2Dupuytren’s Contracture Fibrous tissue of the palmar fascia to shorten and thickenCommon in men older than 40 years; in persons of Northern European descent; and in persons who smoke, use alcohol, or have diabetes (3 to 33 %)Present with a small, pitted nodule (or multiple nodules) on the palm, which slowly progresses to contracture of the fingersProgresses' faster in <50 yr oldsSmoking and alcohol use increase the chance that surgery will be needed
3Dupuytren’s Contracture Found on the palm of the hand proximal to the metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP) joint. Can be bilateralPatients usually have difficulty with tasks such as face washing, hair combing, and putting their hands in their pockets.Note the site of the nodule and the presence of contractures; bands; and skin pitting, tenderness, and dimpling.Grade 1 disease presents as a thickened nodule and a band in the palmar aponeurosis; this band may progress to skin tethering, puckering, or pitting.Grade 2 presents as a peritendinous band, and extension of the affected finger is limited.Grade 3 presents as flexion contracture
5Characteristic features: Chronic widespread pain for at least three monthsTender points in 11 of 18 specific anatomic locationsAssociated featuresAnxietyCognitive difficultiesFatigueHeadache (50%) (migraine)*Paresthesias, morniing stiffnessSleep disturbance*?a defect in the serotonergic and adrenergic systems
6Associated FindingsHistory of trauma, childhood abuse, anxiety, depression, or sleep disorder (alpha frequency rhythm, termed alpha-delta sleep anomaly )Patients with high tender point counts are more likely to report adverse childhood experiences like loss of a parent or abuseIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS)Other disorders commonly associated with FM include:Irritable bladderDysmenorrheaPremenstrual syndromeRestless leg syndromeTemporomandibular joint painNoncardiac chest painRaynaud's phenomenon and Sicca syndrome (Sjogren’s)
8Myofascial pain syndrome Characterized by painful, tender areas in the muscles.It is a localized disorder without any systemic manifestations.It commonly affects the axial muscles.In contrast to the widespread pain of fibromyalgia, the pain in myofascial pain syndrome arises from trigger points in individual muscles.On examination, the presence of trigger points is characteristic of myofascial pain syndrome.
9Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) Chronic pain and fatigue are common to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia.CFS an ongoing subclinical inflammatory process manifested by low-grade fever, lymph gland enlargement, and acute onset of the illness, whereas there is no evidence of inflammatory response in fibromyalgia.
10HypothyroidismManifested by profound fatigue, muscle weakness, and generalized malaise, closely resembles fibromyalgia.Patients need to be examined for clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction and, if in doubt, thyroid function tests should be ordered to rule out hypothyroidism.(The differential diagnosis also might include metabolic and inflammatory myopathies (especially in patients taking statins), polymyalgia rheumatica, and other rheumatic diseases. )
11optimal intervention is an approach that also includes nonpharmacologic treatments, specifically exercise and cognitive behavior therapyeducation, cognitive behavior strategies, physical training, and medications for treatment of fibromyalgia
16Features3 months or longer in all 4 quadrants of the body, but not centered in the jointsLower pain threshold:Allodynia-pain from normally non noxious stimuliHyperalgesia-increased response to painful stimuliUnder diagnosed and undertreated(Prevalence:2% to 4%)/Onset usually at 20 to 55 years/ F:M 9:1First-degree relatives of FM patients have 8 times the risk
17?etiology Pain amplification Lower levels of metabolites of serotonin and norepinephrine in their cerebrospinal fluidIncreased levels of pro-nociceptivetransmitters substance P and glutamate thatamplify pain impulses
18No objective laboratory test or marker exists, diagnosis is based on history and physical examinationChronic Widespread Pain for at least 3 months and pain on at least 11 of 18 specified muscle tendon sites of focal tenderness (“tender points” 11/18)Use of a structured interview with questions about generalized fatigue, headache, sleep disturbance, neuropsychiatric complaints,numbness or tingling, and irritable bowel symptoms.