3Democracy in America pub. 1835, 40 Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19th century America as a land of equality. (Visited: ) Was he correct? If so, about what?Gap between wealthy and poorIndustrialization and urbanization … these are responses to the problems arising in cities… how can you say there is equality when there are a lot of problems facing the country … the increasing concentration of wealth.Spreading out of N and S – they wont really be the same and these problems will only grow in the future.Democracy in America pub. 1835, 40
4Pillars of Emerging American Middle Class: Recast FamilyChurchVoluntary association
5Question? Assume the role of the head of a middle class household in the 1820’s. Describe how the changes taking place in the national economy affect your family’s life and how you are coping with the changes…
6Tocqueville’s Democracy in America 1835 “…the religious atmosphere of the country was the first thing that struck me on arrival in the United States."
7Religion“…religious experimentation increases in response to changes in people's economic lives. The dynamic, transformative economy of the Jacksonian period profoundly altered people's sense of their relations to their neighbors, to their family, and to their employers and employees. Fundamental moral questions--what is a legitimate profit? What does it mean to be a "free" laborer? How much responsibility does an individual bear for his or her fate?-- pressed on citizens with a new urgency.”– Prof. O’Mally, George Mason U.
8Second Great Awakening Disagreements about:infant damnation (“debased doctrine”)Predestinationdeistic thinkingTraditional Revivalists:Timothy Dwight, president of YaleLyman Beecher“Salvation of sinners because of God’s mercy and disinterested benevolence”
9Charles Finney and the Burned Over District Charismatic evangelistItinerant preacher“Finney's influence rose in tandem with that of Andrew Jackson; both addressed the issues of equality of men, and free will and self governance. In his Lectures on Revivals of Religion…Finney’s [definition of]…revival..is not a miracle in the sense of a physical change brought on solely by God, but a change of mind which, though influenced by the Holy Spirit, is ultimately a matter of the individual's free will.”“Charles Grandison Finney.” xroads.virginia.edu
10Finney’s Revivals: Take salvation in your hands Entertaining as well as edifyingSong“Anxious bench”Offers safety to those in the region for work (uncertainty) – response to Panic
11What is a utopian community What is a utopian community? Compare two… In what ways are they an expression of the Romantic impulse100’s founded in US in first half of 18th CSuch as…?
13Most utopian communities fail: Why? Fourierists – Frenchman Charles Fourierdozens of socialist colonies experimentedcooperative “phallanxes”New Harmony : IN - British Robert OwenSocialist – avoid competitionAtheism and ‘free love’Oneida Community: Oneida NY – John NoyesSpiritual perfectionism“complex marriage” experimentBreak down egoistic habitsManufacturing base (silverware)
14Shakers Mother Ann Lee Celibate Segregated sexes Common property Equality of labor and rewardSinging and dancing – release from tightly run lifeUniversally tolerated
15Shakers'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight.When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
17Mormonism Joseph Smith Translated book of Mormon Ohio – exclusivism and unorthodox religious views – caused resentmentMove to Missouri, then IllinoisNauvoo LegionSmith secretly authorized polygamySmith and brother arrested by mobBrigham Young – Salt Lake Utah
18The Age of Reform: Associations What was their role? What impact did they have?What is the most interesting reform movement to you?
19Demon Rum! Colonial attitudes 1820s see a shift ATU Washingtonians LicensingLiquor taxesMaine bans manufand sale 1851
21Age of Reform Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe Eastern State PenitentiaryAuburn PrisonDorothea Dix
22Education and a Reading Culture Horace MannHenry BarnardPublic UniversitiesPenny newspapersDime NovelsDavy Crockett Almanacs
23A Trickle of Abolitionism Becomes a Stream Pre and Post Missouri CompromiseBlack AbolitionistsDavid Walker -1829; Paul CuffeWilliam Lloyd GarrisonThe LiberatorFrederick DouglassElijah LovejoyArthur & Louis TappanTheodore Weld and Angelina GrimkePennsylvania Hall -1838Solomon NorthrupLiberty Party – Birney in 1844
24WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Grimke Sisters Susan B. Anthony
25Published 1853 by Armistead Wilson 1850s slavery will be the biggest issue and unavoidableBy the 1850sUpas Tree – a tropical tree known to contain a poison used in blowdarts and arrowsPublished 1853 by Armistead Wilson
27Texas! Moses Austin Stephen Austin 1821 Three Hundred Families 1821 Republic of MexicoThe Centralistas and Santa Anna ’24“The Napoleon of the West”Battle of GonzalesOctober 1835The "Lexington-Concord" of Texas
28Texas War of Independence Alamo ‘ men dieGoliadSan Jacinto - April 1836Annex us - Please!!!What were Jackson &Van Buren doing?flags
29Sam Houston Jacksonian protégé Governor of two states Guilty of beating a congressman in DCFrancis Scott Key – his lawyerFled wife and US for Texas -1832Commander in chief won at San Jacinto ‘36President of Texas2 nonconsecutive termsSought annexationWill lose favor in Texas when he opposes secession in 1860
30Pres James K Polk 1845-49 Why are Americans predisposed to MD? “Manifest Destiny” – John O’Sullivan ’45Election of 1844Darkhorse54 40 or Fight!Liberty Party effect in upstate NYOregonTexasMexican War ‘46-’48
31The Mexican War: Polk’s War What are the causes for this war?Was it an unnecessary war? Why or why not?
32Richard Caton Woodville’s 1848 painting War News from Mexico What themes are evident in Woodville’s painting?Reproduced print from engravingDetail from painting
33What is the relationship between the War, the Treaty that ended it, and the debate on slavery? Slidell sent to buy SW – late 1845Fremont stirs up, helps organize Californians up northBear Flag Army awaits warTaylor crosses Nueces River boundary March ‘46Crossing boundary, Mexicans fire on Taylor’s armySpot resolutionsMay, 1846: Declaration of War!David Wilmot’s Proviso – 1846 debatedAdmiral Sloat takes MontereyZachary Taylor takes Buena Vista, then Scott takes M city– 2 worrisome Whigs take MexicoTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Nick Trist, Scott and Polk…
37Oregon Missionaries American Missionary Society 1830s Wiliamette ValleyOregon Trail early 40’sMarcus and Narcissa WhitmanSchoolCayuse IndiansMurder TrialPrompts Territory organization 1848
38“There is no working class (the Indians being practically serfs and doing all the hard work) And every rich man looks like a grandee, and every poor scamp like a broken downgenbtleman.” Two Years before the Mast, 1840 Richard Henry DanaCaliforniaThe buckskin trade
39Taylor’s Headache? John Sutter Sacramento San Francisco 7000 => 100,000150,000 => 35,000
40The Compromise of 1850 Forty-niners! Clay offers one last compromise California Republic est: 1847State const. revised w/o slavery Oct 1849Clay offers one last compromiseYoung Stephen Douglas helpsCalhoun warnsWhat are its provisions? Which are most loathsome? To whom? Why?
41Debating in the Golden Age of the Senate ClayCalhounWebsterFillmoreUS Senate A.D by Peter F. Rothermel (1855)