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McNeely PSYC23011 Consciousness and Its Variations.

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Presentation on theme: "McNeely PSYC23011 Consciousness and Its Variations."— Presentation transcript:

1 McNeely PSYC23011 Consciousness and Its Variations

2 McNeely PSYC Consciousness Described as a stream or river by William James Introspection tried to capture the structure of consciousness Modern study includes roles of psychological, physiological, social, and cultural influences

3 McNeely PSYC Circadian Rhythm Any rhythmic change that continues at close to a 24-hour cycle in the absence of 24-hour cues –body temperature –cortisol secretion –sleep and wakefulness In the absence of time cues, the cycle period will become somewhat longer than 24 hours

4 McNeely PSYC Circadian Rhythm

5 McNeely PSYC The Body’s Clock Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)— cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that governs the timing of circadian rhythms Melatonin—hormone of the pineal gland that produces sleepiness Bright light decreases production of melatonin; decreased light increases melatonin

6 Stages of Sleep

7 McNeely PSYC EEG Waves ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/ ~jmp/dreams.html

8 McNeely PSYC Sleep Changes Throughout Life Changes in quality and quantity are apparent

9 McNeely PSYC Functions of Sleep Restoration theory—body wears out during the day and sleep is necessary to put it back in shape Adaptive theory—sleep emerged in evolution to preserve energy and protect during the time of day when there is considerable danger

10 McNeely PSYC Sleep Deprivation Microsleep--episodes lasting only a few seconds REM rebound--deprivation of REM sleep causes increase in time spent in REM sleep to “catch up” NREM rebound--catching up on Stages 3 and 4 sleep

11 McNeely PSYC Individual Differences in Sleep Drive Nonsomniacs—sleep far less than most, but do not feel tired during the day Some individuals need more and some less than the typical 8 hours per night Insomniacs—have a normal desire for sleep, but are unable to and feel tired during the day

12 McNeely PSYC Sleep Disorders Insomnia—inability to fall asleep or stay asleep Night terrors—sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during slow-wave sleep Narcolepsy—overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up Restless Legs Syndrome--RLS unpleasant sensations in lower legs and urge to move legs disrupts sleep. Sleep apnea—failure to breathe when asleep REM sleep behavior disorder—sleeper acts out his or her dreams

13 McNeely PSYC Dreams and REM Sleep True dream—vivid, detailed dreams consisting of sensory and motor sensations experienced during REM Sleep thinking—lacks vivid sensory and motor sensations, is more similar to daytime thinking, and occurs during slow-wave sleep

14 McNeely PSYC Brain and REM Sleep Active areas during REM--amygdala and hippocampus Inactive areas during REM--frontal lobes and primary visual cortex REM sleep plays a role in memory consolidation

15 McNeely PSYC Significance of Dreams Psychoanalytic Interpretation Activation Synthesis Model

16 McNeely PSYC Psychoanalytic Interpretation Manifest content—elements of the dream that are consciously experienced and remembered Latent content—the unconscious wishes that are concealed in the manifest content Dreams as “wish fulfillments”

17 McNeely PSYC Activation Synthesis Model Brain activity during sleep produces dream images (activation) which are combined by the brain into a dream story (synthesis). Meaning is to be found by analyzing the way the dreamer makes sense of the progression of chaotic dream images.

18 McNeely PSYC Hypnosis State of awareness Highly focused attention Increased responsiveness to suggestion Vivid imagery Willingness to accept distortions of logic Alteration of sensation and perception

19 McNeely PSYC Hypnosis and Memory Posthypnotic suggestion--during hypnosis a suggestion is made for the person to carry out some behavior after hypnosis is over Posthypnotic amnesia--inability to remember specific information because of a posthypnotic suggestion Hypermnesia--enhancement of memory because of posthypnotic suggestion

20 McNeely PSYC Meditation Sustained concentration that focuses attention and heightens awareness Lowered physiological arousal –decreased heart rate –decreased BP Predominance of alpha brain waves

21 McNeely PSYC Meditation Techniques Concentration techniques--control attention by focusing awareness on a visual image, word, or phrase Opening-up techniques--control attention by focusing on the “here and now”

22 McNeely PSYC Psychoactive Drugs Depressants—inhibit brain activity Opiates—produce pain relief and euphoria Stimulants—increase brain activity Psychedelics—distort sensory perceptions

23 McNeely PSYC Common Properties Physical dependence Tolerance Withdrawal symptoms Drug rebound effect

24 McNeely PSYC Depressants Alcohol—CNS depressant Barbiturates—induce sleep but can cause dependence and as a result serious withdrawal symptoms Tranquilizers—relieve anxiety but can be addictive Effects are additive

25 McNeely PSYC BAC Effects Euphoria (BAC = 0.03 to 0.12) Excitement (BAC = 0.09 to 0.25) Confusion (BAC = 0.18 to 0.30) Stupor (BAC = 0.25 to 0.4) Death (BAC more than 0.50 )

26 McNeely PSYC Areas of the brain that may be affected by FAS

27 McNeely PSYC Opiates Chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties, can be addictive Mimic the brain’s endorphins Heroin, methadone Percodan, Demerol

28 McNeely PSYC Stimulants Caffeine Nicotine Amphetamines Cocaine Stimulant induced psychosis

29 McNeely PSYC Psychedelics Create perceptual distortions Mescaline LSD Marijuana Flashback reactions and psychotic episodes

30 McNeely PSYC “Club” Drugs Ecstasy (MDMA)—feelings of euphoria, increased well-being Side effects—dehydration, hyperthermia, tremor, rapid heartbeat Dissociative anesthetics—include PCP and Ketamine. Deaden pain, produce stupor or coma, and may induce hallucinations.


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