Presentation on theme: "Late 1820s – 1840s. Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19 th century America as a land of equality. (Visited: 1831-2) Was he correct?"— Presentation transcript:
Late 1820s – 1840s
Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19 th century America as a land of equality. (Visited: 1831-2) Was he correct? If so, about what? Democracy in America pub. 1835, 40
Pillars of Emerging American Middle Class: Recast Family Church Voluntary association
Question? Assume the role of the head of a middle class household in the 1820’s. Describe how the changes taking place in the national economy affect your family’s life and how you are coping with the changes…
Tocqueville’s Democracy in America 1835 “…the religious atmosphere of the country was the first thing that struck me on arrival in the United States."
Religion “…religious experimentation increases in response to changes in people's economic lives. The dynamic, transformative economy of the Jacksonian period profoundly altered people's sense of their relations to their neighbors, to their family, and to their employers and employees. Fundamental moral questions--what is a legitimate profit? What does it mean to be a "free" laborer? How much responsibility does an individual bear for his or her fate?-- pressed on citizens with a new urgency.” – Prof. O’Mally, George Mason U. http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/jackson/revival/revival.html
Second Great Awakening Disagreements about: infant damnation (“debased doctrine”) Predestination deistic thinking Traditional Revivalists: Timothy Dwight, president of Yale Lyman Beecher “Salvation of sinners because of God’s mercy and disinterested benevolence”
Charles Finney and the Burned Over District Charismatic evangelist Itinerant preacher “Finney's influence rose in tandem with that of Andrew Jackson; both addressed the issues of equality of men, and free will and self governance. In his Lectures on Revivals of Religion…Finney’s [definition of]…revival..is not a miracle in the sense of a physical change brought on solely by God, but a change of mind which, though influenced by the Holy Spirit, is ultimately a matter of the individual's free will.” “Charles Grandison Finney.” 2006. xroads.virginia.edu
Finney’s Revivals: Take salvation in your hands Entertaining as well as edifying Song “Anxious bench” Offers safety to those in the region for work (uncertainty) – response to Panic
What is a utopian community? Compare two… In what ways are they an expression of the Romantic impulse 100’s founded in US in first half of 18 th C Such as…?
Fourierists – Frenchman Charles Fourier dozens of socialist colonies experimented cooperative “phallanxes” New Harmony : IN - British Robert Owen Socialist – avoid competition Atheism and ‘free love’ Oneida Community: Oneida NY – John Noyes Spiritual perfectionism “complex marriage” experiment Break down egoistic habits Manufacturing base (silverware) Most utopian communities fail: Why?
Shakers Mother Ann Lee Celibate Segregated sexes Common property Equality of labor and reward Singing and dancing – release from tightly run life Universally tolerated
Shakers 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
The Mormon Church Joseph Smith Brigham Young
Mormonism Joseph Smith Translated book of Mormon Ohio – exclusivism and unorthodox religious views – caused resentment Move to Missouri, then Illinois Nauvoo Legion Smith secretly authorized polygamy Smith and brother arrested by mob Brigham Young – Salt Lake Utah
The Age of Reform: Associations What was their role? What impact did they have? What is the most interesting reform movement to you?
Demon Rum! Colonial attitudes 1820s see a shift ATU Washingtonians 1840s Licensing Liquor taxes Maine bans manuf and sale 1851
Age of Reform Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe Eastern State Penitentiary Auburn Prison Dorothea Dix
Education and a Reading Culture Horace Mann Henry Barnard Public Universities Penny newspapers Dime Novels Davy Crockett Almanacs
A Trickle of Abolitionism Becomes a Stream Pre and Post Missouri Compromise Black Abolitionists David Walker -1829; Paul Cuffe William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator - 1831 Frederick Douglass Elijah Lovejoy Arthur & Louis Tappan Theodore Weld and Angelina Grimke Pennsylvania Hall -1838 Solomon Northrup 1841-53 Liberty Party – Birney in 1844
WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Grimke Sisters Susan B. Anthony
By the 1850s Upas Tree – a tropical tree known to contain a poison used in blowdarts and arrows Published 1853 by Armistead Wilson
Texas! Moses Austin Stephen Austin 1821 Three Hundred Families 1821 Republic of Mexico The Centralistas and Santa Anna ’24 “The Napoleon of the West” Battle of Gonzales October 1835 The "Lexington-Concord" of Texas
Texas War of Independence Alamo ‘36 - 187 men die Goliad San Jacinto - April 1836 Annex us - Please!!! What were Jackson & Van Buren doing? http://Texas flagsTexas flags
Sam Houston Jacksonian protégé Governor of two states Guilty of beating a congressman in DC Francis Scott Key – his lawyer Fled wife and US for Texas -1832 Commander in chief won at San Jacinto ‘36 President of Texas 2 nonconsecutive terms Sought annexation Will lose favor in Texas when he opposes secession in 1860
Pres James K Polk 1845-49 Why are Americans predisposed to MD? “Manifest Destiny” – John O’Sullivan ’45 Election of 1844 Darkhorse 54 40 or Fight! Liberty Party effect in upstate NY Oregon Texas Mexican War ‘46-’48
The Mexican War: Polk’s War What are the causes for this war? Was it an unnecessary war? Why or why not?
Richard Caton Woodville’s 1848 painting War News from Mexico What themes are evident in Woodville’s painting? Detail from painting Reproduced print from engraving
What is the relationship between the War, the Treaty that ended it, and the debate on slavery? 1. Slidell sent to buy SW – late 1845 2. Fremont stirs up, helps organize Californians up north Bear Flag Army awaits war 3. Taylor crosses Nueces River boundary March ‘46 4. Crossing boundary, Mexicans fire on Taylor’s army 5. Spot resolutions 6. May, 1846: Declaration of War! 7. David Wilmot’s Proviso – 1846 debated Admiral Sloat takes Monterey Zachary Taylor takes Buena Vista, then Scott takes M city – 2 worrisome Whigs take Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Nick Trist, Scott and Polk…
Election of 1848 And the Free Soil Party…
Oregon Missionaries American Missionary Society 1830s Wiliamette Valley Oregon Trail early 40’s Marcus and Narcissa Whitman School Cayuse Indians Murder Trial Prompts Territory organization 1848
California The buckskin trade “There is no working class (the Indians being practically serfs and doing all the hard work) And every rich man looks like a grandee, and every poor scamp like a broken down genbtleman.” Two Years before the Mast, 1840Richard Henry Dana
Taylor’s Headache? John Sutter Sacramento San Francisco 7000 => 100,000 150,000 => 35,000
The Compromise of 1850 Forty-niners! California Republic est: 1847 State const. revised w/o slavery Oct 1849 Clay offers one last compromise Young Stephen Douglas helps Calhoun warns What are its provisions? Which are most loathsome? To whom? Why?
Debating in the Golden Age of the Senate Clay Calhoun Webster Fillmore US Senate A.D. 1850 by Peter F. Rothermel (1855)