…with one stroke severed his head from his body. The youngest of the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked around the scaffold. At first an awful silence prevailed, at length some cries of “Long Live the Republic!” were heard...the voices multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated, became the universal shout of the multitude, and every hat was in the air 21 January, 1793
French Revolution Anticipation...to the right were the benches on which the accused were placed in several rows...to the left was the jury......the weighty knife was then dropped with a heavy fall; and, with incredible rapidity, two executioners tossed the body into the basket, while another threw the head after it......the next unfortunate soul was placed in position... October, 1793
The Three Estates Brainpop 1st estate – less than 1% of population 2 nd estate – 2% of population 3 rd estate – 97% of population
The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
The Old Regime and the Estates General Absolutism & Old Regime strict social, political & economic divisions (three social classes w/ very different roles & rights) 1. First Estate 1% – Catholic Clergy 2. Second Estate 2% – rich nobles who owned 20% land & paid almost NO taxes 3. Third Estate 97% - Commoners –upper-class, educated bourgeoisie –workers who were paid low wages & often went hungry –peasants – 50% of income paid in taxes
Forces of Change 3 rd Estate was discontent, restless & many were hungry & angry King Louis XVI – huge debts: support of American Revolution, Seven Year’s War, & luxury spending 1789 – Louis is forced by nobles to call a meeting of the Estates General (legislature of all 3 estates) because he tried to tax the 2 nd Estate Educated revolutionaries encourage 3 rd Estate to get involved & demand rights & powers in government – ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS HAVE A HUGE IMPACT!
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 648
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
Abbé Sieyès What is the Third Estate? Everything! What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! What does it demand? To become something therein! Suggested that 3 rd Estate delegates name themselves the National Assembly and make laws for the people of France Abbé Sieyès (3 rd Estate Layer) 1748-1836
“The Third Estate Awakens” YThe commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” YThey proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 17, 1789
The Tennis Court Oath –French citizens of the Third Estate voted to establish the National Assembly. –This, in effect, ended the monarchy and began representative democracy. –Three days later the Third Estate Delegates were locked out of their meeting room. –They broke down the door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay until a new constitution had been written.
Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789 YA rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly and planned to use foreign troops to massacre citizens YMob tried to get gunpowder from the Bastille YAngry mob overwhelmed the king’s soldiers YBastille fell into hands of citizens YJuly 14 th is French Independence Day
The Declaration of the Rights of Man August 27, 1789 VLiberty! VProperty! VResistance to oppression! VFreedom of speech and religion! VThomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man ***This angered women*** The Old Regime in France had been abolished. All three estates (all Frenchmen) were subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time – Why is this significant? VFrance supported the Independence of the US VThomas Jefferson was there to help them write their own Declaration of Independence. VHe was also there to determine how to pay France back
Slogan of the Revolution Liberty Equality! Fraternity!
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! Citizen!
Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
Great Fear (October 1789) King and Queen Leave Versailles 6,000 Parisian women rioted over rising price of bread. Seizing knives and axes they marched on Versailles. They killed two guards and demanded the royal family come to Paris. The family left- never to return. This event signaled the change of power.
The Royal Family Attempts to Flee – June 1791 Y Helped by a Swedish Count Y Headed Austrian Netherlands Y The King was recognized near the French border Y His attempt to escape France angered his radical enemies and sealed his fate
Louis XVI Accepts the Constitution & the National Assembly-1791 -After his attempted escape, Louis gave Legislative Assembly the power to make French laws and approve or prevent any war the king declared -Food shortages and debt still plagued the new government
National Convention Members of the Legislative Assembly gave up the idea of the limited monarchy They set aside the Constitution of 1791- declared the king disposed, dissolved their assembly, began a new legislature known as the National Convention, and declared France a republic
War and Extreme Measures FRANCE 1792 AUSTRIA PRUSSIA Austria and Prussia proposed that France put Louis back on the throne The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria (Prussia joined Austria) This military crisis did not go well for the French. Prussian commander threatened to destroy Paris if royal family was harmed. This statement infuriated the Parisians and 20,000 men and women invaded the Tuileries, captured and imprisoned the royal family.
Execution of a King During the summer of 1792 leaders of mobs controlled power in France Citizens joined political groups, the most radical group being the Jacobins Jacobins wanted to remove the king Delegates reduced King Louis XVI to a common citizen and prisoner Guided by the Jacobins- they tried Louis for treason, found him guilty, and by a close vote sentenced him to death January 21, 1793 – beheaded by the guillotine
and Queen Marie Antoinette was beheaded on October 16, 1793, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday She wore a simple white dress Her last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I meant not to do it," to the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by the guillotine
Reign of Terror Foreign armies, peasants horrified by the beheading of the king, priests who disliked gov’t control, and rival leaders all threatened the power of the French republic Maximilien Robespierre gains power Summer of 1793- Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror From July 1793-July 1794 he governs France almost as a dictator and this period becomes known as the Reign of Terror 3,000 people died – mostly peasants and middle class citizens
End of Terror July 1794 – members of the National convention turned on Robespierre Beheaded him 1795 – moderate leaders drafted the third form of gov’t in France in less than 10 years A two house legislature and an executive body of five men known as the Directory