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The Effect of Animal Disposition on Carcass Traits Eric Berg Meat-Animal Scientist.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effect of Animal Disposition on Carcass Traits Eric Berg Meat-Animal Scientist."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effect of Animal Disposition on Carcass Traits Eric Berg Meat-Animal Scientist

2 Introduction Livestock Welfare and Temperament Livestock Welfare and Temperament –Genetic Potential –Physiological Function –Environmental Stimuli –Quantification of Temperament and Stress

3 Introduction Project Project –Animals –Materials and Methods –Results and Discussion –Summary –Implications

4 Welfare and Temperament “Quality of Life” “Quality of Life” –Behavioral Needs –Health Needs Stress Stress –Alteration from Homeostasis –Response – “Fight or Flight” –Activation Mediation

5 Welfare and Temperament Stress Stress –Physiological –Psychological Temperament Response Temperament Response –Excitable Animals –Hormone Profile

6 Genetic Potential Selection Criteria Selection Criteria –Phenotype –Performance –Carcass Characteristics –Reproduction –Expected Progeny Differences –Marker Assisted Selection 1960 Model Hereford Steer 1969 Model Hereford Steer

7 Genetic Potential Marker Assisted Selection Marker Assisted Selection –Bovine Genome Evaluation –Commercial DNA Test –Single Nucleotide Polymorphs (SNPs)

8 Physiological Function Stress Stress –Disruption of Homeostasis –Sympathetic Nervous System  Activation (Fight)  Mobilization (Flight)  Vigilance (Fright)  Arousal (Sex)

9 Physiological Function Stress Response Stress Response –Increased  Heart Rate  Blood Pressure  Respiration  Metabolism

10 Physiological Function Stress Response Stress Response –Inhibited  Energy Storage  Digestion  Growth  Immune Function  Reproduction

11 Quantifying Temperament Temperament Evaluation Temperament Evaluation –Exit Velocity –Chute Score –Pen Score

12 Quantifying Temperament Exit Velocity Exit Velocity –Separation of Animal from Human Contact –Infrared Sensors (1.82 m)

13 Quantifying Temperament Chute Score Chute Score –Subjective Evaluation –Five Point Scale (Grandin, 1993)  1) Calm, no movement  2) Slightly restless  3) Squirming, occasionally shaking chute  4) Continuous, very vigorous movement  5) Rearing, twisting of body, violently struggling

14 Quantifying Temperament Pen Score Pen Score –Subjective –Small Group/Small Pen –Five Point Scale (Hammond, 1996)  1) non-aggressive, walks slowly upon approach  2) slightly aggressive, pace fences  3) moderately aggressive, run along fences  4) aggressive, avoids humans, run into gates/fences  5) very aggressive, runs over anything in path

15 Project EVALUATION OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF FEEDLOT CATTLE TO WORKING CHUTE ENVIRONMENT RELATIVE TO TEMPERAMENT, GROWTH RATE, CARCASS COMPOSITION, BEEF QUALITY, AND TENDERNESS

16 Temperament Project Central Dakota Feeder Calf Club Central Dakota Feeder Calf Club –Steers (n = 183) –Blocked by Weight (275 kg) –Weighed Periodically (28 d) –Temperament Evaluation

17 Temperament Project Temperament Evaluation Temperament Evaluation –Exit Velocity –Chute Score –Catch Score

18 Temperament Project Exit Velocity Exit Velocity –Infrared Sensors (FarmTek, Inc.) –Placed at 0.5 m and 2.32 m (1.82 m) –Measured at 7 weigh periods

19 Temperament Project Chute Score Chute Score –Subjective Visual Evaluation –Measured at 6 weigh periods –Five Point Scale ( Grandin, 1993 )  1) Calm, no movement  2) Slightly restless  3) Squirming, occasionally shaking chute  4) Continuous, very vigorous movement  5) Rearing, twisting of body, violently struggling

20 Temperament Project Catch Score Catch Score –Resistance to Head Restraint –Measured at 3 weigh periods –Five Point Scale ( Grandin, 1993 )  1) Calm, no movement  2) Slightly restless  3) Squirming, occasionally shaking chute  4) Continuous, very vigorous movement  5) Rearing, twisting of body, violently struggling

21 Temperament Project Commercial DNA Testing with IGENITY™ Commercial DNA Testing with IGENITY™ –Ear Tissue and Hair Sample –IGENITY™ Profile including:  Docility  Tenderness  Ribeye Area  Fat Thickness  Percent Choice  Marbling

22 Materials and Methods Carcass Data Carcass Data –Hot Carcass Weight –45 min pH –Ribeye Area –12 th Rib Fat –Kidney, Pelvic Fat –Marbling –Yield Grade

23 Materials and Methods Carcass Data – Longissimus Sample Carcass Data – Longissimus Sample –36 hr pH –Color Scores  L* (light / dark)  a* (red / green)  b* (yellow / blue) –Warner-Bratzler Shear Force

24 Materials and Methods Statistical Analysis Statistical Analysis –Correlation Coefficients  Temperament  Carcass –Least Squares Means  Exit Velocity (Slow, Medium, Fast)  Docility Potential (Low, Moderate, High)  Carcass Composition  Carcass Quality  Tenderness

25 Results and Discussion Exit Velocity Over Time of Study Exit Velocity Over Time of Study a, b, c Means with different superscripts within rows were different (P < 0.05)

26 Adjustments to Working Chute

27 Results and Discussion Subjective Chute Scores Over Time Subjective Chute Scores Over Time a, b, c, d Means with different superscripts within rows were different (P < 0.05)

28 Results and Discussion Exit Velocity Correlation Exit Velocity Correlation –Fat Parameters  Final Yield Grade  12 th Rib Fat  Kidney, Pelvic  Marbling –Tenderness  Warner-Bratzler Shear Force

29 Results and Discussion VariableFYGHCWDress12 th FTREAKPHMarb First Exit Velocity (0.495) (0.367) (0.504) (0.528) (0.335) (0.279) (0.089) Last Exit Velocity (0.011) (0.354) (0.545) (0.051) (0.299) (0.012) (0.054) Average Exit Velocity (0.099) (0.265) (0.658) (0.418) (0.567) (0.012) (0.138) Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters Slower Exit Velocity = Fatter Slower Exit Velocity = Fatter

30 Results and Discussion VariableMarbWBSpH45pH36 hL*a*b* First Exit Velocity (0.089) (0.008) (0.069) (0.134) (0.465) (0.716) (0.612) Last Exit Velocity (0.054) (0.320) (0.769) (0.058) (0.159) (0.078) (0.034) Average Exit Velocity (0.138) (0.052) (0.350) (0.022) (0.282) (0.152) (0.078) Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters Faster 1 st Exit Velocity = Tougher Meat Faster 1 st Exit Velocity = Tougher Meat

31 Results and Discussion Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters Exit Velocity with Carcass Parameters a, b Means with different superscripts within rows were different (P < 0.05) b b a

32 Results and Discussion Catch Score Correlation Catch Score Correlation –Quality Parameters  Marbling  Color Scores –L* (Lightness / Darkness) –a* (Red / Green) –b* (Yellow / Blue)  36 hour pH

33 Results and Discussion VariableMarbpH36 hL*a*b* First Catch Score (0.149) (< 0.001) (0.009) (0.043) (0.025) Last Catch Score (0.075) (0.010) (0.255) (0.135) (0.122) Average Catch Score (0.009) (0.007) (0.073) (0.056) (0.050) Catch Score with Carcass Parameters Catch Score with Carcass Parameters Higher Catch Score = Higher Catch Score = Less marbling Less marbling Higher pH Higher pH Darker meat Darker meat

34 Results and Discussion Catch Score with Carcass Parameters Catch Score with Carcass Parameters a, b Means with different superscripts within rows were different (P < 0.05) 1 Marbling Score numeric designation: 100 = traces; 200 = slight; 300 = small; 400 = modest; 500 = moderate.

35 P < b a a Results and Discussion IGENITY ® Tenderness vs. Shear Force IGENITY ® Tenderness vs. Shear Force

36 P = a b b Results and Discussion IGENITY ® Docility vs. Shear Force IGENITY ® Docility vs. Shear Force

37 Summary Temperament Temperament –Slower Exit Velocity  Fatter  More Tender –Higher Catch Score  Lower Marbling  Higher 36 hour pH  Darker Color

38 Implications Beef Temperament Beef Temperament –Possible Effects  Fat Deposition (Marbling $)  Tenderness  Lean Color (Dark Cutter?) –Measurement  Catch Score

39


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