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Tocqueville & Beaumont 1831-1832 American tour of the Great Republic Democracy in America – Tocqueville  Emphasis on equality  Labor conditions, poverty,

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Presentation on theme: "Tocqueville & Beaumont 1831-1832 American tour of the Great Republic Democracy in America – Tocqueville  Emphasis on equality  Labor conditions, poverty,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tocqueville & Beaumont American tour of the Great Republic Democracy in America – Tocqueville  Emphasis on equality  Labor conditions, poverty, wealth gap European visitors to America  Fanny Trollope – Domestic Manners of Americans  Charles Dickens – “Republic…full of sores and ulcers”

3 A Restless People Tocqueville – “In America, men never stay still, something is almost always provisional about their lives” Trollope – “Their incessant bustling” similar to their eating too fast and spitting too often. It stemmed from their “universal pursuit of money”

4 A Restless People Population increases – doubling every 22 years New states added continuously Migration to new lands but also cities Growth of new cities South – only 4 major cities – all on the periphery

5 The Family Recast Assignment - Construct a chart that  Shows the characteristics of the Middle-Class family  Shows changes from earlier American society to that of the mid-1800’s  Pages

6 Family UnitEarly AmericaMid-1800’s Family  Family was major unit of economic production  Cities undermined importance of family as jobs took place outside the home Husband  Husband held power in the family  Some power had to be given to the wife as husband works outside home Wife Children

7 Family UnitEarly AmericaMid-1800’s Family  Family was major unit of economic production  Cities undermined importance of family as jobs took place outside the home Husband  Husband held power in the family  Cash normally in hands of husband  Role of husband as monarch  Some power had to be given to the wife as husband works outside home  Cash now initially in hands of the earner  Role of husband as limited monarch- inability to control Wife  Women’s roles constrained by power of husband  Women were partners in family enterprises  Women had many children  More equality for women as power is shared  Women discouraged from earning their own living  Women expected to tend only to duties in the home  Women had fewer children – had children later – effort to limit family size Children  Children kept at arms reach – disciplined  Children viewed as future workers  Fewer children led parents to prize children more  Mother responsible for secular & religious education  Children viewed as innocents to be loved

8 Second Great Awakening Many Calvinist tenets in dispute – infant damnation and predestination Charles Grandison Finney  Salvation versus fire & brimstone  Entertainment Growth in church membership Changes in economic situation and families helped Awakening Women took major role in movement

9 Era of Associations Three pillars of the American Middle-Class  The recast family  A resurgent church  Associations Associations  No colonial precedents or European equivalent  Led by professional class – membership common class  Established for local or national causes

10 Backwoods Utopias Some established experimental communities Communitarians - to achieve social reorganization first by demonstrating it on a small scale The Shakers  Founded by Ann Lee 1774  Celibacy – sexes segregated  The Family House  Industrious - furniture

11 Backwoods Utopias Amana Community  Inspirationist movement Oneida Community  “Community” marriages Mormons  Founded by Joseph Smith  Nauvoo Polygamy Nauvoo Legion Murder of Smith  Brigham Young - Great Salt Lake

12 Age of Reform Thomas Gallaudet – School for the deaf Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe – School for the blind Rise of the institution versus family care Science and separation from society Dorothea Dix

13 Demon Rum 1820’s – peak of American alcohol consumption Availability of cheap corn whiskey Drunkenness crossed class and age lines American Temperance Union established 1826 – “sign the pledge” Opposition increased as demands for restraint became calls for prohibition States imposed strict licensing requirements and heavy taxes Towns and counties could become “dry”

14 Abolition & Women’s Rights Assignment: Compare and Contrast  Working individually, or with a partner, create a Venn Diagram that compares and contrasts the Abolition Movement with the Women’s Rights Movement  Pages

15 Abolition Movement Women’s Movement Similarities


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