2 Roadmap Description and Definition of Behaviour Exceptionality ADHD characteristicsBest Practice StrategiesOther behaviour exceptionalities (ODD, Conduct Disorder) characteristics
3 How Do We Define Behaviour Exceptionality? A learning disorder characterized by specific behaviour problems over such a period of time, and to such a marked degree, and of such a nature, as to adversely affect educational performance, and that may be accompanied by one or more of the following:
4 a) an inability to build or to maintain interpersonal relationships; b) excessive fears or anxieties;c) a tendency to compulsive reaction;d) an inability to learn that cannot be traced to intellectual, sensory, or other health factors, or any combination thereof.
5 Types of Behaviour Disorders ADHDODDConduct DisorderGeneralized AnxietyOthers - undefined or associated with Mental Health issues (e.g. PTSD)
6 Think and Connect Personal Story Visualize the Student’s strengths and needsThe student’s strengths can be used to address his or her weaknesses.Understanding and noting them is critical to appropriate program development
7 Strengths and Needs Creative Thinker Kinesthetic Learner Expressive VocabularyImpulsiveReduce physical contactRedirect excessive energyAllow for physical movement breaksImplement a behaviour modification reward systemuse direct instruction & social stories to teach impulse controlrole-play appropriate behaviour (e.g. waiting one’s turn)
8 Some CharacteristicsStudents who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that showdisregard for social or cultural norms and that deviate in a significant manner from those that are normally expected.
9 What This May Look Like In Your Classroom Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that show disregard for social or cultural norms and that deviate in a significant manner from those that are normally expected. They may:destroy their own, another person’s or the school’s property;be disobedient, defy authority, test limits, refuse to follow directions, or be domineering;be uncooperative, resistive, inconsiderate, or disruptive;interrupt, disturb, or cause disturbances for which others are blamed;be apathetic, exhibiting a “don’t care” attitude;fight, hit, or assault others;intimidate, bully, or threaten others;be restless, boisterous, or noisy;be untrustworthy or dishonest, lie, or steal;use profane or abusive language and gestures;demonstrate delinquent behaviour or vandalism;be truant from school.
10 What This May Look Like In Your Classroom Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that tend to be impulsive or compulsive and that negatively affect learning. These students may:speak out;disrupt classroom activities;display temper tantrums;repetitively demonstrate the same behaviour;have difficulty thinking before acting, or be impulsive;become distracted or inattentive, or lack focus;daydream or appear preoccupied;demonstrate a short attention span or poor concentration;demonstrate an extreme resistance to change (secondary consideration).
11 What This May Look Like In Your Classroom Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that show poor interpersonal relationships and low self-esteem. They may:be uncooperative in groups, argumentative, or passively noncompliant;seek attention;depend on others for direction and require constant reassurance;be hypersensitive, easily hurt or embarrassed, or easily flustered;lack self-confidence;demonstrate inappropriate sexual activity.
12 What This May Look Like In Your Classroom Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that are injurious to themselves, such as:withdrawal;nervousness;hypersensitivity;anorexia or bulimia;self-abuse;substance abuse.
14 ADHDADHDers are great at multitasking. To a certain extent…
15 What is ADHD?Three possible types:InattentiveHyperactiveImpulsive
16 Strict Guidelines DSM-V has strict guidelines to determine a diagnosis Behaviours must appear early in lifeMust be more frequent or severe than normal age groupCreate an obstacle or interferes with daily living in at least two areas of a person’s life (e.g. school, home, work or social settings)
17 Strict Guidelines Cont’d… A child with some attention problems but whose school work or friendships are not impaired by these behaviors would not be diagnosed with ADHD.Nor would a child who seems overly active at school but functions well elsewhere.
18 Typical Characteristics Signs of inattention include:becoming easily distracted by irrelevant sights and soundsfailing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakesrarely following instructions carefully and completelylosing or forgetting things like toys, or pencils, books, and tools needed for a task
19 Typical Characteristics Signs of hyperactivity and impulsivity are:feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirmingrunning, climbing, or leaving a seat in situations where sitting or quiet behavior is expectedblurting out answers before hearing the whole questionhaving difficulty waiting in line or for a turn
20 Let’s Take a Different Perspective… All Dogs Have ADHD
21 Research ContinuesResearch suggests the disorder is biologically basedThis means that there are likely chemical and/or structural problems in the brains of people with ADHD that inhibit their ability to focus, plan ahead, finish tasks, and so on.
22 Whether or not Diagnosed… Observe students in the following areas:Mental EnergyProcessingProduction
23 Mental EnergyThe first attention control system, mental energy, regulates and distributes the energy supply needed for the brain to take in and interpret information and regulate behavior. Children whose mental energy is not working effectively may become mentally fatigued when they try to concentrate, or have other problems related to maintaining the brain energy needed for optimal learning and behavior.
24 Four Mental Energy Controls The first is alertness, a state of mind in which a child can effectively listen to and watch information being presented. Children who experience difficulty with alertness can appear to be daydreaming.
25 Four Mental Energy Controls The second mental energy control is sleep and arousal balance. This control affects the ability to sleep well enough at night to be sufficiently alert during the day. Children who are experiencing trouble with sleep and arousal may find it difficult to get to sleep at night, or they may sleep poorly. They then have trouble getting up in the morning and may appear tired in class.
26 Four Mental Energy Controls The third mental energy control is mental effort. This control initiates and maintains the flow of energy required for a child to start, work on, and complete a task. Mental effort is particularly important when children are faced with tasks that may not be especially interesting or personally motivating. Children who have difficulty with mental effort can benefit from having tasks broken down into smaller, more manageable parts.
27 Four Mental Energy Controls The fourth mental energy control is performance consistency. It works to ensure a reliable, predictable flow of energy from moment to moment and day to day. Children who have trouble with performance consistency don't have problems all of the time. Sometimes they can concentrate and perform well, while other times they cannot. Their work output and behavior may be impossible to predict.
28 What Does it Mean? A student: has difficulty concentrating; may complain of feeling tired or boreddoes not seem to be well rested and fully awake during the dayhas inconsistent work patterns that negatively impact quality and quantity of workshows overactivity and fidgets -- especially pronounced when sitting and listening
29 Whether or not Diagnosed… Observe students in the following areas:Mental EnergyProcessingProduction
30 ProcessingThe second attention control system is called processing. This system helps a child select, prepare, and begin to interpret incoming information. Children who have difficulty with processing may have a range of problems related to regulating the use of incoming information. There are five processing controls.
31 Five Processing Controls The first is saliency determination. It involves selecting which incoming information is the most important. Children who have difficulty with this control may be distracted by things that aren't relevant and miss important information being presented.
32 Five Processing Controls The second processing control is depth and detail of processing. It controls how intensely children can concentrate on highly specific data. It enables them to focus deeply enough to recognize and remember necessary details.
33 Five Processing Controls The third processing control is cognitive activation. This active processing connects new information to what has already been learned through prior knowledge and experience. Children who are inactive processors are unable to connect to prior knowledge to assist their understanding of new information. In contrast, overactive processors are reminded of too much prior knowledge, making it difficult for them to maintain focus.
34 Five Processing Controls The fourth processing control is focal maintenance. This allows a child to focus on important information for the appropriate period of time. As Dr. Levine explains, "It isn't so much how long your attention span is, as it is how well- matched the duration of your attention is to the target at hand." Some children who don't concentrate long enough on certain things may concentrate too long on others.
35 Five Processing Controls The fifth and final processing control is satisfaction control. This control involves a child's ability to allocate enough attention to activities or topics of moderate or low levels of interest. "Insatiable" is a term used for children with poor satisfaction control who may be unable to concentrate on activities that are not exciting enough.
36 What Does it Mean? A student: processes too little or too much information; can't distinguish between what is important and what isn'tfocuses too superficially or too deeply on information presentedhas difficulty connecting new information with information already knownonly pays attention to exciting information or highly stimulating activitiesfocuses for too brief a periodhas problems shifting focus from one subject or activity to another
37 Whether or not Diagnosed… Observe students in the following areas:Mental EnergyProcessingProduction
38 Production OutputThe third attention control system is production. This area governs output -- including what children generate academically, behaviorally, and socially. Children with production control problems have a range of difficulties related to regulating academic and behavioral output. They may do things too quickly without thinking, planning, or previewing outcomes.There are five production controls.
39 Five Production Controls The first is previewing. It involves considering more than one action or response and anticipating the likely outcome of a particular choice. Children who have difficulty with previewing may plunge into activities instantly and react too quickly.
40 Five Production Controls The second production control is facilitation and inhibition. This is the ability to exercise restraint and not act immediately, to consider multiple options, and to choose the best one before acting or starting on a task. Children who have trouble with facilitation and inhibition frequently act impulsively and may appear to be doing only the first thing that comes to mind. These children may blurt out answers before being called upon in class.
41 Five Production Controls The third production control is pacing, which means doing tasks or activities at the most appropriate speed. Pacing difficulties often show up in children's reading. Their reading pace may be so fast that they skip over words, have difficulty with multisyllable words, and show little reading comprehension.
42 Five Production Controls The fourth production control is self- monitoring. It allows children to evaluate how they are doing while performing and after completing a task. This control allows children to regulate their attention and take corrective action.
43 Five Production Controls The fifth production control is reinforceability. It allows children to use previous experience to guide current behavior and approaches to current tasks. Often called hindsight, this ability enables children to make use of precedent, experience, and prior knowledge to guide their decision making and actions.
44 What Does it Mean? A student: fails to preview the effects of statements or actions or to predict the outcomes of tasks or activitieshas difficulty coming up with the right strategy or technique to accomplish a taskdoes not monitor quality of work or the effectiveness of strategiesdoes not use past successes and failures to guide current behavior, actions, or strategiesis apt to do too many things too quickly and some other things too slowlyhas a poor sense of how time and how to manage it
45 RememberIt is important to note that students who have attention difficulties (e.g., attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) are not willfully inattentive. It takes inordinate effort for some of these students to keep themselves on task.
46 What You Can Do In Your Classroom seat the student in an area of the classroom that will minimize distractions;locate the student to maximize the positive effect of role models in the class;establish a private cueing system to remind the student to attend;provide immediate, specific feedback on learning and behavioural progress whenever possible;break instructional learning periods into smaller units of time with the intention of increasing on-task behaviour;allow the restless student opportunities to change focus or tasks;judiciously assign a ‘job” that requires the student to move away from the problem situation (e.g., ask the student to run an errand).
47 Strategies and Suggestions Related to Lesson Presentation teach the student the skills necessary to manage instructional materials;pre-teach important vocabulary;provide a structured overview of the lesson before beginning instruction;use visual aids, demonstrations, simulations, and manipulative materials to ensure that the student understands the concepts presented;include a variety of activities for the student in each lesson;help the student enhance his or her memory by teaching specific learning strategies such as mnemonics (e.g., cues, rhymes, codes);review with the student the process required to complete the task.
48 Strategies and Suggestions Related to Assessment make expectations explicit;break down large tasks, which can quickly overwhelm the student, into small tasks, and provide reinforcement as each part is completed;simplify instructions, choices, and schedules;provide models of completed tasks, so that the student can visualize a completed project;provide instructions visually and verbally;pair students to check each other’s work;provide checklists, outlines, and advance organizers, to help the student complete assignments;permit student to demonstrate his or her understanding in various ways (e.g. oral presentations, displays, dramatizations, and demonstrations);Reduce workload;
49 Conduct Disorder (CD)“a persistent pattern of conduct in which the basic rights of others and major age- appropriate societal norms or rules are violated.”
50 Oppositional Defiant Disorder “...a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour without the more serious violations of the basic rights of others that are seen in conduct disorder.”
51 General Features of ODD Persists over time (at least 6 months)Characterized by at least four of the following behavioursLosing temperArguing with adultsActively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adultsDeliberately doing things that will annoy other peopleBlaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehaviorBeing touchy or easily annoyed by othersBeing angry and resentfulBeing spiteful or vindictiveSignificantly impairs normal functioning socially or academically
52 Classroom Strategies with an Angry Does and Don'ts Student 1) Recognizing the stages of angerirritation agitation loss of control resolutionDoes and Don'ts StudentDO use the student's nameDO remove the audience (if possible)DO use humour to de- escalate the situationDO double your distanceDO minimize the discussion (this is not a teachable moment)with an AngryDON'T place your hands on the child (unless there is a safety concern)DON'T raise your voiceDON'T threaten consequences (talk about it when the student is more relaxedDON'T point your fingerDON'T crowd the student
53 2) Careful Communication Body Personal SpacePostureEye contactFacial expressionGesturesMindListen for the student's point of viewLimit your verbiage and avoid over reactingMouthCalm voiceSlow cadence