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Kim Nairn and Yvette Miller Pig Reproduction Practical 1 Intensive Animal Industries 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Kim Nairn and Yvette Miller Pig Reproduction Practical 1 Intensive Animal Industries 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kim Nairn and Yvette Miller Pig Reproduction Practical 1 Intensive Animal Industries 2011

2 Learning Objectives Understand the reproductive cycle in the pig, including the signs of oestrus Understand the key principles of pig AI Be familiar with anaesthesia and surgical techniques used for reproductive conditions in the pig

3 Ovulation Modern sows produce ~23 eggs and gilts ~ 20 eggs at ovulation Eggs will begin to die within 8 hours after ovulation Fertilization should occur within 6 hours after ovulation for optimum fertility Sperm will survive for ~24 hours but needs to navigate to upper oviduct Ovulation occurs ~70% into the time frame of oestrus Sow is receptive to Back Pressure Test


5 Optimum Mating Techniques Artificial insemination is used in ~90% of matings Extended semen (85ml) needs to have >2 billion sperm and be stored at 16 -18 degrees Semen fertility reduces after 4 days storage Catheter with attached semen bag is inserted in cervix Sow needs to have head to head contact with boar to enable uterine contractions – she “sucks” in the semen Oestrus detection is the key!!!!


7 Detecting Oestrus Use your senses Ears to detect a calling sow Eyes to detect the restless, nervous sow, which is off her food, has a swollen vulva, which is slightly red. Sow’s ears will be erect. Touch to exhibit back pressure test in the presence of the boar and a tacky change in mucous

8 Boar Use in AI Good oestrus detection essential Must be controlled boar contact Only contact when heat checking or stimulating for breeding Use mature boar to maximize stimulation and behavioural oestrus

9 AI Best Practice Clean vulva to remove dirt etc before inserting catheter with a dry paper towel Do not handle the ends of the catheter that goes into the sow or the semen bag Direct catheter upwards to avoid damaging the openings of the urethra

10 Stimulating the Sow Scratch back and rub Weight on sow rump Rubbing the udder Pulling on loose folds of skin in front of the hind legs

11 Mounting attempts Standing reaction - mating Nosing Nudging Head to head Sniffing The Courtship Sequence in Pigs

12 Basic embryology Day zero ovulation and fertilization Day 2-3 embryo enters uterus Day 7 embryo hatches Day 10 free living embryo released oestrogen sulphate – must have minimum of 5 embryos in utero

13 Basic embryology Day 14-17 embryo implants Implanted embryo releases oestrogen sulphate Day 35 bone is formed in foetus

14 Pregnancy checking 1-115 days in the presence of the boar* 18-24 with boar regular return 21 days + - real time scanner 25-35 days with boar irregular return 28 days doppler machine for uterine pulse 35 days doppler machine for uterine pulse 8 weeks by eye

15 Foetal vesicles – 28 days

16 Surgical Procedures Females Caesarian section Ovariohysterectomy Embryo transfer

17 Surgical Procedures Males Epidectomy Vasectomy Castration Detusking

18 Anaesthesia methods For castration below weaning (21 days) anaesthesia is not required For all other procedures some method of anaesthesia is required



21 Anesthetic methods In the field for short duration- ie epidectomy, vasectomy, caesarian Ketamine 20 mg/kg and Xylazine 2 mg/kg by intravenous injection Zoletil 5 mg/kg & Xylazine 2 mg/kg IM (not registered for use in food animals) This provides quick anaesthesia for 15-20 minutes

22 Ensure the pig is healthy

23 Weight Estimation Weaner5-7 kg Grower30 - 60 kg Finisher60 -120 kg Gilt150 - 170 kg Sow 180 - 250 kg Boar 250 - 350 kg

24 Intravenous sites

25 Intravenous Sites

26 Gaseous anaesthesia For all other procedures Proceed as you would with any small animal surgery

27 Anaesthesia Preferred technique: Acepromazine 2 mg/kg premedication Thiopentone 6.6 – 30 mg/kg Gaseous anaesthesia – isofluthane

28 Sedation Acepromazine may be given as an oral tablet – useful in pigs with an attitude

29 Gaseous anaesthesia This can be given by a face mask

30 Intubation

31 Nasal intubation

32 30 kg size 5 mm 60 kg size 7 mm 90 kg size 9 mm



35 Caesarian Section

36 Hysterotomy

37 Ovariohysterectomy Indications – as per desexing dogs and cats

38 A midline incision just below the umbilicus. The uterus is large but very mobile


40 Embryo transfer



43 Castration

44 Vasectomy



47 Epidectomy



50 Detusking boars

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