4 2. What is the composition of the air that we breath. ( p 2. What is the composition of the air that we breath? ( p. 272, figure II-I )Argon, water vapor, carbon dioxide.
5 3. The earth’s atmosphere is mainly composed of which three gases? nitrogen,oxygen,and argoncarbon dioxide, helium and nitrogenargon, methane and oxygenhelium, oxygen and radon
6 4. Which compound listed below contributes to acid rain in the atmosphere? A. hydrochloric acidB. sulfuric acidC. carbon dioxideD. carbon monoxide
7 5. What determines the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. ( p Y-axisAmount of water vapor in g/cm3At 15 C, the amount of water vapor is 10 g/cm3At 30 C, the amount of water vapor is 30 g/cm3X-axisTemperature in Celsius
8 6. Why can warm air hold more water vapor than cold air? warm air is more dense thancold airB. warm air is less dense thanC. warm air sinks below cold airD. Warm air flows faster than coldair
9 7. Why is it necessary to check the water vapor and carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere? ( P. 272 )The amount of water vapor in the air greatly influence the type precipitation in a certain area.
10 The Ozone Layer: The stratosphere contains a thin layer of ozone which absorbs most ofthe harmful ultravioletradiation from the Sun. The ozone layer is being depleted, and is getting thinner over Europe, Asia, North American and Antarctica --- "holes" are appearing in the ozone layer.
11 The ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. 8. What makes the ozone layer an important component of the stratosphere? ( p. 273 )The ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
12 9. How is the composition of air changing? ( p. 664-665 ) The composition of the air is changing because of the pollution we add to the air.2.05
14 11. What is the atmosphere? ( p. 9 ) The atmosphere is the air that envelopes earth. Its lowest layer is the troposphere.2.05
15 12. What layer of the atmosphere burns meteors?
16 13. What is the difference between the troposphere and stratosphere? In troposphere there are weather changes while in the stratosphere only horizontal wind and ozone.3.10
17 There are five layers in the atmosphere There are five layers in the atmosphere. The atmosphere thins out until it reaches space.The troposphere is where weather occurs. You breathe the air in the troposphere.Many airplanes fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Also, the ozone layer is there.Many rock fragments from space burn up in the mesosphere.The thermosphere or Ionosphere is very thin. It's where the Aurora happens.The upper limit of our atmosphere is the exosphere. Also where space shuttle orbits.
18 14. Describe the troposphere. ( p. 274 ) The troposphere extends an altitude of 10 miles and it is where weather changes occur.
19 15. Describe the stratosphere. ( p. 274 ) The stratosphere has horizontal winds. It also has the ozone layer that protects us from UV rays.
20 16. Why do planes fly in the stratosphere, the second-lowest layer of the atmosphere? to avoid storms and other weather eventsto receive better radio communicationto fly at supersonic speeds without air resistanceto avoid changes in air pressure
21 Where do airplane fly? The flight of Mr. Angat Big airplanes fly in the stratosphere to escape whirling winds in the troposphere. .
22 17. Identify and describe the layers of the upper atmosphere. ( p. 274) The upper atmosphere has low air pressure and very thin air.
23 18. What is the layer with the highest concentration of ozone gas ( O3)?
24 Y-axis is AltitudestratosphereHighest concentration of O3 gasX-axisTemperature in Celsius
25 19. What accounts for the increase of temperature in the stratosphere?
26 Y-axis is AltitudeBecause the ozone or O3 in the stratosphere absorbs the U.V. rays of the Sun.stratosphereHighest concentration of O3 gasX-axisTemperature in Celsius
27 20. Why is the temperature in the lower troposphere higher than the temperature in the higher troposphere?
28 Y-axis is AltitudeBecause heat is reflected by Earth’s surface thus warming the lower troposphere.troposphereX-axisTemperature in Celsius
29 21. How much, in percent, solar radiation is reflected by our planet back to space? ( p. 275, figure 11-4 )About 35% of solar radiation is reflected back to space by clouds, land and oceans.
30 22. Define radiation, conduction, and convection. ( p. 275-277 ) Convection-heat transfer in liquids and gases.Conduction-heat transfer in solids.Radiation-heat transfer without any medium.
31 23. What is the Greenhouse Effect? ( p. 375-376, figure 14-18) Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane in the troposphere trap heat, preventing it from escaping thus keeping the Earth warm. This trapping of heat is called the "greenhouse effect".
32 However, if there is too much carbon dioxide in theTroposphere then it will traptoo much heat.Scientists are afraid that theincreasing amounts of carbon dioxide would raise the Earth's surface temperature, bringing significant changes to worldwide weather patterns ... shifting in climatic zones and the melting of the polar ice caps, which could raise the level of the world's oceans.
33 24. How are we affected by the Global Warming Effect? ( p. 376-377) Global warming is making our planet so warm causing disruptions in weather.
34 25. How are we affected by the Ozone layer. Harmful or helpful. ( p Ozone layer protect us from the radiation of the Sun in the stratosphere.3.56
35 CFC destroys ozone molecules making us exposed to U.V. radiation. 26. How destructive is CFC to the ozone layer in the stratosphere and where does it come from? (p )CFC destroys ozone molecules making us exposed to U.V. radiation.
36 27. What efforts are being undertaken to prevent further damage and repair the ozone layer? ( p. 294, International Effort )Countries around the world are finding ways to lessen our ecological footprint.
37 Climate ChangeClimate change is a problem that is affecting people and the environment. Greater energy efficiency and new technologies hold promise for reducing greenhouse gases and solving this global challenge.
38 25.What can we do to slow down Global warming? We can slow down global warming by lessening our carbon footprint. Recycle!
39 Ecological Footprint (amount of pollution we create) Too much greenhousegasesCFC(chlorofluorocarbon)Global WarmingDepletion of theOzone LayerClimate Change
40 Effects of Climate Change Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strengthSea level is risingGlaciers and permafrost are meltingSea-surface temperatures are warmingCrops are witheringEcosystems are changing, Species that are particularly vulnerableWarmer temperatures affect human healthSeawater is becoming more acidicOver 100 years ago, people worldwide began burning more coal and oil for homes, factories, and transportation. Burning these fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These added greenhouses gases have caused Earth to warm more quickly than it has in the past.How much warming has happened? Scientists from around the world with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tell us that during the past 100 years, the world's surface air temperature increased an average of 0.6° Celsius (1.1°F). This may not sound like very much change, but even one degree can affect the Earth. Below are some effects of climate change that we see happening now.Sea level is rising. During the 20th century, sea level rose about 15 cm (6 inches) due to melting glacier ice and expansion of warmer seawater. Models predict that sea level may rise as much as 59 cm (23 inches) during the 21st Century, threatening coastal communities, wetlands, and coral reefs.Arctic sea ice is melting. The summer thickness of sea ice is about half of what it was in Melting ice may lead to changes in ocean circulation. Plus melting sea ice is speeding up warming in the Arctic.Glaciers and permafrost are melting. Over the past 100 years, mountain glaciers in all areas of the world have decreased in size and so has the amount of permafrost in the Arctic. Greenland's ice sheet is melting faster too.Sea-surface temperatures are warming. Warmer waters in the shallow oceans have contributed to the death of about a quarter of the world's coral reefs in the last few decades. Many of the coral animals died after weakened by bleaching, a process tied to warmed waters.The temperatures of large lakes are warming. The temperatures of large lakes world-wide have risen dramatically. Temperature rises have increased algal blooms in lakes, favor invasive species, increase stratification in lakes and lower lake levels.Heavier rainfall cause flooding in many regions. Warmer temperatures have led to more intense rainfall events in some areas. This can cause flooding.Extreme drought is increasing. Higher temperatures cause a higher rate of evaporation and more drought in some areas of the world.Crops are withering. Increased temperatures and extreme drought are causing a decline in crop productivity around the world. Decreased crop productivity can mean food shortages which have many social implications.Ecosystems are changing. As temperatures warm, species may either move to a cooler habitat or die. Species that are particularly vulnerable include endangered species, coral reefs, and polar animals. Warming has also caused changes in the timing of spring events and the length of the growing season.Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength. There is evidence that the number of intense hurricanes has increased in the Atlantic since Scientists continue to study whether climate is the cause.More frequent heat waves. It is likely that heat waves have become more common in more areas of the world.Warmer temperatures affect human health. There have been more deaths due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the pollen season grows longer. There have also been some changes in the ranges of animals that carry disease like mosquitoes.Seawater is becoming more acidic. Carbon dioxide dissolving into the oceans, is making seawater more acidic. There could be impacts on coral reefs and other marine life.
41 The Kyoto Protocolis an international agreement on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against levels over the five-year periodThe Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords.” The Kyoto mechanismsUnder the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms.The Kyoto mechanisms are:Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" Clean development mechanism (CDM)Joint implementation (JI).The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.Monitoring emission targetsUnder the Protocol, countries’actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out.Registry systems track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. The UN Climate Change Secretariat, based in Bonn, Germany, keeps an international transaction log to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol.Reporting is done by Parties by way of submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals.A compliance system ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so.Adaptation The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention, is also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. It facilitates the development and deployment of techniques that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate change.The Adaptation Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Fund is financed mainly with a share of proceeds from CDM project activities.The road aheadThe Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions, and provides the essential architecture for any future international agreement on climate change.By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new international framework needs to have been negotiated and ratified that can deliver the stringent emission reductions the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has clearly indicated are needed.More information on targets
42 MESOSPHERE – protects us from meteors. Here in the mesosphere, the atmosphere is very rarefied nevertheless thick enough to slow down meteors hurtling into the atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails in the night sky.
43 THERMOSPHEREThe thermosphere extends from 80 km above the Earth's surface to outer space. The temperature is hot and may be as high as thousands of degrees as the few molecules that are present in the thermosphere receive extraordinary large amounts of energy from the Sun. However, the thermosphere would actually feel very cold to us because of the probability that these few molecules will hit our skin and transfer enough energy to cause appreciable heat is extremely low.
44 Why does the pressure decrease as you go to higher altitude? The difference between air and water is that air is compressible and water is not. If you are diving in the sea and have 10 meters of water above you, the pressure is 1 bar, if you have 20 meters of water above you it's 2 bar simply because the amount of water is doubled. However, air is different. The amount the air compresses depends a bit on the temperature but roughly we can divide the pressure by a factor of 2 for every 5.5 km increase in height. gravity
46 Name: _______________________________ Date:_________ Week:___ Class Period:__ Answers only Enter the following terms into the appropriate white lines of the picture above: mesosphere, troposphere, sea level, stratosphere, stratopause, thermosphere, mesopause, Tropopause
47 videos Acid Rain (01:29) Ozone: Harmful and Helpful (03:56) Our Restless Atmosphere (11:19)This video contains 5 segments.The Composition of the Atmosphere (02:05)Acid Rain (01:29)Ozone: Harmful and Helpful (03:56)Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect (01:49)How to Help Our Restless Atmosphere (01:22)
49 Why do aeroplanes not fly in the stratosphere? Commercial airlines often cruise in the stratosphere, albeit at its lower reaches. However, airplanes fly due to the lift created by air flowing over/under their wings. An airplane's engines provide thrust, which move its wings through the air (i.e., increases the flow of air over/under the wings). Once the lift thus created by this airflow exceeds the airplane's weight, the airplane climbs into the air. At higher altitudes, there is less air. So, more thrust is required in order for the wing to create enough airflow and lift to keep the airplane flying. A practical altitude limit is reached when the airplane's engines cannot provide enough thrust and/or its wings cannot produce enough lift in order to offset the airplane's weight.
50 AIRPLANES NOT ALLOWEDVery few airplanes can fly as high as the stratosphere because the air is so thin that there is not enough lift to keep the aircraft supported. Some spy planes do fly in the lower stratosphere, however, such as the U-2 and the SR-71.