5 French Revolution Anticipation …with one stroke severed his head from his body. The youngest of the guards, whoseemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people ashe walked around the scaffold. At first an awful silence prevailed, at length somecries of “Long Live the Republic!” were heard...the voices multiplied and in lessthan ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated, became the universal shoutof the multitude, and every hat was in the air21 January, 1793
6 French Revolution Anticipation ...to the right were the bencheson which the accused wereplaced in several rows...to theleft was the jury......the weighty knife was thendropped with a heavy fall; and,with incredible rapidity, twoexecutioners tossed the bodyinto the basket, while anotherthrew the head after it......the next unfortunate soul wasplaced in position...October, 1793
7 The Three Estates Brainpop 1st estate – less than 1% of population 2nd estate – 2% of population3rd estate – 97% of population
8 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI The French Monarchy:Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
9 The Old Regime and the Estates General Absolutism & Old Regime strict social, political & economic divisions(three social classes w/ very different roles & rights)1. First Estate 1% – Catholic Clergy2. Second Estate 2% – rich nobles who owned 20% land & paid almost NO taxes3. Third Estate 97% - Commonersupper-class, educated bourgeoisieworkers who were paid low wages & often went hungrypeasants – 50% of income paid in taxes
15 Forces of Change3rd Estate was discontent, restless & many were hungry & angryKing Louis XVI – huge debts: support of American Revolution, Seven Year’s War, & luxury spending1789 – Louis is forced by nobles to call a meeting of the Estates General (legislature of all 3 estates) because he tried to tax the 2nd EstateEducated revolutionaries encourage 3rd Estate to get involved & demand rights & powers in government – ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS HAVE A HUGE IMPACT!
16 The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy1st Estate300Aristocracy2nd Estate300648Commoners3rd Estate
17 The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy1st EstateAristocracy2nd EstateCommoners3rd EstateLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
18 Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
19 Abbé Sieyès What is the Third Estate? Everything! What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!What does it demand? To become something therein!Suggested that 3rd Estate delegates name themselves the National Assembly and make laws for the people of FranceAbbé Sieyès(3rd Estate Layer)
20 “The Third Estate Awakens” The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
21 “The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 17, 1789
22 The Tennis Court OathFrench citizens of the Third Estate voted to establish the National Assembly.This, in effect, ended the monarchy and began representative democracy.Three days later the Third Estate Delegates were locked out of their meeting room.They broke down the door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay until a new constitution had been written.
23 Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly and planned to use foreign troops to massacre citizensMob tried to get gunpowder from the BastilleAngry mob overwhelmed the king’s soldiersBastille fell into hands of citizensJuly 14th is French Independence Day
24 The Declaration of the Rights of Man August 27, 1789Liberty!Property!Resistance to oppression!Freedom of speech and religion!Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
25 The Declaration of the Rights of Man ***This angered women***The Old Regime in France had been abolished.All three estates (all Frenchmen) were subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.
26 Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time – Why is this significant? France supported the Independence of the USThomas Jefferson was there to help them write their own Declaration of Independence.He was also there to determine how to pay France back
27 Slogan of the Revolution LibertyEquality!Fraternity!
28 The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. The Tricolor (1789)The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.Citizen!
32 Great Fear (October 1789) King and Queen Leave Versailles 6,000 Parisian women rioted over rising price of bread. Seizing knives and axes they marched on Versailles. They killed two guards and demanded the royal family come to Paris. The family left- never to return.This event signaled the change of power.
33 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee – June 1791 Helped by a Swedish CountHeaded Austrian NetherlandsThe King was recognized near the French borderHis attempt to escape France angered his radical enemies and sealed his fate
34 Louis XVI Accepts the Constitution & the National Assembly-1791 -After his attempted escape, Louis gave Legislative Assembly the power to make French laws and approve or prevent any war the king declared-Food shortages and debt still plagued the new government
35 National ConventionMembers of the Legislative Assembly gave up the idea of the limited monarchyThey set aside the Constitution of declared the king disposed, dissolved their assembly, began a new legislature known as the National Convention, and declared France a republic
36 War and Extreme Measures Austria and Prussia proposed that France put Louis back on the throneThe Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria (Prussia joined Austria)1792FRANCEAUSTRIA PRUSSIAThis military crisis did not go well for the French. Prussian commander threatened to destroy Paris if royal family was harmed. This statement infuriated the Parisians and 20,000 men and women invaded the Tuileries, captured and imprisoned the royal family.
37 Execution of a KingDuring the summer of 1792 leaders of mobs controlled power in FranceCitizens joined political groups, the most radical group being the JacobinsJacobins wanted to remove the kingDelegates reduced King Louis XVI to a common citizen and prisonerGuided by the Jacobins- they tried Louis for treason, found him guilty, and by a close vote sentenced him to deathJanuary 21, 1793 – beheaded by the guillotine
38 and QueenMarie Antoinette was beheaded on October 16, 1793, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthdayShe wore a simple white dressHer last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I meant not to do it," to the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by the guillotine
39 Reign of TerrorForeign armies, peasants horrified by the beheading of the king, priests who disliked gov’t control, and rival leaders all threatened the power of the French republicMaximilien Robespierre gains powerSummer of Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety
40 Reign of TerrorFrom July 1793-July 1794 he governs France almost as a dictator and this period becomes known as the Reign of Terror3,000 people died – mostly peasants and middle class citizens
41 End of TerrorJuly 1794 – members of the National convention turned on RobespierreBeheaded him1795 – moderate leaders drafted the third form of gov’t in France in less than 10 yearsA two house legislature and an executive body of five men known as the Directory