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SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES 1)The American public was exhausted from World War I. - Turned away from European problems to focus on ones back home.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES 1)The American public was exhausted from World War I. - Turned away from European problems to focus on ones back home."— Presentation transcript:

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2 SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES 1)The American public was exhausted from World War I. - Turned away from European problems to focus on ones back home (tired of sacrificing our lives and money for others problems) New President – return to normalcy TIME to make OUR country better

3 Isolationism and League of Nations 2) Many Americans adopted a belief in isolationism. * This meant pulling away from involvement in world affairs. Going against Wilson’s …. Public debate had divided the nation Ex: It lacked its own armed force  depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions

4 SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES 3) An economic downturn meant many faced unemployment. Men were coming home Factories didn’t need to produce all the war supplies anymore 4) A wave of nativism (def: a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants) swept the nation.

5 FEAR OF COMMUNISM 5) One perceived threat to American life was the spread of Communism— Def: an economic and political system based on a single government party, equal distribution of resources, the prohibition of private property, and rule by a dictatorship.

6 COMMUNISM IN THE SOVIET UNION Remember - In 1917, a revolution in Russia transformed the nation into a Communist state, the Soviet Union. Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks and overthrew the Czarist regime. He was inspired by Marxism, a radical form of socialism that advocates violence.  A Communist party was formed in America too (70,000 members) Lenin

7 Theory of class struggle Basic principles: (1). capitalists (haves) v. workers (have nots) (2). Communist Party would help overthrow capitalism through violent revolution (3). Communist Party would control a nation’s government & plan its economic activities (4). eventually would not need government; everyone equal Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels – The Communist Manifesto (1848) Many Americans believed that labor troubles were in America were the result of Bolshevism. -- Evangelist Billy Sunday: Described a Bolshevik as "a guy with a face like a porcupine and a breath that would scare a pole cat.. If I had my way, I’d fill the jails so full of them that their feet would stick out the window."

8 RED SCARE Fear of Communism took the form of a Red Scare (anti-communist hysteria) and fed nativism in America. In addition: SOCIAL UNREST PATRIOTISM THE COMMUNIST REVOLUTION POST WAR STRIKES BOMBINGS THE WORK OF A. MITCHELL PALMER ATTORNEY GENERAL Also caused fear Where was our President – Wilson? Wilson’s 6-month absence from the U.S. to negotiate Versailles Treaty began to cripple federal gov’t during the Great Unrest of 1919

9 Resulted from inflation during the war Total - 3,000 strikes during this time period ONE SUCH GREAT UNREST WAS IN LABOR - STRIKES AFTER WWI

10 You are now going to receive a research sheet with a highlighted strike. You have 20 minutes to research your SPECIFIC STRIKE Use the links on Mrs. Perella’s Website US History 3 US History 3 Links TIMED WEB RESEARCH

11 In 1919 a total of four million American workers went out on strike - one-fifth of the nation's industrial workforce LET’S LOOK AT THESE FAMOUS STRIKES

12 Beginning 1870-1880, coal operators and owners had established a system of oppression and exploitation  to maintain – paid “private detectives” to keep union organizers out of area (used intimidation, harassment, espionage, murder) By 1920, most of WV miners belonged to the UMWA (United Mine Workers of America) except southern coalfields Operators fired union sympathizers, blacklisting them, evicting them from homes UMWA set up tent colonies for homeless miner families (This became a mass of angry and idle miners) BACKGROUND TO COAL MINERS STRIKING

13 YearMinersFatalities 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 448,581 485,544 518,197 566,260 593,693 626,045 640,780 680,492 690,438 666,552 725,030 728,348 722,662 747,644 763,185 734,008 720,971 757,317 762,426 776,569 784,621 1,489 1,574 1,724 1,926 1,995 2,232 2,138 3,242 2,445 2,642 2,821 2,656 2,419 2,785 2,454 2,269 2,226 2,696 2,580 2,323 2,272 Mine Safety – BIG CONCERN

14 BATTLE OF MATEWAN (AKA MATEWAN MASSACRE)

15 Gun battle - Matewan, West Virginia Local Miners vs. Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency *had been called in to evict families living in Coal Camp [served evictions, ate dinner, headed to train station] *Chief of Police (Sid Hatfield) intervened on behalf of families (claimed to have arrest warrants against men BUT detectives said they had arrest warrant against Chief) -As this was happening, armed miners surrounded men (windows, roofs, doorways) Don’t know who fired first (rumors) But Sid did shoot one 7 detectives and 4 townies dead

16 BATTLE OF MATEWAN (AKA MATEWAN MASSACRE) Symbolic significance for miners but the battle didn’t end… *Sid Hatfield was charged with murder  Trial *National Spotlight (brought much attention to miners’ cause) Found Not-guilty but Union was still facing setbacks 1)80% of mines reopened with REPLACEMENTS 2)Signing of yellow dog contracts by ex-strikers (def: agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union ) Union miners launched attack on non-union mines

17 In the midst of all of this, Sid was charged with blowing up coal equipment - Walking up to court with friend and their wives (unarmed) - A group of Baldwin-Felts agents standing on top of stairs opened fire Sid killed – Miners (when heard the word) were outraged and took up arms and they rallied - Meet with Governor with petition of the miners’ demands – But rejected - Miners were even more restless THE DEATH OF SID HATFIELD Ain't but two sides to this world. Them that work and them that don't. You work, they don't. That's all you got to know about the enemy. - Labor Organizer

18 BATTLE OF BLAIR MOUNTAIN WEST VIRGINIA WEST VIRGINIA

19 What did they want? Safe working conditions, better pay, and union rights 10,000 West Virginia coal workers, outraged over years of brutality and lawless exploitation, picked up their rifles and marched against the powerful mine owners The miners were well organized - Many were World War I veterans  they appointed leaders, and arranged transportation for additional recruits and supplies. - Lacking uniforms, they wore red bandanas to distinguish themselves from company gunmen, who wore white patches. (The miners began to refer to themselves as “ ” ) To guard against spies, the miners created passwords that were never revealed, even decades after the conflict BATTLE OF BLAIR MOUNTAIN WEST VIRGINIA WEST VIRGINIA REDNECKS

20 For ten days the miners fought a pitched battle against an opposing legion of deputies, state police, and 3,000 lawmen and strikebreakers (Logan Defenders). Only after the declaration of martial law and the intervention of a federal expeditionary force (air squadron armed with bombs and gas), and an unwillingness to fight the U.S. Army, the miners laid down their arms and returned home BATTLE OF BLAIR MOUNTAIN WEST VIRGINIA

21 Several hundred combatants were wounded during the fighting and 16 were killed, including 12 miners and 4 of mine owners men. - Gov. Morgan tried to persuade the Army to help civil authorities arrest miners, but General refused. West Virginia courts indicted (charged) 1,217 suspected leaders of the rebellion but charges were later dropped against all Was it worth it? Although the miners’ march failed to unionize southern West Virginia coal mines, their plight garnered worldwide attention and helped build support for the National Labor Relations Act of 1935,which protects workers’ right to form unions and bargain collectively.

22 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD ALABAMA COAL STRIKE 1920

23 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD ALABAMA COAL STRIKE 1920 RACE RELATIONS HIGH (RACIAL VIOLENCE) 15,000 of the 27,000 coal miners in the state stopped work #1) Strikers killed the general manager of the Corona Coal Company along with a company guard. - But African Americans bore the brunt of the violence: #2) At least thirteen houses of strikebreakers were dynamited between September and December. ex: state troopers terrorized the small black business district in Pratt City with random machine gun fire ex: black miner Henry Junius was found in a shallow grave outside of Roebuck a few weeks into the strike.

24 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD ALABAMA COAL STRIKE 1920 RACE RELATIONS HIGH (RACIAL VIOLENCE) - The Alabama State Militia and the state police had been called out by the governor Once on site, state troop commanders typically placed themselves at the service of the coal companies. By February thousands of workers had been evicted from their company houses and left homeless (unprepared)

25 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD ALABAMA COAL STRIKE 1920 RACE RELATIONS HIGH (RACIAL VIOLENCE) After months… the enormous expense of conducting the strike with no progress led the union to seek a resolution. Governor refused : union recognition, any wage increases, and reinstate striking miners In regards to racial violence (it was written): It is rather difficult to understand how such a large number of men could be induced so deliberately to disregard such an obligation of honor. The only explanation, perhaps, lies in the fact that from 70 per cent to 80 per cent of the miners are Negroes. The southern Negro is easily misled, especially when given a permanent and official place in an organization in which both races are members Union accepted - At least 16 people were killed in the strike, more than half of them black, with an uncounted number of wounded.

26 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE 1922 HERRIN, ILLINOIS

27 Background – April 1922 – UMWA began nationwide strike W. J. Lester (owner) complied with the strike – he had just opened the mine and had huge debts  negotiated with UMWA to keep it open as long as no coal was shipped out HOWEVER by June, he had dug out 60,000 tons of coal (profit $250,000 if he sold it) When Union members objected (since breaking agreement, he fired them) Brought in mine guards and 50 strikebreakers and scabs  Shipped out coal STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE 1922 HERRIN, ILLINOIS

28 -Union miners marched into Herrin and looted the hardware store of its firearms and ammo -THEN… Surrounded mine – guards opened fire – killing 2 UMWA members National Guard was asked to come in to stop attack and break up mob – BUT were not deployed Lester (owner) – agreed to close mine for remainder of nationwide UMWA strike STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE Days later, a truck carrying Lester’s guards and strikebreakers was ambushed (3 men wounded)

29 Some of Lester’s men walked into where miners were (white flag raised) asking for the UMWA to do the same (cease fire) *There were strikebreakers pinned down inside coal cars and barricades (risked life to escape) During the evening, union supporters stole more guns and ammo Gunfire continued through the night and the mob destroyed mining equipment STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE

30 Finally, the strikebreakers emerged with white apron tied to broomstick (men would surrender IF their safety was guaranteed) Began marching them to town (Herrin) however the mob became angry and restless “The only way to free the county of strikebreakers is to kill them all off and stop the breed.” Mob began striking the men with the butts of their rifles and shotguns STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE 1922 HERRIN, ILLINOIS

31 One strikebreaker (after another ½ mile) was bloodied and limping, unable to walk any further “I’m going to kill you and use you for bait to catch the other men.” – union man So, union man and another grabbed strikebreaker and led him down side road…gun shots were heard Union “higher ups” warned the men “… don’t you go killing these fellows on a public highway. There are too many women and children and witnesses around to do that. Take them over in the woods and give it to them. Kill all you can.”

32 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE 1922 HERRIN, ILLINOIS Found grisly evidence of the dead, dying, and wounded 19 dead strikebreakers out of 50 (2 union members had died at the mine) American Public Reacted with DISGUST Newspaper “Herrin, Illinois should be ostracized. Shut off from all communication with the outside world and the people there left to soak in the blood they have spilled.” President Harding – “shocking crime, barbarity, butchery, rot and madness” When the mob didn’t show up 3 hrs. later (when they were suppose to), those in charge began to search (rumors of the violence)

33 STILL IN THE COAL – JUMP AHEAD HERRIN MASSACRE 1922 HERRIN, ILLINOIS Two trials were held Only 6 men were ever indicted (charged) in massacre and both trials ended with acquittal (found innocent) for all defendants

34 - 35,000 shipyard workers went on strike - All unions in Seattle demanded higher pay for shipyard workers - Seattle mayor called for federal troops to head off the “anarchy of Russia” SEATTLE GENERAL STRIKE JANUARY 1919

35 Over 70% of Boston’s 1,500 policemen went on strike seeking wage increases and the right to unionize. Although pay was the primary grievance of the Boston police, there were many other problems. Beyond the pay scale there was the matter of hours, which had not changed in over half a century. Patrolmen worked a 7-day week, with one day off every 15 days. Patrolmen who worked the day shift put in 73 hours a week and "night men" worked 83 hours a week, while "wagon men" worked 98 hours. After a day off, the men were required to serve a "house day" which meant they were on call at the station from 8:00am until 6:00pm performing various tasks such as recording duty, wagon runs and attending to the "signal desk." After a three- hour break, they reported back to the station house at 9:00pm where they slept for three hours until 12:00am at which time the bell rang for roll call and they "went out on the street" until 8:00am. After that, they could go home, but had to be back at 6:00pm for what they called an "evening on the floor" which meant performing the same type of duties such as taking care of prisoners, wagon trips or "whatever turned up." At 9:00pm the patrolman went back to bed for three hours BOSTON POLICE STRIKE SEPTEMBER 1919

36 Over 70% of Boston’s 1,500 policemen went on strike seeking wage increases and the right to unionize. ex: worked 73-98 hrs per week ; no pay for parade duty Governor Calvin Coolidge called out the National Guard Called them traitors, deserters Told police NO RIGHT TO UNIONIZE BOSTON POLICE STRIKE SEPTEMBER 1919 " no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime“

37 When we were honorably discharged from the United States army, we were hailed as heroes and saviors of our country. We returned to our duties on the police force of Boston. Now, though only a few months have passed, we are denounced as deserters, as traitors to our city and violators of our oath of office. The first men to raise the cry were those who have always been opposed to giving to labor a living wage. It was taken up by the newspapers, who cared little for the real facts. You finally added your word of condemnation.... Among us are men who have gone against spitting machine guns single-handed, and captured them, volunteering for the job. Among us are men who have ridden with dispatches through shell fire so dense that four men fell and only the fifth got through. Not one man of us ever disgraced the flag or his service. It is bitter to come home and be called deserters and traitors. We are the same men who were on the French front. Some of us fought in the Spanish war of 1898. Won’t you tell the people of Massachusetts in which war you [Coolidge]served? BOSTON POLICE FORCES RESPONSE TO COOLIDGE…

38 Police went on strike in 37 cities – AMERICANS FEARFUL Striking Police were fired …New force was recruited from the National Guard. BOSTON POLICE STRIKE SEPTEMBER 1919 Some newspapers falsely reported that gangs were running wild and attacking women throughout the city.

39 AFL (American Federation of Labor – Union) leader urged strikers back to work Asked that the striking policemen be re-hired COOLIDGE REFUSED – [were not allowed to return to their jobs with the Boston Police Department] Strike dissolved BOSTON POLICE STRIKE SEPTEMBER 1919 To stick it to the strikers.. Commissioner hired an entirely new police force (unemployed servicemen). The National Guard was able to return to their homes The new recruits were granted higher pay, better working conditions, and additional holidays, and gained the additional benefit of free uniforms.

40 It is still illegal for police to go on strike, and even informal work actions such as the “Blue Flu,” whereby large numbers of police officers call in sick at the same time, are seriously frowned upon. REACHING INTO TODAY…

41 Prior to this time – Andrew Carnegie (steel tycoon) had succeeded in preventing unionization Battle of Homestead (2 nd largest dispute in history) 1892 – Strike/Battle between strikers (Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers) and private security agents (Pinkerton National Detective Agency hired by Carnegie Steel Co.) Striking about: regulating work hours, workload and work speeds, improving working conditions, national uniform wage scale (yearly), and prevention of strikers signing the yellow dog contracts -100s of strikers had been wounded, dozen killed, thousands blacklisted from working at the steel mills as punishment for their participation Aftermath – AA was broken – men wouldn’t join (since wouldn’t be hired) Steel Strike (Background) September 1919

42 Steel Strike September 1919

43 Now, jump ahead to 1919 AFL (American Federation of Labor) attempted to organize the steel industry (conditions were still terrible in the mills) UMWA wanted shorter hours and higher wages Problem in the organization  steelworkers inability to speak English *Steel corp. had used this to their advantage – easy to exploit and scare - wanted to create distrust of the union AND Judge Elbert H. Gary (Head of United States Steel Corporation) refused to negotiate (even Woodrow Wilson urged him to negotiate) - Workers voted to strike – 400,000 walked out of work in Sept. DIFFICULT TO ORGANIZE – workers were spread out in 10 states Steel Strike September 1919

44 Courts got involved – made it illegal to have meetings Other actions: Groups of 3 or more on the streets were violently broken up; spies infiltrated the union and kept news from the strikers, workers didn’t even leave their homes (intimidation); children were chased back into their homes (intimidation); continuous raids Violence – murder of 26 union organizers and strikers - Broken January 1920 (went back to work without any concessions) Steel Strike September 1919

45 GREAT RAIL ROAD STRIKE Background: The railroad's were the nation's largest industry. In 1917 the railroads operated on 360,000 miles of track and grossed four billion dollars The strike was called as a result of the Railroad Labor Board's announcement that hourly wages would be cut by 7 cents on July 1, 1922.  Walkout by 400,000 AFL shopmen (the engineers, trainmen, firemen, and conductors, did not join in the strike)  Broken up by federal injunction under the encouragement of Attorney General Harry Daugherty (striking, picketing, etc… made illegal)  *Most settled with their local owners

46 Remember back – Who did many Americans blame for our Labor Problems? Attempts to arrest and deport them out of America – known as the Palmer Raids November 1919 and January 1920 Leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer What set off these raids? PALMER RAIDS

47 April 1919 30 Italian anarchists (def: no government) mailed letter bombs to prominent American government officials and businessmen, law enforcement officials. Only a few reached their targets, and not all exploded when opened, though some people suffered injuries, including a housekeeper in Senator Thomas W. Hardwick's residence, who had her hands blown off. PALMER RAIDS

48 June 2, 1919 Second wave of bombings occurred, when several much larger package bombs were detonated by same group in eight American cities, including one that damaged the home of Palmer. - At least one person was killed in this second attack Flyers declaring war on capitalists in the name of anarchist principles accompanied each bomb After bomb scares, Wilson’s Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, got $500K from Congress to "tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories.“ PALMER RAIDS

49 On 7th November, 1919 - over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested. - found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects were held without trial for a long time. The vast majority were eventually released 248 people were deported to Russia. When asked about the obvious illegal methods being used - Palmer's claim: "There is no time to waste on hairsplitting over infringement of liberties” A. MITCHELL PALMER CLAIMED THAT COMMUNIST AGENTS FROM RUSSIA WERE PLANNING TO OVERTHROW THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

50 On 2nd January, 1920, - another 6,000 were arrested and held without trial. - found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects, many of them members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), continued to be held without trial. When Palmer announced that the communist revolution was likely to take place on 1st May, mass panic took place. In New York, five elected Socialists were expelled from the legislature. A. MITCHELL PALMER CLAIMED THAT COMMUNIST AGENTS FROM RUSSIA WERE PLANNING TO OVERTHROW THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

51 *Feelings of wanting Isolationism from World’s Problems and Nativism (opposing immigrants) *Anti-Communism Hysteria – RED SCARE *Strikes and Labor Disputes blamed on Communism (Radicals) *Palmer Raids – rounding up and kicking out the “radical seeds” LET’S REVIEW WHAT WAS GOING ON?

52 Vanzetti Sacco

53 What was the crime? Who was arrested and charged? How did Guthrie show these men to be “good men?” CRIME AND ARREST Payroll Robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts Shoe Factory – 2 men killed $15,000 stolen Sacco and Vanzetti How? Both men went to reclaim a car that police had connected to the crime Both men carrying guns and made false statements *No criminal record *No connection to stolen $

54 How do the Judge and prosecutor appear to be biased? What was the outcome of the trial? TRIAL Used against them  Defendants were Italians, atheists, anarchists (“radicals”), and draft dodgers of WW1 Judge’s remarks: Ex: private discussion Thayer called Sacco and Vanzetti "Bolsheviki!" and said he would "get them good and proper." (cut radicals down) In 1924, referring to his denial of motions for a new trial, Thayer confronted a Massachusetts lawyer: "Did you see what I did with those anarchistic bastards the other day?" Found Guilty and Sentenced to be executed in electric chair

55 Repeated motions for a new trial were denied by Judge Webster Thayer and the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Italian-American community deeply affected. Worldwide protests & demonstrations supporting them Even bombs were set off in NYC and Philly Many believe sentence unjust and due to prejudice. Because the powers that convicted Sacco and Vanzetti were members of the upper class, the execution seemed to be class- based. Even had… Celestino Madeiros confessed that HE participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli Gang Judge and Governor ignored

56 Ballistics tests in 1961 showed that pistol found on Sacco when arrested WAS the murder weapon -Little evidence about Vanzetti 50 years after their execution, Governor Michael Dukakis declared they were not given a fair trial Additional Info

57 Resurgence of the Klan began in the South but also spread heavily into the Southwest & the North Central states (hit 5 million) - Restricting the group's membership to white American-born Protestant men - Used anti-communism as an excuse to harass: African Americans, Catholics, Jews, foreign-born immigrants, union organizers, & those against prohibition (bootleggers, gamblers) - The organization also attracted the support of many middle-class Americans by advocating improved law enforcement, honest government, better public schools, and traditional family life KU KLUX KLAN

58 What events spurred the emergence of the KKK? August 1915 lynching in Marietta by a group of armed men who had organized themselves as the Knights of Mary Phagan, named for the young murder victim in the case. The Birth of a Nation Lynching of Leo FrankLeo Frank Originally called The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the KKK Portrayed the Ku Klux Klan (whose original founding is dramatized) as a heroic force D.W. Griffith - popularity of epic movie The Birth of a Nation (1915) The anti-Semitic sentiments aroused by that case (Frank was Jewish) along with the ongoing racism fueled by Griffith's film

59 Details about Leo Frank Case from video Who was he? Charged with? Key Witness? Guilty or Innocent? What happened to him?

60 In 1925 -- David Stephenson, KKK leader in Indiana, went to jail for 2nd degree murder of woman who he had brutally kidnapped and abused – Sentenced to LIFE IN PRISON Thought he would be pardoned – NOPE In revenge, Stephenson provided evidence of other Klan activities by high-level officials in Indiana **releases his "little black boxes" containing the names and incriminating records of public officials in Indiana who had been on the Klan payroll. Scandal led to a large-scale decline in the Klan’s influence. – PROTECTOR of WHITE WOMEN’S VIRTUES Demise of the KKK

61 1921 Immigration Act Ended open immigration with a limit and quota system 1924 National Origins Act (Immigration Act of 1924) Reduced immigration to 152,000 total per annum. ONE RESULT OF ALL THIS HAPPENING HERE IN THE US WAS… CLOSING THE DOORS ON IMMIGRATION

62 Prohibition and Rise of Organized Crime

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64 Remember back – Who did many Americans blame for our Labor Problems? Attempts to arrest and deport them out of America – known as the _________________________ November 1919 and January 1920 Leadership of Attorney General _______________________________________ What set off these raids? MORE VIOLENCE

65 April 1919 _____ Italian anarchists (def: no government) mailed __________________________ to prominent American government officials and businessmen, law enforcement officials. Only a few reached their targets, and not all exploded when opened, though some people suffered injuries, including a housekeeper in Senator Thomas W. Hardwick's residence, who had her hands blown off. PALMER RAIDS

66 June 2, 1919 Second wave of bombings occurred, when several much larger ___________________________________were detonated by same group in eight American cities, including one that damaged the home of Palmer. - At least one person was killed in this second attack ___________________declaring war on capitalists in the name of anarchist principles accompanied each bomb After bomb scares, Wilson’s Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, got $500K from Congress to "tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories.“ PALMER RAIDS

67 On 7th November, 1919 - over ____________________________ suspected communists and anarchists were arrested. - found _________________evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects were held without __________________ for a long time. The vast majority were eventually released ____________ people were deported to Russia. When asked about the obvious illegal methods being used - Palmer's claim: "There is no time to waste on hairsplitting over infringement of liberties” On 2nd January, 1920, - another _____________ were arrested and held without trial. - found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects, many of them members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), continued to be held without trial. When Palmer announced that the communist revolution was likely to take place on 1st May, ________________________________took place. In New York, five elected Socialists were expelled from the legislature. A. MITCHELL PALMER CLAIMED THAT COMMUNIST AGENTS FROM RUSSIA WERE PLANNING TO OVERTHROW THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

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69 Resurgence of the Klan began in the South but also spread heavily into the Southwest & the North Central states - Restricting the group's membership to white American-born Protestant men - Used _______________________ as an excuse to harass: African Americans, Catholics, Jews, foreign-born immigrants, union organizers, & those against prohibition - The organization also attracted the support of many middle-class Americans by advocating improved law enforcement, honest government, better public schools, and traditional family life _____________________

70 What events spurred the emergence of the KKK? August 1915 lynching in Marietta by a group of armed men who had organized themselves as the Knights of Mary Phagan, named for the young murder victim in the case. ______________________________ Lynching of ____________ originally called The Clansman Portrayed the Ku Klux Klan (whose original founding is dramatized) as a heroic force William J. Simmons - popularity of The Birth of a Nation The anti-Semitic sentiments aroused by that case (Frank was Jewish) along with the ongoing racism fueled by Griffith's film

71 Details about Leo Frank Case from video Who was he? Charged with? Key Witness? Guilty or Innocent? What happened to him?

72 1921 ________________ Ended open immigration with a limit and quota system 1924 ____________________ (Immigration Act of 1924) Reduced immigration to 152,000 total per annum. ONE RESULT OF ALL THIS HAPPENING HERE IN THE US WAS… CLOSING THE DOORS ON IMMIGRATION

73 Prohibition and Rise of Organized Crime


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