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Atmosphere Eric Angat Environmental Science Teacher.

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere Eric Angat Environmental Science Teacher."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere Eric Angat Environmental Science Teacher

2 Essential Question How do I describe the structure and composition of our atmosphere? EEn 2.5.1

3 1. Describe the Earth’s atmosphere.

4 2. What is the composition of the air that we breath? ( p. 272, figure II-I ) Argon, water vapor, carbon dioxide.

5 3. The earth’s atmosphere is mainly composed of which three gases? A.nitrogen,oxygen,and argon B.carbon dioxide, helium and nitrogen C.argon, methane and oxygen D.helium, oxygen and radon

6 4. Which compound listed below contributes to acid rain in the atmosphere? A. hydrochloric acid B. sulfuric acid C. carbon dioxide D. carbon monoxide

7 5. What determines the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere? ( p. 272 ) Y-axis Amount of water vapor in g/cm 3 X-axis Tempera ture in Celsius At 15 C, the amount of water vapor is 10 g/cm 3 At 30 C, the amount of water vapor is 30 g/cm 3

8 6. Why can warm air hold more water vapor than cold air? A.warm air is more dense than cold air B. warm air is less dense than cold air C. warm air sinks below cold air D. Warm air flows faster than cold air

9 7. Why is it necessary to check the water vapor and carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere? ( P. 272 ) The amount of water vapor in the air greatly influence the type precipitation in a certain area.

10 The Ozone Layer: The stratosphere contains a thin layer of ozone which absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. The ozone layer is being depleted, and is getting thinner over Europe, Asia, North American and Antarctica --- "holes" are appearing in the ozone layer.

11 8. What makes the ozone layer an important component of the stratosphere? ( p. 273 ) The ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

12 9. How is the composition of air changing? ( p ) 2.05 The composition of the air is changing because of the pollution we add to the air.

13 10. What makes up 99% of our air? ( p. 271 )

14 11. What is the atmosphere? ( p. 9 ) 2.05 The atmosphere is the air that envelopes earth. Its lowest layer is the troposphere.

15 12. What layer of the atmosphere burns meteors?

16 13. What is the difference between the troposphere and stratosphere? 3.10 In troposphere there are weather changes while in the stratosphere only horizontal wind and ozone.

17 There are five layers in the atmosphere. The atmosphere thins out until it reaches space. 1.The troposphere is where weather occurs. You breathe the air in the troposphere. 2.Many airplanes fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Also, the ozone layer is there. 3.Many rock fragments from space burn up in the mesosphere. 4.The thermosphere or Ionosphere is very thin. It's where the Aurora happens. 5.The upper limit of our atmosphere is the exosphere. Also where space shuttle orbits.

18 14. Describe the troposphere. ( p. 274 ) The troposphere extends an altitude of 10 miles and it is where weather changes occur.

19 15. Describe the stratosphere. ( p. 274 ) The stratosphere has horizontal winds. It also has the ozone layer that protects us from UV rays.

20 16. Why do planes fly in the stratosphere, the second- lowest layer of the atmosphere? A.to avoid storms and other weather events B.to receive better radio communication C.to fly at supersonic speeds without air resistance D.to avoid changes in air pressure

21 Where do airplane fly? The flight of Mr. Angat The flight of Mr. Angat The flight of Mr. Angat Big airplanes fly in the stratosphere to escape whirling winds in the troposphere..

22 17. Identify and describe the layers of the upper atmosphere. ( p. 274) The upper atmosphere has low air pressure and very thin air. Upper atmosphere

23 18. What is the layer with the highest concentration of ozone gas ( O 3 )?

24 Y-axis is Altitude X-axis Tempera ture in Celsius Highest concentration of O 3 gas stratosphere

25 19. What accounts for the increase of temperature in the stratosphere?

26 Y-axis is Altitude X-axis Tempera ture in Celsius Highest concentration of O 3 gas stratosphere Because the ozone or O 3 in the stratosphere absorbs the U.V. rays of the Sun.

27 20. Why is the temperature in the lower troposphere higher than the temperature in the higher troposphere?

28 Y-axis is Altitude X-axis Tempera ture in Celsius Because heat is reflected by Earth’s surface thus warming the lower troposphere. troposphere

29 21. How much, in percent, solar radiation is reflected by our planet back to space? ( p. 275, figure 11-4 ) About 35% of solar radiation is reflected back to space by clouds, land and oceans.

30 22. Define radiation, conduction, and convection. ( p ) Radiation- heat transfer without any medium. Convection- heat transfer in liquids and gases. Conduction- heat transfer in solids.

31 23. What is the Greenhouse Effect? ( p , figure 14-18) Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane in the troposphere trap heat, preventing it from escaping thus keeping the Earth warm. This trapping of heat is called the "greenhouse effect".

32 However, if there is too much carbon dioxide in the Troposphere then it will trap too much heat. Scientists are afraid that the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide would raise the Earth's surface temperature, bringing significant changes to worldwide weather patterns... shifting in climatic zones and the melting of the polar ice caps, which could raise the level of the world's oceans.

33 24. How are we affected by the Global Warming Effect? ( p ) Global warming is making our planet so warm causing disruptions in weather.

34 25. How are we affected by the Ozone layer? Harmful or helpful? ( p. 294 ) 3.56 Ozone layer protect us from the radiation of the Sun in the stratosphere.

35 26. How destructive is CFC to the ozone layer in the stratosphere and where does it come from? (p. 294 ) CFC destroys ozone molecules making us exposed to U.V. radiation.

36 27. What efforts are being undertaken to prevent further damage and repair the ozone layer? ( p. 294, International Effort ) Countries around the world are finding ways to lessen our ecological footprint.

37 Climate Change Climate change is a problem that is affecting people and the environment. Greater energy efficiency and new technologies hold promise for reducing greenhouse gases and solving this global challenge.

38 25.What can we do to slow down Global warming? We can slow down global warming by lessening our carbon footprint. Recycle!

39 Ecological Footprint (amount of pollution we create) Too much greenhouse gases CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) Global Warming Climate Change Depletion of the Ozone Layer

40 Effects of Climate Change Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength Sea level is rising Glaciers and permafrost are melting Sea-surface temperatures are warming Crops are withering Ecosystems are changing, Species that are particularly vulnerable Warmer temperatures affect human health Seawater is becoming more acidic

41 The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period

42 MESOSPHERE – protects us from meteors. Here in the mesosphere, the atmosphere is very rarefied nevertheless thick enough to slow down meteors hurtling into the atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails in the night sky.

43 THERMOSPHERE The thermosphere extends from 80 km above the Earth's surface to outer space. The temperature is hot and may be as high as thousands of degrees as the few molecules that are present in the thermosphere receive extraordinary large amounts of energy from the Sun. However, the thermosphere would actually feel very cold to us because of the probability that these few molecules will hit our skin and transfer enough energy to cause appreciable heat is extremely low.

44 Why does the pressure decrease as you go to higher altitude? The difference between air and water is that air is compressible and water is not. If you are diving in the sea and have 10 meters of water above you, the pressure is 1 bar, if you have 20 meters of water above you it's 2 bar simply because the amount of water is doubled. However, air is different. The amount the air compresses depends a bit on the temperature but roughly we can divide the pressure by a factor of 2 for every 5.5 km increase in height.

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46 Enter the following terms into the appropriate white lines of the picture above: mesosphere, troposphere, sea level, stratosphere, stratopause, thermosphere, mesopause, Tropopause Name: _______________________________ Date:_________ Week:___ Class Period:__ Answers only

47 videos Our Restless Atmosphere (11:19) This video contains 5 segments. 1. The Composition of the Atmosphere (02:05) 2.Acid Rain (01:29) 3. Ozone: Harmful and Helpful (03:56) 4. Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect (01:49) 5.How to Help Our Restless Atmosphere (01:22)

48 Review Write 15 vocabulary words

49 Why do aeroplanes not fly in the stratosphere? Commercial airlines often cruise in the stratosphere, albeit at its lower reaches. However, airplanes fly due to the lift created by air flowing over/under their wings. An airplane's engines provide thrust, which move its wings through the air (i.e., increases the flow of air over/under the wings). Once the lift thus created by this airflow exceeds the airplane's weight, the airplane climbs into the air. At higher altitudes, there is less air. So, more thrust is required in order for the wing to create enough airflow and lift to keep the airplane flying. A practical altitude limit is reached when the airplane's engines cannot provide enough thrust and/or its wings cannot produce enough lift in order to offset the airplane's weight.

50 AIRPLANES NOT ALLOWED Very few airplanes can fly as high as the stratosphere because the air is so thin that there is not enough lift to keep the aircraft supported. Some spy planes do fly in the lower stratosphere, however, such as the U-2 and the SR-71.

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