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Romantics, Reformers and Restless Warriors

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1 Romantics, Reformers and Restless Warriors
Late 1820s – 1840s


3 Democracy in America pub. 1835, 40
Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19th century America as a land of equality. (Visited: ) Was he correct? If so, about what? Gap between wealthy and poor Industrialization and urbanization … these are responses to the problems arising in cities… how can you say there is equality when there are a lot of problems facing the country … the increasing concentration of wealth. Spreading out of N and S – they wont really be the same and these problems will only grow in the future. Democracy in America pub. 1835, 40

4 Pillars of Emerging American Middle Class:
Recast Family Church Voluntary association

5 Question? Assume the role of the head of a middle class household in the 1820’s. Describe how the changes taking place in the national economy affect your family’s life and how you are coping with the changes…

6 Tocqueville’s Democracy in America 1835
“…the religious atmosphere of the country was the first thing that struck me on arrival in the United States."

7 Religion “…religious experimentation increases in response to changes in people's economic lives. The dynamic, transformative economy of the Jacksonian period profoundly altered people's sense of their relations to their neighbors, to their family, and to their employers and employees. Fundamental moral questions--what is a legitimate profit? What does it mean to be a "free" laborer? How much responsibility does an individual bear for his or her fate?-- pressed on citizens with a new urgency.” – Prof. O’Mally, George Mason U.

8 Second Great Awakening
Disagreements about: infant damnation (“debased doctrine”) Predestination deistic thinking Traditional Revivalists: Timothy Dwight, president of Yale Lyman Beecher “Salvation of sinners because of God’s mercy and disinterested benevolence”

9 Charles Finney and the Burned Over District
Charismatic evangelist Itinerant preacher “Finney's influence rose in tandem with that of Andrew Jackson; both addressed the issues of equality of men, and free will and self governance. In his Lectures on Revivals of Religion…Finney’s [definition of]… not a miracle in the sense of a physical change brought on solely by God, but a change of mind which, though influenced by the Holy Spirit, is ultimately a matter of the individual's free will.” “Charles Grandison Finney.”

10 Finney’s Revivals: Take salvation in your hands
Entertaining as well as edifying Song “Anxious bench” Offers safety to those in the region for work (uncertainty) – response to Panic

11 What is a utopian community
What is a utopian community? Compare two… In what ways are they an expression of the Romantic impulse 100’s founded in US in first half of 18th C Such as…?


13 Most utopian communities fail: Why?
Fourierists – Frenchman Charles Fourier dozens of socialist colonies experimented cooperative “phallanxes” New Harmony : IN - British Robert Owen Socialist – avoid competition Atheism and ‘free love’ Oneida Community: Oneida NY – John Noyes Spiritual perfectionism “complex marriage” experiment Break down egoistic habits Manufacturing base (silverware)

14 Shakers Mother Ann Lee Celibate Segregated sexes Common property
Equality of labor and reward Singing and dancing – release from tightly run life Universally tolerated

15 Shakers 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

16 The Mormon Church Joseph Smith Brigham Young

17 Mormonism Joseph Smith Translated book of Mormon
Ohio – exclusivism and unorthodox religious views – caused resentment Move to Missouri, then Illinois Nauvoo Legion Smith secretly authorized polygamy Smith and brother arrested by mob Brigham Young – Salt Lake Utah

18 The Age of Reform: Associations
What was their role? What impact did they have? What is the most interesting reform movement to you?

19 Demon Rum! Colonial attitudes 1820s see a shift ATU Washingtonians
Licensing Liquor taxes Maine bans manuf and sale 1851


21 Age of Reform Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe
Eastern State Penitentiary Auburn Prison Dorothea Dix

22 Education and a Reading Culture
Horace Mann Henry Barnard Public Universities Penny newspapers Dime Novels Davy Crockett Almanacs

23 A Trickle of Abolitionism Becomes a Stream
Pre and Post Missouri Compromise Black Abolitionists David Walker -1829; Paul Cuffe William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator Frederick Douglass Elijah Lovejoy Arthur & Louis Tappan Theodore Weld and Angelina Grimke Pennsylvania Hall -1838 Solomon Northrup Liberty Party – Birney in 1844

24 WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Grimke Sisters
Susan B. Anthony

25 Published 1853 by Armistead Wilson
1850s slavery will be the biggest issue and unavoidable By the 1850s Upas Tree – a tropical tree known to contain a poison used in blowdarts and arrows Published 1853 by Armistead Wilson

26 Tyler’s Presidency ’41-’45
Independent Whig Cabinet resigns Boundary dispute? Texas?

27 Texas! Moses Austin Stephen Austin 1821 Three Hundred Families
1821 Republic of Mexico The Centralistas and Santa Anna ’24 “The Napoleon of the West” Battle of Gonzales October 1835 The "Lexington-Concord" of Texas

28 Texas War of Independence
Alamo ‘ men die Goliad San Jacinto - April 1836 Annex us - Please!!! What were Jackson & Van Buren doing? flags

29 Sam Houston Jacksonian protégé Governor of two states
Guilty of beating a congressman in DC Francis Scott Key – his lawyer Fled wife and US for Texas -1832 Commander in chief won at San Jacinto ‘36 President of Texas 2 nonconsecutive terms Sought annexation Will lose favor in Texas when he opposes secession in 1860

30 Pres James K Polk 1845-49 Why are Americans predisposed to MD?
“Manifest Destiny” – John O’Sullivan ’45 Election of 1844 Darkhorse 54 40 or Fight! Liberty Party effect in upstate NY Oregon Texas Mexican War ‘46-’48

31 The Mexican War: Polk’s War
What are the causes for this war? Was it an unnecessary war? Why or why not?

32 Richard Caton Woodville’s 1848 painting War News from Mexico
What themes are evident in Woodville’s painting? Reproduced print from engraving Detail from painting

33 What is the relationship between the War, the Treaty that ended it, and the debate on slavery?
Slidell sent to buy SW – late 1845 Fremont stirs up, helps organize Californians up north Bear Flag Army awaits war Taylor crosses Nueces River boundary March ‘46 Crossing boundary, Mexicans fire on Taylor’s army Spot resolutions May, 1846: Declaration of War! David Wilmot’s Proviso – 1846 debated Admiral Sloat takes Monterey Zachary Taylor takes Buena Vista, then Scott takes M city – 2 worrisome Whigs take Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Nick Trist, Scott and Polk…



36 Election of 1848 And the Free Soil Party…

37 Oregon Missionaries American Missionary Society 1830s
Wiliamette Valley Oregon Trail early 40’s Marcus and Narcissa Whitman School Cayuse Indians Murder Trial Prompts Territory organization 1848

38 “There is no working class (the Indians being practically serfs and doing all the hard work)
And every rich man looks like a grandee, and every poor scamp like a broken down genbtleman.” Two Years before the Mast, 1840 Richard Henry Dana California The buckskin trade

39 Taylor’s Headache? John Sutter Sacramento San Francisco
7000 => 100,000 150,000 => 35,000

40 The Compromise of 1850 Forty-niners! Clay offers one last compromise
California Republic est: 1847 State const. revised w/o slavery Oct 1849 Clay offers one last compromise Young Stephen Douglas helps Calhoun warns What are its provisions? Which are most loathsome? To whom? Why?

41 Debating in the Golden Age of the Senate
Clay Calhoun Webster Fillmore US Senate A.D by Peter F. Rothermel (1855)

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