Presentation on theme: "1 Don L. Zink, Ph.D. Center for Food Science and Applied Nutrition U.S. Food & Drug Administration The Changing Science of Peanut Butter."— Presentation transcript:
1 Don L. Zink, Ph.D. Center for Food Science and Applied Nutrition U.S. Food & Drug Administration The Changing Science of Peanut Butter
A Brief History of Peanut Butter The ancient Inca Indians were known to have made peanuts into a paste as early as 950 B.C. Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patented a “Process of Preparing Nut Meal” in 1895 using peanuts. He served peanut butter to patients in his Battle Creek Sanitarium.
A Brief History of Peanut Butter Ambrose Straub patented a peanut butter making machine in 1903. Public introduction of peanut butter into mainstream U.S. society occurred in 1904 at the St. Louis Worlds Fair By 1914, many companies were making peanut butter and by 1928 smooth peanut butter was sold under the Peter Pan brand name and in 1932, crunchy style peanut butter appeared under the Skippy brand.
A Brief History of Salmonella Coincidentally, Salmonella was discovered in the modern world at about the same time as peanut butter. In 1885, Theobald Smith discovered Salmonella and named the organism after Dr. Daniel Salmon, who was the administrator of the USDA research program studying hog cholera. At this time, there was no known connection between peanuts, peanut butter and Salmonella.
Recent Salmonella outbreaks linked to Peanuts and Peanut Butter YearProduct implicatedSalmonella SerovarCountry 1996Peanut butterS. MbandakaAustralia 1996Peanut-flavored maize snackS. AgonaMultiple a 2001PeanutsS. Stanley, S. NewportMultiple b 2006-07Peanut butterS. TennesseeUS 2008-09Peanut butter, peanut butter- containing products S. TyphimuriumUS, Canada c a Including UK, US, and Israel. b Including Australia, Canada, and UK. c One case was reported in Canada. Data adapted from Scott et al., 2009
Salmonella Infectious Dose YearSerovarNo. (cfu/g) Vehicle a Source of contamination No. of illness cases Country 1973 – 1974 S. Eastbourne2.5Chocolate Balls Cocoa beans200US, Canada 1982S. Napoli2-23Chocolate Bars Contaminated Water (postulated) 272England, Wales 1985 – 1986 S. Nima0.04-0.24Chocolate coins Unknown?Canada 1987S. Typhimurium≤1ChocolateAvian Contamination (postulated) 349Norway, Finland 2001 – 2002 S. Oranienburg1.1–2.8Chocolate (two brands) Unknown439Germany and other European Countries 2006 – 2007 S. Tennessee0.1 - 1Peanut ButterPlant environment628US a In each outbreak, the identified vehicles was traced to a single manufacturer. Data adapted from Scott et al., 2009
Characteristics of Salmonella in Foods Growth in foods –Temperature: from 5.2°C to 46.2°C –pH: from 3.8 to 9.5 –A w : from 0.94 to >0.99 Heat resistance in foods –Wide strain-to-strain variation –Dependent on pH, A w, and food matrix Freezing is not effective in eliminating Salmonella from foods Salmonella survive long periods of dehydration
Heat Resistance of Salmonella * Effects of pH –S. Typhimurium – D 126 = 6.1 min in poultry scald water at pH 7.6 –S. Typhimurium – D 126 = 34.5 min in poultry scald water at pH 5.9 –S. Typhimurium – D 126 = 2.5 min in poultry scald water at pH 8.5 –S. Typhimurium – D 126 = 0.175 min in poultry scald water at pH 10.0 * D value temperatures are in °F
Heat Resistance of Salmonella Salmonella SerovarHeating MediumWater Activity Temperature (°F) D-value (min) S. TyphimuriumChocolate Syrup0.831503.2 S. TyphimuriumSalt solution0.42248°8.9 S. TyphimuriumSalt solution0.31248°10.6 S. WeltevredenWheat flour0.36 – 0.40167 – 17180 S. WeltevredenWheat flour0.25 – 0.30167 – 171150 S. TyphimuriumMilk Chocolate?160396 S. TyphimuriumMilk Chocolate?19478 Data adapted from Scott et al., 2009
Challenges with Salmonella Heat resistance at low water activity –The ability to destroy Salmonella on nuts during roasting is dependent on the moisture status at the surface of the nut, not the humidity of the bulk air Variability among strains of Salmonella –The strains of S. Tennessee involved in the recent outbreaks are more heat resistant that other typical strains of Salmonella
Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Data from Li Ma et al., 2009. J. Food Protect. 72:1596 – 1601.
Practical Impact of Peanut Butter Contamination Incidents The peanut butter contamination implicated a wide range of low moisture foods –Bakery products, baked pet treats –Chocolate products –Nut products The vast majority of affected food processors were not familiar with Salmonella and did not understand their own heating processes on a functional level –Lack of data on actual product time-temperature profiles Some regulators did not understand the heat resistance of Salmonella at low water activities –Some gave guidance from the Food Code on safe cooking temperatures
Future Research Needs More research is needed on Salmonella heat resistance in foods –Research findings need to be converted into user-friendly tools that can be used to evaluate cooking processes –Small and medium size processors need more training and education about food processing Improved designs are needed for dry nut roasting equipment