1Exam tips Pen (spare) Pencil Sharpener / rubber Spellings Environment Volcano / VolcanoesErosionDesertDeciduousDon’t forgetLook out for questions without lines to write – you may have to draw on maps /graphs!Examiners cannot take marks off you – always answer the Q!!
2GEOGRAPHY UNIT 1 UNIT 2 Restless Earth Living World Water On the Land Population ChangeChanging Urban EnvironmentsTourism
3Three questions!Restless EarthLiving WorldWater on the land
8Convection currents in the mantle drive the plates to move!! DESTRUCTIVECONSTRUCTIVECONSERVATIVEOceanic plate moves towards continental plateOceanic plate subducts beneath the continental plate (as it is denser and more flexible). An ocean trench is formed.Friction builds up between the two plates and causes earthquakes.The oceanic plate melts in the mantle and pressure increases. This is released as a volcanic eruption (composite volcano)Two oceanic plates separateThe two plates separate leaving a gap between them.Magma rises from the mantle and makes its way between the plates.This comes out as lava as is runny so forms a wide volcanic cone (constructive)Two plates move besides each other (opposite direction or one faster than the other.Pressure builds up between the two plates as they attempt to move.Eventually the plates jolt forwards as they move and the friction between the plates is released as a strong seismic wave (earthquake).
14Mt St Helens Location / causes The oceanic Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the continental North American plate. (DESTRUCTIVE PLATE MARGIN)Size8:32am 18 May 1980: an earthquake caused a landslide which released the pressure inside the volcano.Effects57 people died (one of them a volcanologist)Airports were closed.Emergency treatment was given in nearby towns to the people rescued.185 miles of roads, 15 miles of railway and 27 bridges were destroyed.Tourism increased to the area (3 million per year)ResponsesHelicopters were used to search for and rescue people close to the eruption.Forest in the area began to be replanted.The area became a National Park in 1982 and now attracts 3 million visitors per year.
15Monitoring and Predicting Volcanoes TiltmetersGas SensorsGPSSeismographsThermometers (ground and water temperatures)Animal behaviourThink about how you know you have a tummy upset!
16Formation of a supervolcano Think of a big spot!
17Supervolcano – Yellowstone, USA Size / ShapeEffects1000km3The magma chamber beneath Yellowstone is believed to be 80km long, 40km wide and 8km deepCaldera – large depression surrounded by a raised rimAn eruption today would have a catastrophic effect. It is potentially five times the minimum size for a supervolcanic eruption by the size of the magma chamber.An eruption is likely to destroy 10,000 km2 of land and kill people. 1 in 3 people will be killed within 1000km of an eruption. 15cm of ash would cover buildings within this area and make them collapse. This ash would ground planes and make road transport difficult. Livestock would die as they would choke in the hot ash.UK would see the arrival of the ash about 5 days later. This ash will circle the Earth, changing the climate. Temperatures will fall by over 10 degrees which will make it difficult to grow food in many areas. 40% of the population could face starvation. Certain parts of northern Europe will be snow covered for 3 years, so no food will be able to be grown.
19Fold Mountains Challenges: Steep Relief – Use of chairlifts to travel up slopes and get fresh produce (milk) from farms down to market. Use of steep slopes for tourism e.g. skiing.Poor Soils – Use of fertilisers and farming on flat valley floorLimited Communications – New roads, railway lines (on flat valley floors) and tunnels e.g. Mont Blanc and St. Bernard tunnels.UsesHEP – generates energy for local villages (ideal snow melt in summer provides water, easy to build dam across valley)Farming - Transhumance farmingTourism – Winter (skiing) Summer (mountain biking / hiking)Industries – saw mills (wood), electrochemical, mining
20Geosyncline Sedimentary rock – sandstone Compressed to form fold mountains e.g. Alps
21Describing the distribution of ocean trenches and fold mountains Edge of oceans – Pacific OceanWhere continental and oceanic plates meetFold mountains – west coast of North and South America** use names
24How we measure earthquakes What are the differences?
25Monitoring and Predicting Earthquakes Three PsPrediction – attempts to forecast when it will happenProtection – construction of buildings so they are safe and will not collapsePreparation – organising activities and drills so people know what to do in the event of and earthquake
26Sichuan Earthquake, China 2008 MEDCLEDCLocationKobe Earthquake 1995Sichuan Earthquake, China 2008EffectsImmediateDeaths = 6500Injuries = 40,000Roads were at gridlock, delaying emergency services.Houses completely destroyed = 180,000. Homeless = 300,000Industries like Mitsubishi and Panasonic were forced to close.Long-termFires raged for days destroying 7500 houses (many of them woodenHanshin expressway and bridges collapsed.High speed bullet trains were derailed as the rails buckledDeath toll was two months after the earthquake.* 900 students trapped in collapsed school. Parents angry about the cheap building materials used.* At least were injured. Chemical plants collapsed, killing hundreds and spilling toxic ammonia.* 80% of buildings collapsed in rural Beichuan which was near the epicentre.* Communications were cut – no land or mobile phones worked in Wenchuan.Rivers were blocked by landslides and there was fear they may flood.At least 5 million (some say 11 million) were made homelessResponsesMotorola maintained telephone connections for free.Major retailers like 7-Eleven helped provide essentials.Friends and neighbours searched through the rubble, joined by emergency services when access was possible.Evacuate people into temporary shelters because they were still at risk from many fires and unstable buildings.Rescue services are specially trained and the whole country practices responding to an earthquake on 12th January, the anniversary of the Kobe earthquake, in an Earthquake Preparation Day.High rise buildings had to have flexible steel frames.Increase in the number of seismic instruments use to record earth movements.New buildings were built further apart to prevent the domino effect.20 helicopters used for relief and rescue operations. One million temporary small homes to be built to house those made homeless.Troops were parachuted in to assess the situation while others hiked in on foot.The Chinese government pledged $10 million for rebuilding. Areas of land flattened to make room for the 3.3 million tents used for emergency shelter.
28TsunamiThe Indo Australian plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate causing an earthquake.The earthquake displaces the column of water above it upwards.The water that has gone up comes down and splits into two waves. One wave travels out to sea and the other wave travels towards the coastal areas of south-east Asia.The wave reaches the shoreline and gains height before it crashes onto the land.Primary cause = the earthquakeSecondary cause = the Tsunami wave
29Tsunami – Indian Ocean, Boxing Day, 2004 Immediate EffectsDeaths:Serious injuries:4500 fishing boats destroyed in IndiaFresh water reservoirs unusable for drinking water.Bodies littered the streetsInjured people wounds became infectedLong-term Effects2 million homeless 1500 homes in Banda Aceh (city in Indonesia) completely destroyed. Only one mosque left standing.Loss of tourism and fishing economies in Indonesia, Thailand and India.Immediate ResponsesFood, sheeting and tents sent by MEDCs.Fresh water and water purification tablets sent from the international community.Medical teams sent from MEDCs.Mass graves had to be set upLong-term ResponsesRebuilding of homes and businesses, especially in tourist resorts like Phuket in Thailand.Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System set up in so people have warning and know how to respond if it happens again.
33Producer – organisms that obtain their energy from a primary source such as the sun Consumer – organisms that obtain their energy by eating other organisms Food Chain – a line of links between producers and consumers Food Web – a diagram showing the complex links between producers and consumers
34Do you know the difference? DecomposerOrganisms such as bacteria that break down plant and animal material.ScavengerOrganisms that consume dead animals or plants
35BiomeMicroMesoMacroBiome – global scale ecosystem dominated by climate e.g. Tropical Rainforest.
36Location /Distribution Tropical Rainforests – along the equator (Between the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn)Deserts – degrees North and SouthTemperate Deciduous Forests degrees North and south
37Biome Case studies Tropical Rainforest Rich Desert Poor Desert Deciduous WoodlandNameBorneo, MalaysiaSonoran Desert, USAThat Desert,IndiaEpping Forest, Essex, UK
38Climates and Soils Biome Tropical Rainforest Desert Deciduous Forest TemperatureAverage daily temp of 28 degrees C (never goes below 20)Daytime temperatures can be above 40 degrees CCan be very cold at nightSummers warm – winters coolPrecipitation (rain)2000mm of rain per yearHumidNo real seasonsVery dry (arid) Less than 250mm of rain per yearContinental Interior(torrential downpour)Throughout the yearSoilsLatosolFertile Humus layerLeachingRed/Iron RichRocky and SandyThin – can have a crustSalts deposited near the surfaceBrown EarthFertility comes from leaves which fall in the winter rotting
39Climate graphs If you have to describe them include numbers! Highest LowestSeasons
40Stratified Vegetation growing in layers Tropical Rainforest Deciduous Woodland
41Vegetation Adaptations Adaptation featureExplanation of how it helps the vegetation to cope with the climateRAINFORESTS:Buttress rootsDrip tipsThin, smooth barkLianasEpiphytesLeaves with flexible basesDESERTS:Thick waxy skinSpikesFleshy stemLong shallow rootsSlow growing plantsTEMPERATE DECIDUOUS:Losing leaves in AutumnBluebells flowering in early Spring
43Causes and impacts of deforestion Cause of deforestation in MalaysiaDetail about the causeAn impact of this cause of deforestationEconomic, social or environmental impact?Commercial Logging Clear felling was common in the 1980s. Deforestation threatens the survival of many species, including the orang-utan A local Penan community protested against a logging company and were imprisoned.Malaysia was the biggest exporter of tropical woods and so made a lot of money.Energy $2bn Bakun Dam project flooded thousands of hectares of forest to provide hydroelectric power for new industries. 9000 Kenyah people have been forced to move from the flooded area. They are traditional subsistence farmers (farm enough to eat but not sell) but are being asked to pay to be rehoused. Many suffer from depression and alcoholism.MiningFor tin and drilling for oil and gas. Forest has been cleared for operations and construction of roads. Land and rivers have been polluted by mining chemicals and affected local food chains.Commercial plantations Forest was cleared for rubber plantations and, in the 1970s, for oil palm. 10 year tax breaks for owners has led to more forest being converted to plantations. Malaysia was the largest exporter of palm oil in the world and so made a lot of money.
44Sustainable management in the Tropical Rainforest Name of strategyInternational or national?Selective Management System (SMS) Tree is removed from forest by water buffalo rather than a lorry.Fully grown trees are selected.Arrows painted on trees to show which direction it should be felled (cut down)Replacement tree is planted.Permanent Forest Estates Areas of forest are protected – no development or conversion to plantations is allowed.10% has special conservation statusForest Stewardship Council Educates people to buy soft, fast growing wood like pine rather than hard, slow growing wood like mahogany.Educates manufacturers and consumers (buyers) to buy wood only from sustainable sources (all their products have the FSC label on)Ecotourism Borneo – swiftlet nest caves (one used by swiftlets, one harvested for their nests to sell, one shown off to tourists) Borneo – turtles (used to eat them, now have a hatchery to show tourists who then set them free into the oceans)Tourism that focuses onprotecting the environmentand the local way of life.Debt relief LEDCs are paid money by MEDCs to make sure their rainforests are not cut down
46Recreation – interpreting a map Use the key to suggest recreational activities that may take place in this ecosystem
47Sustainable management in Deciduous Woodland (Epping Forest – Essex) Management strategy:What makes this management option sustainable? (How does it allow us to use the forest today whilst ensuring that future generations will also be able to benefit from the forest? )Pollarding of over 1000 ancient trees.Cutting trees at shoulder height (above the level of grazing animals). Trees reshoot new branches.1600 ha of forest is a Site of Special Scientific Interest.This offers protection under law to the forests large number of ancient trees which support a large number of animals and other vegetation.Old trees.Are allowed to die and collapse naturally unless they are dangerous.Recreation.Riding and mountain biking are restricted in places and footpaths are maintained to a good standard.
49Economic opportunity (employment) Management (response) Economic opportunities, challenges and management MEDC/RICH DESERT SONORAN DESERT, USASonoran Desert, USAEconomic opportunity (employment)Challenge (problems)Management (response)Families migrated to the Phoenix and Tucson to work on the huge farms, mainly growing cotton which uses a lot of water.Farms grow wheat, barley, pecan nuts and durum wheat which is exported to Italy to make pasta.In 2007, Marana began hosting golf’s PGA Matchplay ChampionshipRetirement migration has meant lots of new housing complexes have had to be built for older migrants.The open space and clean atmosphere are very attractive to holidaymakers.In the mid-19th century ranching and mining were the big industries.Habitats that rely on rivers are disappearing as the rivers dry up.The water table has dropped by nearly 3 metres in some places.Water is being pumped out of aquifers (underground lakes) faster than they can be refilled.Lakes with water from Salt River are the main supply of water but can only provide enough for half of the city’s demand.The water table dropping has led to land the size of North Yorkshire subsiding (sinking) which causes problems for buildings and roads.The water table has dropped which means getting water from the ground has become more expensive and the water quality has droppedSpare water from the CAP is being sent to refill aquifers (underground lakes).Conservation – farms are being shut down so water can be used in the cities.Central Arizona Project (CAP) is a network of canals that transports water from the Colorado River to the cities of Phoenix and Tucson.Waste water is being used for jobs that don’t need a high level of purity.Endangered Species Act – used to prevent developers from building more buildings which will need more water for its residentsA heritage park that celebrates the town’s agricultural past attracts tourists throughout the year..
50Economic opportunity (employment) Management (response) Economic opportunities, challenges and management LEDC/POOR DESERT THAR DESERT, INDIAThar Desert, IndiaEconomic opportunity (employment)Challenge (problems)Management (response)Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world (83 people per km2). This is leading to overgrazing and over cultivation (farming) which leads to soil erosion. Once eroded away the soil takes thousands of years to re-form.Most farmers keep a few animals on the grassy areas and cultivate vegetables and fruit trees so they have some crops to sell at local marketsThe Kohlis tribe survive by hunting animals and gathering fruit and natural products such as honey.Limestone is quarried in Jaisalmer and used in the steel industry.Rajasthan is rich in minerals and the following are mined: gypsum (makes cement), phospherite (makes fertiliser), kaolin (whitens paper) and feldspar (makes ceramics)People make a living selling hide and wool from livestock (animals).Most people are involved with subsistence farming (producing enough food for farmer and family to live off)Local people act as guides on camel safaris or rear/look after the camels.Too much irrigation (watering) has led to waterlogging in some areas. Salts get deposited on the ground surface and poison the plants. Too much demand for water in some places has caused an unsustainable fall in the water tables (it cannot continue forever).Sand dunes are unstable and can move across farmland, roads and waterways.Rainfall is very low ( mm per year) and temperatures are very high (53˚c) which makes commercial farming (farming to make a profit) very difficult.Prosopis cineraria tree has multiple uses: a) planted in blocks to stabilise sand dunes and stop them moving, b) its pods provide food for animals, c) wood can be used as a strong building material and good quality firewood.Reserves of firewood, their main source of fuel, is reducing so people are using manure as fuel rather than using manure to fertilise the soil.The 650km long Indira Gandhi Canal was built in It provides drinking water for many people in the desert and means that commercial farming of wheat and cotton (selling these for a profit) occurs in the Jodhpur and Jaisalmer.Trees and fences are built alongside roads and canals to block the movement of sand dunes across them.Thar Desert National Park has been created to protect 3000 km2 of desert vegetation and wildlife. The Ber Tree produces large plums and can survive in low rainfall conditions. The plums can then be sold for a decent profit.
51Sustainable Management Protected for future generationsDescribe the strategy but also link this to how this leads to protecting the environment for future generations to use
52Water on the land EROSION TRANSPORTATION DEPOSITION Wearing away of the land due to high energyMovement of material downstream after it ahs been erodedLow Energy – dropping of material being transported.Hydraulic ActionAbrasionAttritionCorrosionTractionSaltationSuspensionSolution
54Landforms ‘V-shaped Valley’ Vertical erosion Weathering V shaped Valley
55Landforms ‘Waterfall’ Resistant and less resistant rockSoft rock is eroded by (describe processes)Undercuts hard rockHard rock collapses into plunge poolForms a steep sided gorge
56Landforms ‘Meander and Oxbow Lake’ Lateral erosion on the outside of the bend because of Hydraulic action… (describe erosion processes)Deposition on the inside of the bend where there is less energy.Neck narrows over timeFlood event / high discharge breaks through neckForms an Oxbow lakeCross SectionMake sure you label the inside and outside!
57Landforms ‘Floodplain’ Meander erodes a flat valley floor either side of the river channel. Deposits alluvial sediments – larger near river channel Leaves layers of flat fertile land with raised levees either side of channel
58Flooding Discharge Lag time Interception Infiltration Percolation Permeable/impermeable
60Frequency and location of flooding in the UK More frequentMarch 1947 – Major floodsJanuary 19531968 – Great Flood (South East England)Gap1998 onwards – annual occurrence
61Flooding – MEDC/RICH Boscastle 2004 Physical Causes (Natural) Human Causes (People)Confluence of 2 rivers (Valency and Jordan)Small drainage basin.Heavy rain saturated the moors.Urbanisation of steep sided valley.Bridges were built.Clearing of vegetation in valley so tourists could see the views.River Jordan passes through 100m underground culvert.Immediate effectsLong-term Effect60 cars swept out to sea1 person with a broken finger.Belongings lostPeople/tourists could not return to their homesTourist information centre damaged80 buildings damaged and 3 houses destroyed.25 businesses damaged (e.g. Harbour restaurant) so loss of tourist incomeTourism number fell in following year£10million damage causedSome areas of the town improved after repairsImmediate ResponsesLong-term responsesSearch and rescue used boats to reach people.150 people airlifted to safety by helicopter.Homeless moved overnight to Camelford town hall.Yellow marks on vehicles and buildings checked.Food and water donated£ flood defence scheme completed 2005.New bigger culvert built on River Jordan that can carry at least twice the floodwater of the old one.Wide bridge installed and old Victorian bridge removed.
62Flooding – LEDC/POOR Bangladesh 2004 Physical Causes (Natural) Human Causes (People)70% of the land area is less than a metre above sea level.Heavy monsoon rains – 350mm in 24 hours.Snow melt from the Himalayas.Huge population growth leads to mass deforestation.Deforestation leads to soil erosion which causes the bed of the River Brahmaputra to rise by 5cm per year.Immediate effectsLong-term Effect30 million people homeless.760 people killed.60% of the country floodedMud and raw sewage spead$7 Billion dollars damage to schools and hospitalsRice growing and fish farming disrupted.More than 1m children suffered malnutrition and disease.Immediate ResponsesLong-term responsesHeavy reliance on emergency aid from UN, charities and MEDC governments.WaterAid (NGO) supplied water purification tablets and posters highlighting the hygiene risk in flood water.NGOs gave out food, blankets, medicinesFlood shelters have been built – areas of raised land where people can move with their cattle and have access to dried food and clean water.Super ducks (eggs)/fish farming / growing pumpkins5 inches of rain fell in 7 hours.3500km of coastal and river embankments built.The damage to farming and schools and hospitals was put at $7 billion.
63Differences between rich and poor EffectsResponses
64Flood Prevention Hard Engineering Soft Engineering Description This strategy involves the use of technology in order to control rivers. It is expensive and needs to be maintained.This option works with the natural river and avoids building in areas likely to flood. It is usually cheaper and has less of a negative environmental impactExamplesDamsReservoirsRaised leveesDredging riversStraighten channelsBuilding concrete wallsWarning systemsPlanting more trees in the drainage basinLand use zoningPreparationDo nothing (let nature take its toll)
65Case studies – Hard Engineering. China, Three Gorges Dam How it controls floodsWater fills the area behind the dam and is released during low rainfall times and held back during high rainfall times.Benefits (positives)EconomicSocialEnvironmentalThe dam will protect over 15 million people living in high risk flood areas from flooding events.China gets 10% of its electricity from the Hydro Electric Power stations on the dam.Thousands of jobs created because of the building and maintenance of the dam and HEP scheme.The dam will protect the flooding of over hectares of farmland.China will use less coal because of using HEP so reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.Costs (negatives)Cost $25.5 billion.Areas downstream will not get the fertile sediment from the river which will affect farming.The Yangtse used to carry over 500m tonnes of silt every year, 50% of which now silts up behind the dam, reducing the storage capacity of the reservoir and making it less effective. It is costly to fix this problem1.4 million people were forcibly removed from their homes to make way for the dam, reservoir and power stations.Over 150 towns and 4500 villages were flooded.The natural flow of water in the River Yangtse is prevented by the dam (a concrete barrier across a valley) built at Yichang.Water in the reservoir is becoming heavily polluted from ships and toxic waste from factories, mines and waste tips.
66Soft engineeringEnvironment agency Flood Warning systems Send texts direct to registered users Flood watch and then flood warning Website Information about how to prepare for a flood.
67Flood Transfer Scheme Water Surplus Water Stress Water deficit Details StorageTransferPositivesNegativesKielder waterNorthumberlandScottish borderReservoir/DamRiver Tyne and Wear13km pipeline to link lower Tees and River OuseNo droughtsUsed for recreationJob opportunitiesCost £80 millionFlooded farmlandCould spread diseases between rivers
68Case study = Kielder Water in Northumberland Social effects of Kielder WaterEconomic effects of Kielder WaterEnvironmental effects of Kielder WaterFarming communities were displaced (forced to move)Water and land based activities attract ¼ million visitors each year.Created jobs in the water industry, tourism and forestry as previously there were only farming jobs available.It is a multipurpose scheme – used for water supply, flood control, tourism and forestryThe dam water generates HEP to supply homes and industry in the region.No problem of water shortage in NE England so industries do not suffer.Flooded an area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.1.5 million trees were deforested to make way for the lake.