? Estimates of teacher effect revealed that highly effective teachers tended to be effective with all groups of students regardless of initial achievement level, while highly ineffective teachers produced unsatisfactory gains among all groups of students (Sanders & Rivers, 1996).
Moreover, results were additive and cumulative, so that the contributions of both highly effective and ineffective teachers to students’ learning gains could be measured for at least four years after students left their classrooms (Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Simulations revealed that students who were assigned to highly effective teachers after having been assigned to a series of highly ineffective teachers made greater than expected gains, but not enough to make up for lost ground.
Children assigned to three effective teachers in a row scored at the 83rd percentile in math at the end of 5th grade, while children assigned to three ineffective teachers in a row scored at the 29th percentile.
This figure illustrates results from an equivalent study on math performance in Dallas (Jordan, Mendro, & Weerasinghe, 1997). The results are very similar.
Planning for Instruction The instructional decisions we make will increase the probability that our students will learn.
Elements of Effective Instruction Teachers make hundreds of decisions every hour. The decisions that are made make the difference in the learning that occurs in the classroom. A teacher can motivate students and can get through to the most difficult students. Teaching Makes a Difference!
Planning for Instruction Planning is the key to effective instruction Effective teachers spend necessary time deciding on how to facilitate an environment where varied learning styles are met.
Define Instructional Goals An objective may be defined as a general statement of desired accomplishment. Example: Given peanut butter, jelly, and bread, the learner will follow the steps to create a delicious sandwich.
Conduct a Task Analysis Identify which prerequisite skills need to be mastered to reach the objective. The task analysis is performed by asking "What are all of the things the student must know and/or be able to do to achieve the goal?"
Prerequisite skills needed to make a sandwich Open the jars Use a knife Spread the peanut butter without tearing the bread Spread the two ingredients evenly so that the sandwich is not overpowered by one taste
Select the Objective: Level of Difficulty If we start instruction at a level that is either too easy or too difficult for the learners, we are wasting their time and ours. Task analysis can add precision to a teacher’s diagnosis of students’ learning needs. A task analysis is done by listing the subskills or prerequisites that are necessary for a student to accomplish a given objective.
Select the objective at the correct level of difficulty Once the sub- learnings are listed, eliminate any learnings not essential and sequence the learnings.
Select an objective at the correct level of difficulty Make task analysis part of your daily thinking and planning Before you teach, consider what your students will need to know before you begin Do they know the necessary prerequisite skills needed to be successful? How can you give your students a quick assessment to determine what they know?
Your Turn Think about a task that you know how to do well. It can be something you perform each day such as driving, cooking, changing diapers, etc., or a task you do occasionally such as decorating a tree or dancing Write the name of the task at the top of your paper and think about all of the prerequisite skills you need to understand and be able to do to accomplish the task List all of these skills and be prepared to discuss the process
Designing Instruction Step One – Decide on your objective Think: What will the students be able to “do” when demonstrating mastery of this objective?
Designing Instruction Review the lesson plan for today’s lesson and discuss Using the lesson plan format given, choose an objective you are going to teach to others and write this goal under “Statement of Objective”
Selecting an objective: Level of complexity Students have the most difficulty with problems requiring higher levels of thinking. When teachers understand the various levels of cognition, (domains) it is easier to write plans that encourage mastery learning of the objectives.
Defining Higher Levels of Thinking Benjamin Bloom developed a classification of thinking skills: Bloom’s Taxonomy Consider the difference in difficulty between memorizing and singing a song and creating the words and melody for an original one!
Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge: recalling facts Comprehension: comprehend the facts, summarize Application: solve a problem in a new situation Analysis: break down information and identify relationships between the parts Synthesis: bring together several pieces of information, ideas, or skills and arrange them into a creative new whole Evaluation: make a judgement and give reasons to support that particular position
Bloom’s Taxonomy Analysis: break into parts, clarify, identify the patterns, issues Synthesis: design, create, compose, invent Evaluation: conclude and support that conclusion, select the best and tell why, criticize, choose and justify your decision
Revised Bloom Original Terms New Terms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8 )
Sample Unit : Space Remembering Cut out “space” pictures from a magazine. Make a display or a collage. List space words (Alphabet Key). List the names of the planets in our universe. List all the things an astronaut would need for a space journey. Understanding Make your desk into a spaceship, Make an astronaut for a puppet play. Use it to tell what an astronaut does. Make a model of the planets in our solar system. Applying Keep a diary of your space adventure (5 days). What sort of instruments would you need to make space music? Make a list of questions you would like to ask an astronaut. Analyzing Make an application form for a person applying for the job of an astronaut. Compare Galileo’s telescope to a modern telescope. Distinguish between the Russian and American space programs. Evaluating Compare the benefits of living on Earth and the moon. You can take three people with you to the moon. Choose and give reasons. Choose a planet you would like to live on- explain why. Creating Write a newspaper report for the following headline: “Spaceship out of control”. Use the SCAMPER strategy to design a new space suit. Create a game called “Space Snap”. Prepare a menu for your spaceship crew. Design an advertising program for trips to the moon.
Your Turn Complete the Bloom’s Taxonomy activities in your group Each group must reach consensus on the answers and be able to defend your reasoning
Teach to the Objective Teachers must plan instruction around clearly defined objectives NOT activities Think about what the learning will look like if it is accomplished. Are you teaching what you are assessing? Teacher and learner time should be spent on the task There is a direct relationship between the amount of time a student spends working on a task and the achievement of that task
Teach to the Objective To increase student achievement in your classroom: specify what the student is to learn (clearly define the objective) find ways to keep the student involved with the specific learning (plan teacher and student behaviors that lead to the accomplished task of that objective)
Teach to the objective When selecting your activities, ask yourself the following questions: What new learning(s) do I want my students to be able to do at the end of class? What is the thinking skill needed to achieve this objective? Does my objective match the thinking level required of the task? What percent of time will be devoted to student engagement of the pursuit of the intended learning?
Designing Instruction Focus and Review Think….. How will I generate interest in the objective I am going to teach? What prerequisite skills will students need to know to be successful?
Your Turn Review the objective you listed on your lesson plan Quickly complete a task analysis to review the prerequisite skills required for success Decide on the thinking level required for students to successfully master the objective Decide on a way to introduce the task and generate interest Complete the section for focus and review on your lesson plan form
Monitor and Adjust Porter and Brophy (1988): “Effective teachers continuously monitor their students’ understanding of presentations and responses to assignments. They routinely provide timely and detailed feedback…” Research states that the most effective teachers ask an average of 24 questions during a 50-minute period: the least effective asked an average of 8.6.
Monitor and Adjust Mager (1968): “If telling were the same as teaching, we’d all be so smart we could hardly stand it.” Without the monitoring and adjusting, we’d be simply telling! Of the variables influencing learning, frequent assessment and feedback are ranked among the most important.
A traditional view of the teacher is of someone who dispenses knowledge: someone who Lectures, tells, disseminates, covers material. The students sit passively while the teacher does all of the work. Consider the amount of information available to students through technology. Teaching has to change! Teaching Strategies
Effective Teaching Strategies Demonstrations allow students to experience more fully the information and concepts the teacher wants to impart during the lesson. Although the teacher is still the center of the action and the dispenser of knowledge, students can more easily see what they need to know and more efficiently link it to prior knowledge in their own ways. Students remember much better what they have both heard and seen (or even touched, smelled, or tasted)!
Effective Teaching Stragegies Mastery occurs when students are able to use the information when they need it! Students need to be actively involved in learning – what are they doing to demonstrate the new learning? A great way to assess mastery is to ask students to teach others.
Your Turn Think about a teacher who made an impact on your learning What teaching strategies did the teacher use to make learning effective? List any strategies or activities you remember and be ready to share and list on the board.
Select an Instructional Method The purpose of selecting an instructional method is to identify and employ teaching strategies and techniques that most effectively achieve the performance objectives.
Active Learners Current educational theory and research support the use of instructional methods that make students active learners (e.g., lecture, lab, small group discussion, case- based study, simulations, independent study, etc.).
Designing Instruction Design teaching and learning strategies to teach the objective. Think….. What should the students do to effectively learn the objective?
Designing Instruction Teacher Input – What information do students need to know? How will you disseminate this information? Guided Practice – How will you assess if students understand the knowledge before assigning independent practice? Independent Practice - How will students apply and practice the new knowledge?
Your Turn Think about the objective you have chosen to teach and decide on what information you must provide How will you facilitate an environment for students to learn this information? Complete the teacher input, guided practice and independent practice part of your lesson plan form
Monitoring Strategies Choral responses Signals (thumbs up or down) Write answer down Discuss answer with a partner
Steps in Monitoring and Adjusting Elicit overt behavior: Check the behavior Interpret the behavior Act on the interpretation -Adjust the level of difficulty -Move on -Reteach -Abandon
Curriculum and Assessment to Improve Teaching and Learning Focus on standards as the basis for developing curriculum and developing assessments Backward Design: Identify the NCSCOS objectives that define what students should know and be able to do, Determine the assessments that will allow the students to demonstrate what they’ve learned, Decide on the instructional strategies that will prepare students to show what they have learned
Designing Instruction Closure What will students do to help them remember the new learning? Think…… Research tells us that the brain easily remembers the first and last parts of a task. How will I close the lesson to promote further retention?
Your Turn Review the strategies you listed to teach your students the objective you have chosen to teach How will you know they understand? Complete the closure section of your lesson plan
Assessment Should provide ongoing feedback to students and teachers regarding what students have learned Should be used to improve teaching and learning, not simply judge and/or rank student performance Should include a wide range of methods such as traditional paper/pencil tests, projects, performance tasks, rubrics, portfolios, etc
Plan and Reflect It is important to remember that sometimes the plans that look so good on paper actually fail in practice. Remember to reflect on each lesson by analyzing the teaching methods implemented and the course materials provided. Did students learn the intended objective? What will you do differently next time?
Elements of a Lesson Plan Objectives--what students will be able to do as a result of the lesson Standards--which state content and developmental standards are addressed in the lesson Procedures--what the teacher will do to get the students there Assessment --what the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively: watching students work, assigning application activities, getting feedback, etc. Modifications/accommodations for any special needs students in the class
Elements of Lesson Plans Additionally, many lesson plans also include: Materials needed for the class period and any special equipment Time estimates, and of course procedural subpoints.
Planning for Instruction Anticipatory Set (setting the stage)--attention-getter and focuser Statement of Objectives--tell students what they'll be able to do as a result of the lesson Instructional Input--lecture, but not necessarily lecture: demo, explanation, instructions Guided Practice--help students start practicing new skills, applying new knowledge Check for Understanding--watch faces, ask questions Independent Practice--turn them loose to work on their own, homework assignment, etc. Closure—summarize the main points that students should remember
Your Turn Review and refine the plan you have written. Exchange plans with a partner and critique the lesson plans using the rubric provided.
Effective Instructional Skills The teacher in the classroom makes the difference Teacher behaviors have a direct link to student achievement Classroom instruction and climate have nearly as much impact on learning as student aptitude Detailed planning is imperative to successful teaching
Lesson Plan Assignment Review the lesson plans and be prepared to ask questions and/or discuss What new learning is to occur and how will the students demonstrate the new learning? Are students actively involved in the learning process?
Lesson Plan Assignment Choose an objective from the curriculum you plan to teach Work in groups to brainstorm and analyze available resources Use the lesson plan format provided and develop a detailed plan for one of the objectives Submit to me via Taskstream and share with classmates for feedback