2 Objectives • Explain the infant reflexes and their importance. • Pinpoint and explain the number of infant reflexes.
3 What are Infant Reflexes? Involuntary stereotyped movement responses to a particular stimuli.Dominant movement form during the first 4 months after birth.
4 Infant ReflexesMost “infant” reflexes do not last beyond the first year.Infant reflexes may not completely disappear.May be inhibited by maturing CNS.
5 Infant reflexes are very important in the process of development.
6 Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement Infant ReflexFuture Voluntary MovementCrawlingPalmar graspGraspingSteppingWalking
7 Reflexes as Diagnostic Tools Reflexes can determine level of neurological maturation.Reflexes are age-specific in normal, healthy infantsSevere deviations from normal time frame may indicate neurological immaturity or dysfunction.Reflexes should be tested carefully and only by trained professionals.Need state of quiet.If baby restless, crying, sleepy, or distracted, may not respond to applied stimulus.
10 Reflexes ~ Sucking Stimulus / Response S: touch of lips R: sucking actionDuration3 months postpartumConcernsNo reflex problematic for nutrition
11 Reflexes ~ Rooting Stimulus / Response S: touch cheek R: head moves toward stimuliDuration3 months postpartumConcernsNo reflex problematic for nutritionNo reflex or lack of persistence may be sign of CNS dysfunction.
12 Reflexes ~ Moro Stimulus / Response S: Suddenly but gently lower baby’s head R: Arms and legs extend ( C – shape )Duration4-6 months postpartumConcernsMay signify CNS dysfunction if lacking.May delay sitting & head control if persists.May indicate injury to one side of brain if asymmetical.
14 Reflexes ~ Symmetric Tonic Neck Stimulus / ResponseS: Baby sitting up and tip forward R: Neck and arms flex, legs extendDuration3 monthsConcernsPersistence may impede many motor skills and cause spinal flexion deformities
15 Reflexes ~ Plantar Grasp Stimulus / ResponseS: Touching the ball of foot R: Toes graspDuration1 yearOtherMust disappear before the baby can stand or walk.
16 Reflexes ~ Babinski Stimulus / Response S: Stroke bottom or lateral portion of foot R: Great toe turns as a fanDuration4 monthsConcernTest of the pyramidal tract (i.e. ability to perform conscious / voluntary movement)
17 Reflexes ~ Stepping Stimulus / Response S: Infant upright with feet touching surface R: Legs lift and descendDurationAfter birth – 5-6 monthsConcernsEssential for walking