3SimileDefinitionA comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as.Examples:His feet were as big as boats.She dances like a princess.PurposeMakes it easier for a reader to understand the subject matter by comparing it to something else.
4MetaphorDefinitionA comparison of two unlike things describing one as if it were the other.Does not use like or as.Examples:Her hair is silk.She is a graceful swan.PurposeMakes it easier for a reader to understand the subject matter by comparing it to something else.
5Simile and Metaphor Practice For each example below, identify whether it is a simile or metaphor. Write “S” next to the Similes and “M” next to the metaphors.The assignment was a breeze.Her voice is music to his ears.Our soldiers are as brave as lions.Jim was boiling mad.Her cheeks are red like a rose.
6Simile and Metaphor Practice For each example below, identify whether it is a simile or metaphor. Write “S” next to the Similes and “M” next to the metaphors.The assignment was a breeze. (M)Her voice is music to his ears. (M)Our soldiers are as brave as lions. (S)Jim was boiling mad. (M)Her cheeks are red like a rose. (S)
7Hyperbole Definition An exaggeration Examples: My date last night was the most beautiful girl in the world.My backpack weighs a ton!I told you to clean your room a million times!PurposeTo make feelings seem more intense.To emphasize a point for an amusing effect.
8Hyperbole PracticeAs a group, come up with one hyperbole about homework.
9Alliteration Definition Repeated sounds occurring at the beginning of wordsThis should be used intentionally, not coincidentallyExamples:But a better butter makes a batter better.Circe sat near the silent sea.PurposeCreates a musical effect in the text that enhances the pleasure of reading.
10Alliteration Practice Write two sentences that use alliteration.One sentence must use your name.One sentence must use an animal.
11Personification Definition Human characteristics are given to nonhuman things.Examples:The leaves danced in the wind.The mountain held the clouds on its shoulders.PurposeTo bring inanimate things to life, so that their nature and actions are understood in a better way.
12Personification Practice Create one example of personification about a computer.Create one example of personification using a tree.
13IdiomDefinitionAn expression that means something other than its actual words.You don’t take the words literally.It doesn’t quite mean what it saysExamples:It’s raining cats and dogs. = It’s raining really hardI heard it straight from the horse’s mouth. =Sally got up on the wrong side of the bed! =PurposeConvey complex ideas in a few wordsEnsure the understanding of a listener
14Idiom PracticeIdentify one example of an idiom and explain what it means literally.
15Cliché Definition: An overused expression. Examples: “Everything happens for a reason.”“Love conquers all.”PurposeConvey complex ideas in a few wordsEnsure the understanding of a listener
16Cliché-Practice Think of one cliché involving money Think of one cliché involving love/relationshipsThink of one cliché involving looks/beauty
17Cliché vs. Idiom An idiom CAN be a cliché, but not necessarily. Some idioms have been used so much that they have become cliché.Not ALL clichés are idioms, and not all idioms are cliché.Clichés that ARE idiomsClichés that ARE NOT idiomsIdioms that ARE NOT clichéThink outside the boxSee the glass half fullLove is blindFall head over heelsMoney doesn’t grow on treesOnly time will tellLost track of timeGood riddancePlay our cards rightEvery cloud has its silver lining.Cliché – can be figurative (idioms – provide example) or literal (“tell the truth”), considered poor writingIdiom – always figurative, considered good writing, can become cliché after overuse
18AllusionDefinition:A brief reference to a person, place, or event of historical, cultural, literary, or political significance.Does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers.The writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance.Often explained in the foot notes.Examples:Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her (Allusion to “Romeo and Juliet”) = don’t act so romanticI think your nose is growing (allusion to “Pinocchio”) = you are lying.PurposeEnables a writer to simplify complex ideas and emotions.
19Allusion - PracticeComplete the chart below by explaining a situation in which the allusion would be used.AllusionSituationEx:“May the force be with you”When a teacher passes out a test to students.1“He is like the Hulk.”2“Don’t be a Scrooge”
21ImageryDefinition:Language that appeals to a reader’s sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch.Helps a reader visualizeExamples:“The lake was icy blue. The only sound that could be heard was the chirping of distant birds. The air was cool and crisp on my skin and I could see my breath in the morning air.”Purpose :allows an author to express thoughts more vividly or to bring out emotions in readers
22Imagery-PracticeWork with your group to describe the classroom using your five senses
23OxymoronDefinitionAn expression in which two contradictory words appear side by sideOften, at least one word’s meaning cannot be taken literally.Examples:Jumbo ShrimpWorking VacationSmall CrowdPurposeCreate an ironic sense of humorEmphasize certain qualities or ideasConfuse the reader
24Oxymoron-PracticeWith your group, explain how each of these are examples of oxymorons.1. Plastic glasses2. Minor crisis3. Unbiased OpinionThen-write two of your own oxymorons
25Paradox Definition Examples: A statement that seems to contradict itself, but may be true.Examples:“No one goes to that restaurant because it is overcrowded.”“Don’t go near the water ‘til you have learned how to swim.”Purposeattracts the reader’s attention and gives emphasiscreates an unusual thought or visual image with wordsconveys a tone of irony
26Paradox-PracticeExplain how each of the each of the following represents a paradox:The man who wrote such a stupid sentence cannot write at all“Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it.” –Gandhi
27Contradictory (seem like opposites) Paradox vs. OxymoronParadoxA statementSeen as a thought or logic gameExample:“This statement is false.”You have to be cruel to be kind.OxymoronTwo wordsExample:Awfully goodAlone togetherBothContradictory (seem like opposites)
28PunDefinitionA humorous play on words which suggests multiple meaningsExamples:“Where do pancakes live? In a flat!”“I used to be a baker but I didn’t make enough dough.”“Seven days without pizza makes one weak.”Purposeamusementreinforce meaning
29Pun-Practice With your group, explain how the third example is a pun. -“Where do pancakes live? In a flat!”-“I used to be a baker, but I didn’t make enough dough.”-“Seven days without pizza makes one weak.”Write your own pun!
30Assonance Definition: Repeated vowel sounds within words. The author does this intentionally, not on accident.Examples:Some ship in distress that cannot live.Wear it here and there and everywhere.PurposeImproves the rhythm and flow of a poemForces the reader to pay attention to certain wordsEngages a reader’s attention
31Assonance-PracticeWrite two examples of assonance. One of the two must not rhyme!
32Consonance Definition: Repetition of consonant sounds within or at the end of wordsThe author does this intentionally, not on accident.Examples:“But the father never answered a word.“We passed the last tree.”PurposeImproves the rhythm and flow of a poemForces the reader to pay attention to certain wordsEngages a reader’s attention
33Consonance-PracticeWrite two sentences that use consonance. One may not rhyme!
34Assonance and Consonance Practice For each example below, identify whether it is a simile or metaphor. Write “A” next to the example of assonance and “C” next to the example of consonance.We light the fire on the mountain.I feel depressed and restless.The ship has sailed to the far off shores.The engineer held the steering wheel.And yet we knew that gentle clock meant nought.
35Assonance and Consonance Practice For each example below, identify whether it is a simile or metaphor. Write “A” next to the example of assonance and “C” next to the example of consonance.We light the fire on the mountain. (A)I feel depressed and restless. (C & A)The ship has sailed to the far off shores. (C)The engineer held the steering wheel. (C & A)And yet we knew that gentle clock meant nought. (C)
36Euphemism Definition: An idiomatic expression which replaces words and phrases considered to be harsh or impolite.Eu = GoodExamples:“Kick the bucket” is a euphemism for death.“Downsizing” is a euphemism for firing someone.PurposeTo make a harsh or impolite word or phrase sound more polite or proper.
37Euphemism PracticeIdentify a euphemism for “going to the bathroom.”
38Rhetorical Question Definition: A question asked just for effect or to emphasize a point when no real answer is expected.May have an obvious answer.Examples:“To be or not to be?”“It’s too hot today, isn’t it?”PurposeOften used in persuasive speeches to emphasize a point.
39Rhetorical Question Practice Identify another example (besides a persuasive speech) where someone would use a rhetorical question.Think about the purpose – to emphasize a point.Who would likely use this and when would they use this?