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6.2.  Conquest brought into contact with Carthage  City-state on N. coast of Africa  Empire  Conflict inevitable  264 BC-146 BC  Rome and Carthage.

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Presentation on theme: "6.2.  Conquest brought into contact with Carthage  City-state on N. coast of Africa  Empire  Conflict inevitable  264 BC-146 BC  Rome and Carthage."— Presentation transcript:

1 6.2

2  Conquest brought into contact with Carthage  City-state on N. coast of Africa  Empire  Conflict inevitable  264 BC-146 BC  Rome and Carthage  3 Punic Wars  Punicus: Latin word for Phoenician

3  First Punic War  Rome defeated Carthage and won Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia

4  Second Punic War  218 BC- revenge  Hannibal led army (including war elephants)  Over Pyrenees through France and over Alps to Italy  Cost ½ of army  Element of surprise  Romans expected invasion from S.  15 years: moved across Italy, conquering cities  Failed to conquer Rome  Romans sent army to attack Carthage  Hannibal returned to defend homeland  Romans defeated them  Gained all lands except those in Africa

5  Third Punic War  Rome never forgot Hannibal invasion  Senate: “Carthage must be destroyed”  Third war: Rome destroyed Carthage  Survivors killed or sold to slavery  Poured salt on the earth so that nothing would grow  Masters of Mediterranean world

6  Roman imperialism  Controlled foreign lands and people  Wars in E. Mediterranean  Macedonia, Greece, parts of Asia minor surrendered and became Roman provinces  Egypt allied with Rome  133 BC: Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt  Romans called Mediterranean “Mare Nostrum” or “Our Sea”

7  Trade brought riches  Generals, officials, traders gained fortunes  Built mansions, filled with luxury  Wealthy families  Lafundia: huge estates  Needed slaves to work them  Farming  Slave labor hurt small farmers  Grain from conquered lands also drove down prices  Debt, forced to sell  Flocked to Rome for jobs  Restless class of unemployed  Wealth gap  Kept widening  Angry mob riots  Increased corruption  Greed and self-interest corrupted society

8  2 young patricians  Tiberius and Gaius  1 st reform attempt  Called to distribute land to poor farmers  Govt-buy grain for poor  Reforms angered senate  Brothers and followers were killed in street violence by senators and hired thugs

9  Civil Wars  Who should hold power?  Senate wanted to govern as it had in the past  Popular political leaders wanted to weaken senate and reform policies  Sparked uprisings and revolts  Rival generals took control of their citizen-armies to further own interests, marched them into Rome to fight

10  Military commander  Conquered Gaul (France) in 9 years  Pompey persuaded senate to force Caesar to disband army  Caesar defied order  Led army to civil war  Swept across Mediterranean suppressing rebellions  “Veni, Vidi, Vici”: “I came, I saw, I conquered”  Announced after victory  Forced senate to name him dictator  Kept senate

11  BC:  Public works to employ jobless  Gave public land to poor  Granted citizenship  New calendar: Julian calendar named after him  Based on Egyptian knowledge  Still our calendar today

12  Enemies worried that he planned to become King  March, 44 BC: Enemies stabbed him to death  New round of civil wars  Mark Antony (Caesar’s chief general) and Octavian (Caesar’s grand nephew)  Joined forces to hunt down murderers  Two men struggled for power  31 BC: Octavian defeated Antony and his ally Cleopatra of Egypt

13  Senate gave Octavian title of Augustus “exalted one”  Careful not to call himself King  Exercised absolute power  Laid foundation for stable government  Created civil service to enforce laws  High-level jobs open to anyone with the talent  Allowed cities to self-govern  Economic reforms  Fair tax system  Ordered census  Postal system  New coin system  Jobless to work building roads, temples, or farming  This government functioned for 200 years  Reoccurring problem: Who would rule after emperor died?  Romans didn’t accept power automatically passing from father to son  Death of emperor often led to violence

14  2 bad emperors: Caligula and Nero  Evil and perhaps insane  Caligula appointed his favorite horse as consul  Nero persecuted Christians and set a fire that destroyed much of Rome  AD  “good emperors”  Hadrian  Marcus Aurelius: philosophy  Plato’s ideal philosopher-king  Resolve and correct situations

15  200-year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius known as Pax Romana meaning Roman Peace  Rule brought peace, order, unity, prosperity to lands  Area equal to continental United States  Maintained and protected roads  Roman fleets chased pirates from seas  Trade flowed freely  Africa: wild animals used in public entertainment, ivory, gold  Egypt: grain  India: spices, cotton, precious stones  China: silk  People moved, spread ideas  General prosperity hid underlying social and economic problems

16  Spectacular entertainments  Circus Maximus: Rome’s largest race course  Chariot races  Reds, greens, blues, whites  Gladiator Contests  Slaves trained to fight  Arena:  Battled one another singly or in groups  Crowds cheered skilled gladiators  Good fighter could win freedom  Poor showing, crowd could turn thumbs down and he would be killed  Emperors paid for them with taxes collected  Way to pacify city’s restless mobs  Also provided free grain to poor  Critics warned against “bread and circuses” but it kept people happy


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