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 What do you know about the Victorian period in England? What images are called to mind when you hear the word Victorian?

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Presentation on theme: " What do you know about the Victorian period in England? What images are called to mind when you hear the word Victorian?"— Presentation transcript:

1  What do you know about the Victorian period in England? What images are called to mind when you hear the word Victorian?

2 Emily Brontë

3  The Victorian Age refers to the period in England when Queen Victoria reigned ( ).  The British Empire had reached its height and ruled one quarter of the world.  During this time, the Industrial Revolution created profound economical changes in society.  England changed from a primarily agricultural country to an industrial one, and created a great social upheaval.

4  New class distinctions emerged from the growth of industrial production. A new middle class began to emerge.  Upper class and gentry – landowners  Middle class – shopkeepers and the merchant  Low class and the poor – factory workers or the unemployed  Rural life was ruled by a strict social hierarchy.  Lords and the aristocracy  Gentry class  The Linton family  Gentleman farmers  Prosperous enough to maintain lifestyles similar to the gentry

5  Born in northern England in 1818  Daughter of a reverend and his wife  Reclusive  Had few friends outside of her family  However, Brontë was exposed to a microcosm of society through her father’s congregation.  The people in her home of Haworth, Yorkshire were characterized as being blunt, passionate, and using colorful speech.  These attitudes made their way into Wuthering Heights.  The novel is an accurate depiction of Yorkshire.

6  Brontë’s sisters were Charlotte Brontë and Anne Brontë.  Charlotte – Jane Eyre (1847)  Anne – Agnes Grey (1847)  The three published poems under the pseudonyms of Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell.  Brontë tended to her brother Branwell, who was dying from alcoholism and drug abuse.  She caught a severe cold at his funeral, which developed into tuberculosis. She died shortly after him in 1848.

7  The novel depicts the dark side of human nature, using violence and obsessive love.  Novel deviated from the norm of the Victorian period  Sinister realism  Dark overtones  July 1848 issue of Graham’s Magazine – “vulgar depravity and unnatural horrors”

8  Similar more to a Gothic horror  Ghosts  Supernatural  A tortured and dark protagonist  The novel was met with much criticism when first published.  Characters were classless, rough in nature, and angry.  However, the characters are true-to-life and her portrayal of the time period and laws are accurate.  Modern critics place Brontë among the best of Victorian writers.  While her sister Charlotte was more popular during the time period in which they lived, Emily is now looked at as the more talented of the two.

9  Spiritual love vs. superficial love  Constraint vs. freedom  Revenge and retribution for past sins  Impermanence of self and the permanence of something larger than self  Impermanence means temporary or not lasting.

10  Complete classwork worksheet.

11  Read Chapters 1-2 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

12  What is your feeling about this story so far? Do you foresee a happy ending or a tragic one?

13  Compare and contrast the characters Heathcliff and Lockwood. Does Lockwood’s impression of Heathcliff change by the time he leaves Wuthering Heights?  Discuss the meaning of the name of Heathcliff’s home, Wuthering Heights. Does the name reflect Heathcliff’s personality or the home itself?  Lockwood appears to be attracted to Cathy, as he describes her beauty and flirts with her at the end of Chapter 2. Argue whether or not Lockwood has genuine feelings for Cathy.

14  Lockwood  Narrator of the novel before Nelly Dean takes over  Heathcliff’s tenant at Thrushcross Grange  Nelly Dean  Also referred to as Ellen Dean.  Housekeeper for the Earnshaws  Grows up serving Catherine and later serves Heathcliff  All characters confide in her.  Narrates the past action of the story to Lockwood.

15  Two Catherines  One is the mother, the other the daughter.  Both are called Cathy at different points throughout the novel.  But the daughter is often referred to as “Little Cathy.”

16 Mr. Linton d Mrs. Earnshaw d Linton b d Hindley b d Edgar b d Mrs. Linton d Heathcliff b d Isabella b d Catherine b d Catherine b Mr. Earnshaw d Frances d Hareton b. 1778

17  Complete classwork worksheet.

18  Read Chapter 3 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

19  In the novel, the setting directly affects the feelings and reactions of the characters. How can your surroundings affect you? Have you ever been in a situation where the characteristics of a certain place affected you, be it negatively or positively?

20  Although Lockwood is a minor character, Brontë provides sufficient information for us to develop a clear picture of him. Write a brief character sketch describing Lockwood, focusing on his perceived similarities to Heathcliff.  In many novels, the setting functions like a character; without its unique qualities, the story wouldn’t be the same. Describe the Yorkshire countryside, discussing why its characteristics are essential to the novel.  What is revealed about Heathcliff when he hears of the ghost? What does his reaction tell you about his mental state?

21  Complete classwork worksheet.

22  Read Chapters 4-6 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

23  What is oppression? Have you ever felt you were the victim of oppression?

24  Discuss the difference between the way Mr. Earnshaw treats Hindley and Heathcliff. Based on your reading of the novel, argue whether or not Mr. Earnshaw has any legitimate reasons as to why he treats Heathcliff better than he does Hindley.  Discuss the relationship between Catherine and Heathcliff.  How does Nelly Dean describe Joseph in Chapter 5?

25  Complete classwork worksheet.

26  Read Chapter 7 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

27  In life, there are instances where you can choose to stand up for yourself or simply stay quiet. Was there ever such an instance in your life, where you felt the need to speak up in your own defense or on your own behalf? Did you speak up? How did it feel? How did it change your perception of yourself? How did it change others’ perception of you? Describe.

28  There is enormous hatred between Hindley and Heathcliff. Both boys feel cheated of something the other possesses. Which one do you feel has the more legitimate complaint? Defend Heathcliff or Hindley based on whom you believe has the most justification.  Social class issues have begun to surface in recent chapters. Much of Heathcliff’s social inferiority is due to his swarthy appearance and lack of family background. Discuss his treatment by the Lintons compared to their behavior toward Catherine in this context.

29  Complete classwork worksheet.

30  Read Chapter 8 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

31  Many of the characters’ lives have turned out quite differently that they would have hoped. What do you do when your expectations turn out differently than you had expected? How do you deal with the disappointment?

32  Discuss Catherine’s “double character.” How does this affect her relationship with Heathcliff?  Discuss the theme of the divided self: man’s natural instincts in conflict with society’s adopted values. Using Edgar and Catherine as examples, discuss how these two aspects of human nature can or cannot be reconciled.

33  Complete classwork worksheet.

34  Read Chapter 9 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

35  In this chapter, Catherine decides to marry Edgar. What does her choice tell you about the rules of marriage during the time period?

36  Write a character sketch of Edgar Linton, delineating his growth from a spoiled, indulged child of privilege into a gentleman of honor and respect.  Discuss Catherine’s decision to marry Edgar. Why does she choose to marry Edgar when she is in love with Heathcliff?  Discuss Nelly’s reaction to Catherine’s decision to marry Edgar.

37  Complete classwork worksheet.

38  Read Chapter 10 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

39  The women in the novel are, in some cases, victims of their social class. What was a woman’s role in England or the United States 150 years ago? What sorts of conflicts do you suppose many women experienced? What has changed for women since then? What problems or conflicts still exist for women? Describe.

40  How did Catherine adjust to married life? Do you think her periods of depression were simply part of the normal ups and downs of life or are there special reasons for her feelings?  Discuss Isabella’s attraction to Heathcliff. How do Edgar and Catherine react to Isabella’s feelings for Heathcliff?

41  Complete classwork worksheet.

42  Read Chapter 11 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

43  In this chapter, Catherine vows to be self- destructive in order to prove her point to others. Have you ever done anything out of spite that ended up causing you more problems in the long term? As the cliché goes, have you ever cut your nose to spite your face?

44  Describe Hareton. How has Heathcliff influenced Hareton’s behavior?  What upsets Nelly when she visits the Heights?  What physical violence occurs between Edgar and Heathcliff? What do their responses show you about each of them?  How does Cathy view her role in her current situation?  Discuss Heathcliff’s plan for revenge. How does his plan affect Edgar, Catherine, Hindley, and Isabella? Why, according to Heathcliff, is Catherine spared from his revenge?

45  Complete classwork worksheet.

46  Read Chapter 12 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

47  In this chapter, Catherine may be feigning mental illness to get what she wants. Have you ever tried to manipulate a situation to have the end result be what you desire? What did you do? How did the situation turn out?

48  Based on your reading of the novel, argue whether Catherine has truly gone insane, or if she acting insane for purely manipulative reasons.  What promise does Catherine make in this chapter?  Who do you think tried to hang Isabella’s dog?

49  Complete classwork worksheet.

50  Read Chapter 13 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

51  In this chapter, Isabella and Catherine do not truly belong in their homes. Have you ever been in a situation where you felt like you did not belong? Did you eventually assimilate and feel as though you fit in?

52  Both Isabella and Catherine are “fish out of water,” as the cliché goes, in the residences into which they married. Discuss how each woman responds to an environment which is unnatural to her.  Summarize Isabella’s note to Nelly. Why doesn’t Isabella just leave?

53  Complete classwork worksheet.

54  Read Chapter of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

55  How does the weather affect your mood? How does being in a certain environment or climate affect your overall well-being?

56  Heathcliff is certain that Catherine loves only him. Based on your reading of the novel, argue whether or not Catherine has legitimate feelings for her husband.  What does Heathcliff want Nelly to do in Chapter 14? How does she respond? Do you agree that her actions are necessary, as she feels, or do you think she should have acted differently?  What does Heathcliff say about Isabella in Chapter 14? Do you feel pity for her at all? Or is her situation her own fault, for marrying someone she barely knew?

57  Describe Catherine’s feelings toward her impending death. What does Heathcliff and Catherine’s conversation in Chapter 15 tell the reader about their connection?  Discuss Heathcliff’s feelings about the state of Catherine’s soul. Why does Heathcliff want Catherine’s soul to know no rest until he is dead? Do you feel he is selfish?

58  Complete classwork worksheet.

59  Read Chapter 17 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

60  Think of a time in your life when you feel you were wronged. Looking back, do you feel that perhaps you played some role in the wrongdoing? That is, were you at fault for something and, in turn, something unfortunate then happened to you?

61  Are Hindley and Isabella equally victims of Heathcliff’s scheming? Or did they, in some manner, deserve what happened at his hands? Using what you know about both of their backgrounds, discuss to what extent Brontë wants us to pity them.  While pregnant, Isabella and Catherine never mention the fact that they are expecting. What significance is there to their combined disinterest in motherhood? Referring to both Mrs. Earnshaw and Mrs. Linton, discuss how Catherine and Isabella were mothered, and discuss reasons why motherhood is not regarded as a joy for either of them.  Discuss Nelly’s contrast of Hindley’s and Edgar’s reactions to their circumstances on Page 202. How did their different reactions change the course of their lives?

62  Complete classwork worksheet.

63  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

64  Do you believe that opposites attract? Explain why or why not.

65  Describe Cathy. Do you feel she is more like Edgar or Catherine?  How has Heathcliff treated Hareton over the years? How has it affected his development? What does it show you about Heathcliff’s continued rage?  How do other characters respond to the arrival of Linton?  How does Edgar react to Heathcliff’s request for Linton? What does it show you about Edgar? How do you think he feels about Isabella’s actions now?

66  Complete classwork worksheet.

67  Read Chapter 20 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

68  In general, do you forgive people? Or do you tend to hold a grudge? Explain.

69  How long does Linton stay at the Grange? How does Heathcliff treat his son? Why do you suppose Linton is so unsatisfactory, according to his father?  What reason does Heathcliff give for taking good care of Linton? Discuss this in terms of what it shows about Heathcliff’s mental state and obsession.

70  Complete classwork worksheet.

71  Read Chapter 21 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

72  Has there ever been a time when you felt family, friends, or other people in your life were trying to make you into something you weren’t? How did you deal with it? Did you stay true to yourself or give in to their changes? Explain.

73  Compare Linton to Hareton, focusing on Heathcliff’s analogy of them as tin to gold (240). Both young men are pawns in Heathcliff’s schemes. Which is the more sympathetic character? Why?  Why is Cathy drawn to Linton? Do you believe she is genuinely in love with Linton?

74  Complete classwork worksheet.

75  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

76  In the novel, the characters take dreams and their implications very seriously. How seriously do you believe in dreams, déjà vu, psychics, and the like?

77  Describe Cathy’s relationship with her father.  How is Cathy similar to her mother? How does she differ?  Does Linton’s plan to make Cathy feel guilty work out? How?

78  Complete classwork worksheet.

79  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

80  How do you feel about the idea of commitment in marriage “in sickness and health”? If one partner develops an emotional or mental problem, is the other partner justified in seeking a new relationship? Explain your position.

81  In an earlier scene, Hareton hangs a litter of puppies. In Chapter 24, he reacts like a rebuked puppy. To what extent is a puppy an apt metaphor for Hareton?  How are the love triangles between Hareton-Cathy-Linton and Heathcliff-Catherine-Edgar similar? What is the fundamental difference?  Nelly tells Edgar he shouldn’t worry too much about Cathy because “people who do their duty are always finally rewarded” (281). Do you agree?  Do you think it is symbolic that Edgar did not visit Catherine’s grave on Cathy’s 17 th birthday?

82  Complete classwork worksheet.

83  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

84  What purpose do difficult times serve? What can be learned from experiencing something painful or unexpected that takes your life in a different direction? Have you ever experienced such a change? Explain.

85  Discuss the ways Edgar and Heathcliff treat their children.  At this point in the novel, argue whether or not Heathcliff is a redeemable character.  If Heathcliff truly loved Catherine, why do you think he treats Cathy, her daughter, in such a horrible way? After seeing the way he treats Linton and Hareton, do you think he would treat Cathy differently if he, not Edgar, was her father?

86  Complete classwork worksheet.

87 Mr. Linton d Mrs. Earnshaw d Linton b d Hindley b d Edgar b d Mrs. Linton d Heathcliff b d Isabella b d Catherine b d Catherine b Mr. Earnshaw d Frances d Hareton b. 1778

88  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

89  At this point in your life, you have most likely encountered a feeling of restlessness. About what did you feel restless? How did you handle it? Are there certain times in the lifecycle when people are more prone to feeling restless? Explain.

90  Although it seems Heathcliff has been awarded his revenge, Cathy continues to defy him. Give examples of Cathy’s defiance of Heathcliff.  Explain Heathcliff’s obsession with Catherine’s dead body. Argue whether he is insane or is determined to be at peace by opening Catherine’s grave.

91  Complete classwork worksheet.

92  Read Chapters of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

93  Has one act of kindness ever made a significant difference in your life, be it one given or received? How did it change or benefit you? Explain.

94  Write an analysis of Cathy. Argue whether or not she is a sympathetic character. Is she willful or spoiled?  Brontë clearly had impressive knowledge of early 19 th century English inheritance laws. Research some American inheritance laws of the early 21 st century, examining the differences in the roles of women.

95  Complete classwork worksheet.

96  Read Chapter 32 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

97  Do you identify with any of the characters in the story? How – or why not? Explain.

98  When Lockwood returns from London, how much time has passed? What surprise does he get at Thrushcross Grange?  What things surprise Lockwood when he arrives at the Heights?  How was Hareton’s shooting accident a good thing, in the end?  Why is Nelly Dean particularly happy about the approaching wedding of Cathy and Hareton?

99  Complete classwork worksheet.

100  Read Chapter 33 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

101  Do you have a hard time saying no to people? Is there something you always do or say to get out of having to do something you don’t want to do? Explain.

102  Discuss Heathcliff and Hareton’s relationship.  What does the replacement of the currant trees for flowers symbolize?

103  Complete classwork worksheet.

104  Read Chapter 34 of Wuthering Heights and answer the corresponding questions.

105  How do you feel about the ending to the novel? Would you have done anything differently? If so, what? Explain.

106  Describe Heathcliff’s death. Do you feel Heathcliff found peace?  Describe the characters’ reactions to Heathcliff’s death.  What stories are now told in the village? What do you think? Is it possible that the moors are really haunted?

107  Complete classwork worksheet.

108  Bring three questions for tomorrow’s test review.


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