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Marie Antoinette Full Movie

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1 Marie Antoinette Full Movie
The French Revolution Marie Antoinette Full Movie

2 French Revolution Anticipation

3 French Revolution Anticipation

4 French Revolution Anticipation

5 French Revolution Anticipation
…with one stroke severed his head from his body. The youngest of the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked around the scaffold. At first an awful silence prevailed, at length some cries of “Long Live the Republic!” were heard...the voices multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated, became the universal shout of the multitude, and every hat was in the air 21 January, 1793

6 French Revolution Anticipation the right were the benches on which the accused were placed in several the left was the jury... ...the weighty knife was then dropped with a heavy fall; and, with incredible rapidity, two executioners tossed the body into the basket, while another threw the head after it... ...the next unfortunate soul was placed in position... October, 1793

7 The Three Estates Brainpop 1st estate – less than 1% of population
2nd estate – 2% of population 3rd estate – 97% of population

8 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
The French Monarchy: Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

9 The Old Regime and the Estates General
Absolutism & Old Regime  strict social, political & economic divisions (three social classes w/ very different roles & rights) 1. First Estate 1% – Catholic Clergy 2. Second Estate 2% – rich nobles who owned 20% land & paid almost NO taxes 3. Third Estate 97% - Commoners upper-class, educated bourgeoisie workers who were paid low wages & often went hungry peasants – 50% of income paid in taxes

10 The French Urban Poor

11 Let Them Eat Cake! Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
“Madame Deficit” “The Austrian Whore”

12 Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

13 Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

14 Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

15 Forces of Change 3rd Estate was discontent, restless & many were hungry & angry King Louis XVI – huge debts: support of American Revolution, Seven Year’s War, & luxury spending 1789 – Louis is forced by nobles to call a meeting of the Estates General (legislature of all 3 estates) because he tried to tax the 2nd Estate Educated revolutionaries encourage 3rd Estate to get involved & demand rights & powers in government – ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS HAVE A HUGE IMPACT!

16 The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!
Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 300 648 Commoners 3rd Estate

17 The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates
Clergy 1st Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Commoners 3rd Estate Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.

18 Convening the Estates General May, 1789
Last time it was called into session was 1614!

19 Abbé Sieyès What is the Third Estate? Everything!
What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! What does it demand? To become something therein! Suggested that 3rd Estate delegates name themselves the National Assembly and make laws for the people of France Abbé Sieyès (3rd Estate Layer)

20 “The Third Estate Awakens”
The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

21 “The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David
June 17, 1789

22 The Tennis Court Oath French citizens of the Third Estate voted to establish the National Assembly. This, in effect, ended the monarchy and began representative democracy. Three days later the Third Estate Delegates were locked out of their meeting room. They broke down the door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay until a new constitution had been written.

23 Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789
A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly and planned to use foreign troops to massacre citizens Mob tried to get gunpowder from the Bastille Angry mob overwhelmed the king’s soldiers Bastille fell into hands of citizens July 14th is French Independence Day

24 The Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 27, 1789 Liberty! Property! Resistance to oppression! Freedom of speech and religion! Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.

25 The Declaration of the Rights of Man
***This angered women*** The Old Regime in France had been abolished. All three estates (all Frenchmen) were subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.

26 Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time – Why is this significant?
France supported the Independence of the US Thomas Jefferson was there to help them write their own Declaration of Independence. He was also there to determine how to pay France back

27 Slogan of the Revolution
Liberty Equality! Fraternity!

28 The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!

29 The Tricolor is the Fashion!

30 The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge

31 Revolutionary Symbols
Cockade Liberté La Republic Revolutionary Clock

32 Great Fear (October 1789) King and Queen Leave Versailles
6,000 Parisian women rioted over rising price of bread. Seizing knives and axes they marched on Versailles. They killed two guards and demanded the royal family come to Paris. The family left- never to return. This event signaled the change of power.

33 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee – June 1791
Helped by a Swedish Count Headed Austrian Netherlands The King was recognized near the French border His attempt to escape France angered his radical enemies and sealed his fate

34 Louis XVI Accepts the Constitution & the National Assembly-1791
-After his attempted escape, Louis gave Legislative Assembly the power to make French laws and approve or prevent any war the king declared -Food shortages and debt still plagued the new government

35 National Convention Members of the Legislative Assembly gave up the idea of the limited monarchy They set aside the Constitution of declared the king disposed, dissolved their assembly, began a new legislature known as the National Convention, and declared France a republic

36 War and Extreme Measures
Austria and Prussia proposed that France put Louis back on the throne The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria (Prussia joined Austria) 1792 FRANCE AUSTRIA PRUSSIA This military crisis did not go well for the French. Prussian commander threatened to destroy Paris if royal family was harmed. This statement infuriated the Parisians and 20,000 men and women invaded the Tuileries, captured and imprisoned the royal family.

37 Execution of a King During the summer of 1792 leaders of mobs controlled power in France Citizens joined political groups, the most radical group being the Jacobins Jacobins wanted to remove the king Delegates reduced King Louis XVI to a common citizen and prisoner Guided by the Jacobins- they tried Louis for treason, found him guilty, and by a close vote sentenced him to death January 21, 1793 – beheaded by the guillotine

38 and Queen Marie Antoinette was beheaded on October 16, 1793, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday She wore a simple white dress Her last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I meant not to do it," to the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by the guillotine

39 Reign of Terror Foreign armies, peasants horrified by the beheading of the king, priests who disliked gov’t control, and rival leaders all threatened the power of the French republic Maximilien Robespierre gains power Summer of Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety

40 Reign of Terror From July 1793-July 1794 he governs France almost as a dictator and this period becomes known as the Reign of Terror 3,000 people died – mostly peasants and middle class citizens

41 End of Terror July 1794 – members of the National convention turned on Robespierre Beheaded him 1795 – moderate leaders drafted the third form of gov’t in France in less than 10 years A two house legislature and an executive body of five men known as the Directory

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