2Growing RestlessAlthough successful, by 1765 the 13 colonies were growing restless under British ruleThey were only allowed to trade with BritainThey had to pay high taxes on imported goodsThey wanted more control over their own affairsIn 1774 the passing of the Quebec Act made things worseOhio Valley was given to Quebec NOT the 13 ColoniesIn 1775 war broke out and the American Revolution had begunThe Americans thought that the Canadiens would join in their fight against the BritishThey marched into the province of Quebec, capturing Montreal – they then headed to Quebec CityDo you think the Canadiens will support the Americans? Why or why not?
3The United States of America The invasion of Quebec failed – the Americans did not get the support they wanted toThe Revolution did not give up, howeverFinally, after many years of fighting, Britain recognized the United States of America as a sovereign country in 1783What do you think would have happened if the Province of Quebec had joined the Revolution? How would Canada have been different?
4Citizens Loyal to the King During the American Revolution, people from many different places lived in the 13 ColoniesNot all of them supported the rebellionApproximately 1/3 of citizens remained loyal to BritainThese people were called loyalists and made up the United Empire LoyalistsUnited Empire Loyalists had many reasons for their oppositionDid not believe in using violenceBusiness ties with BritainFought in the military with British regimentsEnslaved African Americans seeking freedomFirst Nations who had lost their land to Americans
5Loyalist vs. TraitorThe American revolutionaries treated the loyalists as traitorsTheir property and possessions were taken awayThey were beaten, tarred and feathered and often jailedTo escape this treatment, many loyalists left the 13 Colonies and fled to Canada, which was still under British controlThey were some of Canada's first refugees
6Loyalists Head to Nova Scotia During and following the Revolution, around 40,000 loyalists migrated to British ColoniesMany travelled to Nova Scotia, as it was quite near and a short tripThe influx of refugees doubled the population of the colonyBritain promised to help with land and supplies to start their new lifeSome received land (usually those who fought for Britain)Many others received no land, however
8Black LoyalistsA large number of loyalists were slaves whose descendants had been brought from AfricaThey were treated worse than other LoyalistsThey received less land than others, and the land they did get was not good for farmingMany had to work as tenant farmersMuch like serfs in Medieval EuropeThey faced racism and discrimination
9Hannah Ingram( )She came to New Brunswick with her family when she was 11 years oldRebel forces had taken her family's farm when her father joined a Loyalist regiment“It was a sad, sick time after we landed in Saint John. We had to live in tents. The government gave them to us, and food too. It was just at the first snow then. The melting snow and rain would soak up into our beds as we lay . . .We lived in a tent at St. Annes until father got a house ready. He went up through our lot till he found a nice fresh spring of water. He stooped down and pulled away the fallen leaves and tasted it. It was very good so there he built his house.”- Hannah Ingram, “Reminiscences”Rose Fortune( )Rose was born into slavery in the southern United StatesShe came as a slave with a Loyalist familyShe was 10 years oldRose gained her freedom in Canada and started her own business, The Lewis Transfer CompanyShe later became the town's police officerLater in her life, she helped with the Underground Railroad to assist slaves escaping to freedom
10New Colonies Many of the Loyalists were unhappy in Nova Scotia They had endured hardship and cruelty and put up with a lot – some resented those that had notLoyalists wanted their own colonyIn 1784, Britain agreed by dividing the colony into two partsThe western portion became New BrunswickCape Breton Island became a separate colonyIle Saint-Jean was renamed Prince Edward Island
11Loyalists Come to Quebec Loyalists also headed to QuebecThere, they lived in temporary camps until Britain helped themMost, however, did not really want to settle in QuebecWhy do you think they didn't want to?The good arable land had already been taken, so Governor Frederick Haldimand agreed to give them land further westNear the upper St. Lawrence and north shore of Lake Ontario
12A Fair Trade?The land given to the loyalists wasn't the Governor Haldimand's to give – it was Anishinabe landThe governor bought the land in 1781 and 1783He paid the Anishinabe in guns and other trade goodsDo you think this was a fair trade?Like most First Nations, the Anishinabe believed that land was not something that could be bought or soldPerhaps they thought they were giving permission for the loyalists to use the land, not own itThey may also have been scared to say noIn the United States First Nations who did not willingly sell their land were forcibly removed from it
13The Constitutional Act, 1791 Most Loyalists were English speakersIn Quebec, they were the minority, and they wanted to keep their British heritageThey wanted their own colony and institutionsIn 1791 the Constitutional Act divided the colony of Quebec into two partsAll land west of the Ottawa River became Upper Canada (majority English)All land east of the River became Lower Canada (majority French)All rights from the Quebec Act were keptWhy “lower” and “upper”?