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Rebellion in the 13 Colonies

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1 Rebellion in the 13 Colonies

2 Growing Restless Although successful, by 1765 the 13 colonies were growing restless under British rule They were only allowed to trade with Britain They had to pay high taxes on imported goods They wanted more control over their own affairs In 1774 the passing of the Quebec Act made things worse Ohio Valley was given to Quebec NOT the 13 Colonies In 1775 war broke out and the American Revolution had begun The Americans thought that the Canadiens would join in their fight against the British They marched into the province of Quebec, capturing Montreal – they then headed to Quebec City Do you think the Canadiens will support the Americans? Why or why not?

3 The United States of America
The invasion of Quebec failed – the Americans did not get the support they wanted to The Revolution did not give up, however Finally, after many years of fighting, Britain recognized the United States of America as a sovereign country in 1783 What do you think would have happened if the Province of Quebec had joined the Revolution? How would Canada have been different?

4 Citizens Loyal to the King
During the American Revolution, people from many different places lived in the 13 Colonies Not all of them supported the rebellion Approximately 1/3 of citizens remained loyal to Britain These people were called loyalists and made up the United Empire Loyalists United Empire Loyalists had many reasons for their opposition Did not believe in using violence Business ties with Britain Fought in the military with British regiments Enslaved African Americans seeking freedom First Nations who had lost their land to Americans

5 Loyalist vs. Traitor The American revolutionaries treated the loyalists as traitors Their property and possessions were taken away They were beaten, tarred and feathered and often jailed To escape this treatment, many loyalists left the 13 Colonies and fled to Canada, which was still under British control They were some of Canada's first refugees

6 Loyalists Head to Nova Scotia
During and following the Revolution, around 40,000 loyalists migrated to British Colonies Many travelled to Nova Scotia, as it was quite near and a short trip The influx of refugees doubled the population of the colony Britain promised to help with land and supplies to start their new life Some received land (usually those who fought for Britain) Many others received no land, however

7 Podcast Title/Subject Fact #1 Fact #2 OMG! Moment

8 Black Loyalists A large number of loyalists were slaves whose descendants had been brought from Africa They were treated worse than other Loyalists They received less land than others, and the land they did get was not good for farming Many had to work as tenant farmers Much like serfs in Medieval Europe They faced racism and discrimination

9 Hannah Ingram ( ) She came to New Brunswick with her family when she was 11 years old Rebel forces had taken her family's farm when her father joined a Loyalist regiment “It was a sad, sick time after we landed in Saint John. We had to live in tents. The government gave them to us, and food too. It was just at the first snow then. The melting snow and rain would soak up into our beds as we lay . . . We lived in a tent at St. Annes until father got a house ready. He went up through our lot till he found a nice fresh spring of water. He stooped down and pulled away the fallen leaves and tasted it. It was very good so there he built his house.” - Hannah Ingram, “Reminiscences” Rose Fortune ( ) Rose was born into slavery in the southern United States She came as a slave with a Loyalist family She was 10 years old Rose gained her freedom in Canada and started her own business, The Lewis Transfer Company She later became the town's police officer Later in her life, she helped with the Underground Railroad to assist slaves escaping to freedom

10 New Colonies Many of the Loyalists were unhappy in Nova Scotia
They had endured hardship and cruelty and put up with a lot – some resented those that had not Loyalists wanted their own colony In 1784, Britain agreed by dividing the colony into two parts The western portion became New Brunswick Cape Breton Island became a separate colony Ile Saint-Jean was renamed Prince Edward Island

11 Loyalists Come to Quebec
Loyalists also headed to Quebec There, they lived in temporary camps until Britain helped them Most, however, did not really want to settle in Quebec Why do you think they didn't want to? The good arable land had already been taken, so Governor Frederick Haldimand agreed to give them land further west Near the upper St. Lawrence and north shore of Lake Ontario

12 A Fair Trade? The land given to the loyalists wasn't the Governor Haldimand's to give – it was Anishinabe land The governor bought the land in 1781 and 1783 He paid the Anishinabe in guns and other trade goods Do you think this was a fair trade? Like most First Nations, the Anishinabe believed that land was not something that could be bought or sold Perhaps they thought they were giving permission for the loyalists to use the land, not own it They may also have been scared to say no In the United States First Nations who did not willingly sell their land were forcibly removed from it

13 The Constitutional Act, 1791
Most Loyalists were English speakers In Quebec, they were the minority, and they wanted to keep their British heritage They wanted their own colony and institutions In 1791 the Constitutional Act divided the colony of Quebec into two parts All land west of the Ottawa River became Upper Canada (majority English) All land east of the River became Lower Canada (majority French) All rights from the Quebec Act were kept Why “lower” and “upper”?

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